Protestant Church in the Netherlands
The Protestant Church in the Netherlands is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed and Lutheran. It was founded 1 May 2004 as the merger of the vast majority of Dutch Reformed Church, the vast majority of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the merger was the culmination of an organizational process started in 1961. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the new church; the Protestant Church in the Netherlands forms the second largest Christian denomination after the Roman Catholic Church, with 1.6 million members as per the church official statistics or some 9.1% of the population in 2016. It is the traditional faith of the Dutch Royal Family – a remnant of historical dominance of the Dutch Reformed Church, the main predecessor of the Protestant Church; the doctrine of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is expressed in its creeds. In addition to holding the Apostles', the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds of the universal church, it holds to the confessions of its predecessor bodies.
From the Lutheran tradition are the unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Catechism. From the Reformed, the Heidelberg and Genevan Catechisms along with the Belgic Confession with the Canons of Dordt; the Church acknowledges the Theological Declaration of Barmen and the Leuenberg Agreement. Ordination of women and blessings of same-sex marriages are allowed; the PKN contains both conservative movements. Local congregations have far-reaching powers concerning "controversial" matters; the polity of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is a hybrid of presbyterian and congregationalist church governance. Church governance is organised along local and national lines. At the local level is the congregation. An individual congregation is led by a church council made of the minister along with elders and deacons elected by the congregation. At the regional level were 75 classical assemblies whose members are chosen by the church councils; as of 1st May 2018, these 75 classical assemblies are reorganised into 11 larger ones.
At the national level is the General Synod which directs areas of common interest, such as theological education, ministry training and ecumenical co-operation. The PKN has four different types of congregations: Protestant congregations: local congregations from different church bodies that have merged Dutch Reformed congregations Reformed congregations Lutheran congregations Lutherans are a minority of the PKN's membership. To ensure that Lutherans are represented in the Church, the Lutheran congregations have their own synod; the Lutheran Synod has representatives in the General Synod. The Protestant Church in the Netherlands issues yearly reports regarding its membership and finances, its make-up by former affiliation of its congregations was as follows in 2017: Trend shows that since 2011 identification with former denominations has been falling in favor of identifying as "Protestant". Secularization, or the decline in religiosity, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural areas of Friesland and Groningen.
It spread to Amsterdam and the other large cities in the west. The Catholic southern areas showed religious declines. A countervailing trend is produced by a religious revival in the Protestant Bible Belt, the growth of Muslims and Hindu communities resulting from immigration and high birth rates. Research in 2007 concluded. Furthermore, in the PKN and several other smaller denominations of the Netherlands, one in six clergy were either agnostic or atheist. A minister of the PKN, Klaas Hendrikse once described God as "a word for experience, or human experience" and said that Jesus may have never existed. Only those congregations belonging to the former Reformed Churches in the Netherlands have the legal right to secede from the PKN without losing its property and church during a transition period of 10 years. Seven congregations have so far decided to form the Continued Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. Two congregations have joined one of the other smaller Reformed churches in the Netherlands.
Some minorities within congregations that joined the PKN decided to leave the church and associated themselves individually with one of the other Reformed churches. Some congregations and members in the Dutch Reformed Church did not agree with the merger and have separated, they have organized themselves in the Restored Reformed Church. Estimations of their membership vary from 35,000 up to 70,000 people in about 120 local congregations, they disagree with the pluralism of the merged church which maintains, as they see it, contradicting Reformed and Lutheran confessions. This group considers same-sex marriages and female clergy unbiblical. In a meeting of eight Jewish and eight Protestant Dutch leaders in Israel in May 2011, a statement of cooperation was issued, for the most part, that the Protestant Church recognizes the issues involved with the Palestinian Christians and that this is sometimes at odds with support for the State of Israel, but standing up for the rights of the Palestinians does not detract from the emphasis on the safety of the State of Israel and vice versa.
Bible Belt History of religion in th
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud called J. J. P. Oud was a Dutch architect, his fame began as a follower of the De Stijl movement. Oud was born in the son of a tobacco and wine merchant; as a young architect, he was influenced by Berlage, studied under Theodor Fischer in Munich for a time. He worked together with W. M. Dudok in Leiden, where he met Theo van Doesburg and became involved with the movement De Stijl. Between 1918 and 1933, Oud became Municipal Housing Architect for Rotterdam. During this period when many laborers were coming to the city, he worked on progressive residential projects; this included projects in the areas of Spangen and the Witte Dorp. Oud was one of a number of Dutch architects who attempted to reconcile strict, rational,'scientific' cost-effective construction technique against the psychological needs and aesthetic expectations of the users, his own answer was to practice'poetic functionalism'. In 1927, he was one of the fifteen architects who contributed to the influential modernist Weissenhof Estate exhibition.
In America Oud is best known for being lauded and adopted by the mainstream modernist movement summarily kicked out on stylistic grounds. As of 1932, he was considered one of the four greatest modern architects, was prominently featured in Philip Johnson's International Style exhibition. Johnson maintained a correspondence with Oud, tried to help him get work, commissioned a house for his mother, sent him socks and bicycle tires. In 1945, after the end of World War II allowed photographs of Oud's 1941 Shell Headquarters building in The Hague to be published in America, the architectural press sarcastically condemned his use of ornament as contrary to the spirit of modernism. After World War II, Oud designed the Dutch National War Monument in Amsterdam and the monument of the Military War Cemetery Grebbeberg. By he had let go of any Stijl influences, he continued to take a individualistic stance against mainstream modernism. He designed projects such as the Spaarbank in Rotterdam, office-building De Utrecht in Rotterdam and the Children's health-centre in Arnhem.
Oud's brother, Pieter Oud was mayor of Rotterdam. Oud died in 1963 at the age of 73 in Wassenaar. 1906 House in Purmerend. 1912 Movie theatre, block of worker housing and small individual houses in Purmerend. 1913 - 1914 Small houses in and about Leiden. 1915 Project for a municipal bath house, unexecuted. 1917 House in Katwijk-aan-Zee. House in Noordwijkerhout. Project for a row of seaside houses, unexcecuted. 1918 Spangen, Blocks I and V, Worker housing in Rotterdam. 1919 Spangen, Blocks VIII and IX. Projects for a factory and a bonded Warehouse, unexcecuted. 1920 - 1921 Tuschendijken, Blocks I to VI in Rotterdam. 1921 Project for a house in Berlin, unexecuted. 1922 Garden Village in Rotterdam at Oud-Mathenesse. 1923 Superintendent's office at Oud-Mathenesse, temporary. 1925 Café de Unie in Rotterdam 1926 Project for Hotel Stiassni in Brno, unexcecuted. Competition project for Rotterdam Exchange, unexcecuted. 1926 - 1927 Worker's Houses at the Hoek of Holland 1927 Row of 5 houses, Weissenhof Housing Exposition, Stuttgart.
1927 Additions to the villa Allegonda at Katwijk-aan-Zee. 1928 - 1930 Kiefhoek Housing Development in Rotterdam. 1931 Project for steel apartments in Rotterdam, unexecuted. Project for house in Pinehurst, unexecuted. 1933 Chair, Museum de Fundatie in Heino 1938-1948 Shell Headquarters, The Hague 1942-1957 Spaarbank, Rotterdam 1952-1960 Bio-herstellingsoord, Arnhem 1954-1961 Officebuilding De Utrecht, Rotterdam 1956, National Monument, Dam Square, Amsterdam Broekhuizen, Dolf, De Stijl toen / J. J. P. Oud nu. De bijdrage van architect J. J. P. Oud aan herdenken, herstellen en bouwen in Nederland, dissertation University of Groningen, Rotterdam, NAi publishers 2000 Taverne, Ed, Dolf, J. J. P. Oud's Shell Building. Design and reception, Rotterdam: NAi publishers 1995 Taverne, Ed. J. P. Oud Poetic Functionalist 1890-1963, Complete Works, Rotterdam: NAi publishers 2001 Media related to Jacobus Oud at Wikimedia Commons
Hendrick de Keyser
Hendrick de Keyser was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam. He was the father of Thomas de Keyser, an architect and portrait painter; as a young man the Utrecht-born artist Hendrick de Keyser was apprenticed to master Cornelis Bloemaert the elder. At the age of 26 he followed Bloemaert to Amsterdam. Soon he set to work as an independent artist; when his talent became appreciated he was appointed city stonemason and sculptor. In fact his duties included all of the tasks now associated with the job of city architect. De Keyser is famous for a number of important buildings which belong to the core of Dutch historic sites. Today the Zuiderkerk and accompanying tower, the Delft Town Hall, the Westerkerk and Westertoren are among the historic buildings which provide important insights into De Keyser’s work, his Commodity Exchange of 1608-1613 was pulled down in the 19th century. Hendrick de Keyser's projects in Amsterdam during the early decades of the 17th century helped establish a late Mannerist style referred to as "Amsterdam Renaissance".
The Amsterdam Renaissance style deviates in many respects from sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance architecture. Classical elements such as pilasters and frontons were used on a large scale, but as decorative elements. De Keyser never slavishly followed the tenets of classical architecture as laid down in the Italian treatises, his version came to full bloom at the end of the second decade of the 17th century, set the stage for the Dutch classical phase of Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post. The East India House in Amsterdam was most also designed by him. Apart from pursuing a career as an architect, De Keyser remained active as a sculptor, he designed the tomb of William the Silent for the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft. However, De Keyser did not live to see the finished product, he died in Amsterdam, his son Pieter completed the project. In 1631, ten years after De Keyser’s death, Cornelis Danckertsz included the architect’s most important sketches in his book ’Architectura Moderna’. De Keyser's career was not limited to Amsterdam, his international contacts helped him to keep in touch with the mainstream of European architecture.
The Amsterdam city administrators sent him to England. Jones was the first English architect who went to Italy to learn all he could about classical architecture, he studied the famous treatises written by the Roman architect Vitruvius, his intimate knowledge of the work of Palladio gave him the nickname the English Palladio. The Banqueting House in London, designed for the Stuart monarchs, became the prototype of classical architecture in England; when De Keyser returned to Amsterdam one of Jones’ assistants, Nicholas Stone, joined him. Stone worked with De Keyser in Amsterdam from 1607 to 1613 and became his son-in-law. De Keyser attention to England and English architecture reflect Amsterdam's position as a commercial centre in Europe. Ca. 1603: Rasphuispoortje, Amsterdam. 1606: Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam. 1606: Montelbaanstoren, Amsterdam. 1611: Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser, Amsterdam. 1603-1611: Zuiderkerk, Amsterdam. 1618: Haarlemmerpoort, Amsterdam. 1622: Erasmus-statue, Rotterdam. 1620-1623: Noorderkerk, Amsterdam.
1614-1623: Praalgraf Willem van Oranje, Delft. 1618-1620: Stadhuis, Delft. 1620-1631: Westerkerk, Amsterdam. Works attributed to Hendrick de Keyser: Jan Roodenpoortstoren, Amsterdam. 1616. Haringpakkerstoren, Amsterdam. 1607. Huis met Keizersgracht 123, Amsterdam. 1622. Huis Bartolotti, Herengracht 170-172, Amsterdam. Ca. 1617. Hendrick de Keyser at Archimon Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hendrick de Keyser
A rite is an established, ceremonial religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: rites of passage changing an individual's social status, such as marriage, baptism, coming of age, graduation, or inauguration. Within the Catholic Church, "rite" refers to what is called a sacrament and respective liturgies based on liturgical languages and traditional local customs as well as the ceremonies associated with the sacraments. In Christian Catholicism, for example, the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick/Last Rites is one of the sacramental rites because they are administered to someone, or was dying; the other are Eucharist. Since the Second Vatican Council, anointing of the sick is administered to those who are ill but not in immediate danger of death. Another example is the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults; the term "rite" became used after the Second Vatican Council. While "rite" is associated when receiving a "sacrament," it is technically incorrect to say that one received a "rite" because the sacrament is what is received while a rite is performed.
The ritual consists of the prayers and actions that the minister of the sacrament performs when administering a sacrament. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that one has received "the last rites" as that person has received "the last sacraments" by a minister following a ritual that has performed the "sacramental rite." Within both Catholicism and Orthodoxy, the term "rite" refers to a body of liturgical tradition emanating from a specific center. Examples include the Roman Rite, the Byzantine Rite, the Sarum Rite; such rites may include various sub-rites. For example, the Byzantine Rite has Greek and other ethnically-based variants. In addition, the same term is applied to an autonomous particular Church within the Catholic Church associated with a particular liturgical tradition. Of these, the largest is the Latin Western Church. There are several Eastern Catholic Churches which are the same catholic Church with distinct rites. Within many Protestant Christian denominations, the word rite is used for important ceremonies that are not considered sacraments or ordinances.
The 39 Articles of the Anglican Communion and the Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church state "there are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, to say and the Supper of the Lord". As such, in the Anglican and Methodist traditions, the following are considered rites: "confirmation, matrimony, holy orders and anointing of the sick"; the "rites of the Moravian Church are Confirmation and Ordination". In the Lutheran tradition, Holy Baptism, Holy Eucharist, Confession & Absolution are considered Lutheran sacraments, while Confirmation, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Matrimony, Holy Orders are rites. In North America, Freemasons have the option of joining the Scottish Rite or the York Rite, two appendant bodies that offer additional degrees to those who have taken the basic three. Ambrosian Rite Ceremony Confucian rites East Syriac Rite Primitive Scottish Rite Process art Ritual The Rite of Spring Water rite
The Latin word basilica has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was used to refer to an ancient Roman public building, where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions, it had the door at one end and a raised platform and an apse at the other, where the magistrate or other officials were seated. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. Subsequently, the basilica was not built near a forum but adjacent to a palace and was known as a "palace basilica"; as the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, the major church buildings were constructed with this basic architectural plan and thus it became popular throughout Europe. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. In Europe and the Americas the basilica remained the most common architectural style for churches of all Christian denominations, though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the latter 20th century.
Thirdly, the term refers to an official designation: a large and important Catholic church, given special ceremonial rights by the Pope, whatever its architectural plan. These are divided into four major basilicas, all of which are ancient churches located within Rome, and, as of 2017, 1,757 minor basilicas around the world; some Catholic basilicas are Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Latin word basilica lit. "royal stoa" referring to the tribunal chamber of a king. In Rome the word was at first used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life; the basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. These buildings, an example of, the Basilica Ulpia, were rectangular, had a central nave and aisles with a raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides.
By extension the name was applied to Christian churches which adopted the same basic plan and it continues to be used as an architectural term to describe such buildings, which form the majority of church buildings in Western Christianity, though the basilican building plan became less dominant in new buildings from the 20th century. The Roman basilica was a large public building; the first basilicas had no religious function at all. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the covered market houses of late medieval northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although their form was variable, basilicas contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end, where the magistrates sat on a raised dais; the central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii; the most splendid Roman basilica is the one begun for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine I after 313 AD. Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome, erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato as an official building for the tribunes of the plebs Aemilian Basilica, built by the censor Aemilius Lepidus in 179 BC Basilica Sempronia, built by the censor Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 169 BC Basilica Opimia, erected by the consul Lucius Opimius in 121 BC, at the same time that he restored the temple of Concord Julian Basilica dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and completed by Augustus 27 BC to 14 AD Basilica Argentaria, erected under Trajan, emperor from 98 AD to 117AD Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine In the Roman Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences became a feature in palaces.
In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less in the forums. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, these residences were the forum made private. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. Constantine's basilica at Trier, the Aula Palatina, is still standing. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia, in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century, its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. Cluster
Juliana of the Netherlands
Juliana was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980. Juliana was the only child of Prince Henry. From birth she was heir presumptive to the Dutch throne, she was educated privately. In 1937, she married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld with whom she had four children: Beatrix, Irene and Christina, she reigned for nearly 32 years. Her reign saw the decolonization of Dutch East Indies and Suriname and their independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Upon her death at the age of 94, she was the longest-lived former reigning monarch in the world. Juliana was born in 30 April 1909 at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the only daughter of the reigning Dutch monarch, Queen Wilhelmina, her father was Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was the first Dutch royal baby since Wilhelmina herself was born in 1880. Wilhelmina had suffered two miscarriages and one stillbirth, raising the prospect of a succession crisis; the Queen's nearest relative was Prince Heinrich XXXII Reuss of Köstritz, whose close ties to Germany made him unpopular in the Netherlands.
Juliana's birth thus assured the royal family's survival. Her mother suffered two further miscarriages after her birth, leaving Juliana as the royal couple's only child. According to several sources Juliana was happy to be an only child because that meant she did not have to fight for attention. Juliana spent her childhood at Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, at Noordeinde Palace and Huis ten Bosch Palace in The Hague. A small school class was formed at Noordeinde Palace on the advice of the educator Jan Ligthart so that, from the age of six, the Princess could receive her primary education with children of her own age; these children were Baroness Elise Bentinck, Baroness Elisabeth van Hardenbroek and Jonkvrouwe Miek de Jonge. As the Dutch constitution specified that Princess Juliana should be ready to succeed to the throne by the age of eighteen, her education proceeded at a faster pace than that of most children. After five years of primary education, the Princess received her secondary education from private tutors.
On 30 April 1927, Princess Juliana celebrated her eighteenth birthday. Under the constitution, she had come of age and was entitled to assume the royal prerogative, if necessary. Two days her mother installed her in the "Raad van State". In the same year, the Princess enrolled as a student at the University of Leiden. In her first years at university, she attended lectures in sociology, economics, history of religion, parliamentary history, constitutional law. In the course of her studies she attended lectures on the cultures of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles, international affairs, international law and European law, she graduated from the university in 1930 with a bachelor's degree in international law. In the 1930s, Queen Wilhelmina began a search for a suitable husband for her daughter. At the time, the House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most religious royal families in the world, it was difficult to find a Protestant prince who suited their standards. Princes from the United Kingdom and Sweden were "vetted" but either declined or were rejected by the princess.
At the 1936 Winter Olympics in Bavaria, she met Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a young German aristocrat. Prince Bernhard was a suave young businessman, though not a playboy a "man about town" with a dashing lifestyle. However, his rank and religion were suitable. Princess Juliana fell in love with her fiancé, a love, to last a lifetime and that withstood separation during the war and Bernhard's extramarital affairs and illegitimate children; the astute Queen Wilhelmina, by the richest woman in the world, left nothing to chance. Wilhelmina had her lawyers draw up a prenuptial agreement that specified what the German-born prince could and could not do, what money he would receive from the royal estate; the couple's engagement was announced on 8 September 1936. The wedding announcement divided a country. Prior to the wedding, on 24 November 1936, Prince Bernhard was granted Dutch citizenship and changed the spelling of his names from German to Dutch, they married in The Hague on 7 January 1937, the date on which Princess Juliana's grandparents, King William III and Queen Emma, had married fifty-eight years earlier.
The civil ceremony was held in The Hague Town Hall and the marriage was blessed in the Great Church in The Hague. A wedding gift was Piet Hein; the young couple moved into Soestdijk Palace in Baarn. Their first child, Princess Beatrix, was born on 31 January 1938, their second, Princess Irene, on 5 August 1939. On 12 May 1940, during the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in the Second World War, Prince Bernhard and Princess Juliana were evacuated to the United Kingdom to be followed the following day by Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch Government, who set up a government in exile; the princess remained there for a month before taking the children to Ottawa, the capital of Canada, where she resided at Stornoway in the suburb of Rockcliffe Park. Her mother and husband remained in Britain with the Dutch government-in-exile; when her third child, Princess Margriet, was born on 19 January 1943, the Governor General of Canada Lord Athlone granted Royal Assent to a special law declaring Princess Juliana's rooms at the Ottawa Civic Hospital as extraterritorial in order that the infant would have Dutch, not dual nationality.