Centuripe is a town and comune in the province of Enna. The city is 61 kilometres from Enna in the country between the Rivers Dittaìno and Salso. The economy is based on agriculture. There are caves for sulphur and salt mineral, and water springs, thucydides mentions Kentoripa as a city of the Sicels, hellenized in the 5th century BC. It became an ally of the Athenians at the time of their expedition against Syracuse, in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC Centuripe Ware was a distinctive class of Sicilian vase painting, with the unusual feature of fully coloured painting in tempera applied after firing was complete. It was granted Latin Rights before the rest of Sicily and it appears to have suffered much in the war against Sextus Pompeius because of his loyalty to Octavian, but these reconstructed and gave the inhabitants the Roman citizenship. The Imperial Roman age has left the most impressive monumental remains, a large number of monumental remains were lost forever due to the neglect of the past and systematic theft and plundering for collectors and collections of every where.
Gradually declined in the late Empire, emperor Frederick II entirely destroyed the city in 1233 in punishment for its rebellion, the inhabitants deported to Augusta. King Charles I of Anjou razed it completely to the ground, the city was known as Centorbi until 1863. Other sights include the Chiesa Madre and the ruins of the so-called Castle of Conradin, in fact a Roman construction of the Imperial age, Italy Media related to Centuripe at Wikimedia Commons Centuripe
Temple of Concordia, Agrigento
The Temple of Concordia is an ancient Greek temple in the Valle dei Templi in Agrigento on the south coast of Sicily, Italy. It is the largest and best-preserved Doric temple in Sicily and one of the best-preserved Greek temples in general, the well-preserved peristasis of six by thirteen columns stands on a crepidoma of four steps The cella measures 28.36 m ×9.4 m. The columns are 6 m high and carved with twenty flutes and it is constructed, like the nearby Temple of Juno, on a solid base designed to overcome the unevenness of the rocky terrain. It has been named after Concordia, the Roman goddess of harmony, for the Roman-era Latin inscription found nearby. The spaces between the columns were filled with walling, altering its Classical Greek form, the Christian refurbishments were removed during the restoration of 1785. According to another source, the Prince of Torremuzza transferred the altar elsewhere, according to authors of a 2007 article, it is apart from the Parthenon, the best preserved Doric temple in the world.
Bibliography Barone, P. M. Graziano, F. Pettinelli, E. Corradini, ground-penetrating radar investigations into the construction techniques of the Concordia Temple
Mondello is a small borough of the city of Palermo in the autonomous region of Sicily in Southern Italy. Its beach lies between two cliffs called Mount Gallo and Mount Pellegrino, the town was originally a small fishing village situated on marshland, but at the end of the 19th century it grew into a favourite tourist destination. The numerous Liberty style villas on the seafront promenade made it one of the gems of Art Nouveau in Europe, the ancient fishing village laid at the foot of the latter. It was home to a tonnara, one of the many ones scattered along the West coast of Sicily, the tonnara is no longer active. At some point, a Palermitan nobleman had the idea to drain the swamp, prince Francesco Lanza di Scalea, with the help of a Belgian real estate company, built a plant for the drainage of swampy waters to the sea. The newly rehabilitated areas, previously occupied by the swamp, underwent a process of expansion and evolution from the 18th to the 20th centuries, from 1912 onwards Mondello became the seat of the high bourgeoisie and the aristocracy.
The nobility of the city fostered the construction of several exclusive and aristocratic circles, the construction of villas, king Ferdinand of Bourbon called it a corner of paradise. Eventually, the beach of Mondello was born.5 kilometers long, the landscape is influenced by the Natural Reserve of Capo Gallo and the reserve of Monte Pellegrino. Today the area is famous for its beach, which is one of the most coveted shores of Italy, for its many Art Nouveau villas, the Art Nouveau villas characterize the architecture of the place, making it an important landmark in the history of international modernism. These buildings are among the best examples of Art Nouveau in Italy, Mondello has many accommodations, numerous yacht clubs and exclusive clubs, shops, a marina and an old bathhouse, the Antico Stabilimento Balneare, one of the landmarks of the city. It is home of the World Festival on the Beach, P. Hardy, A. Bing, A. Blasi, C. Bonetto, K. Christiani, Italy, pp. 759–760, W. Dello Russo, Spiagge in Sicilia, Sime Books.
Michelin, M. Magni, M. Marca, Sicilia, p.90, La Guida Verde 2013 Sicilia, p.39, Lonely Planet, EDT2013
Allied invasion of Sicily
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers. It was an amphibious and airborne operation, followed by a six-week land campaign and was the beginning of the Italian Campaign. Husky began on the night of 9/10 July 1943, and ended on 17 August, the Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, was toppled from power in Italy and the way was opened for the Allied invasion of Italy. The German leader, Adolf Hitler, canceled a major offensive at Kursk after only a week, in part to divert forces to Italy, resulting in a reduction of German strength on the Eastern Front. The plan for Operation Husky called for the assault of Sicily by two Allied armies, one landing on the south-eastern and one on the central southern coast. The amphibious assaults were to be supported by gunfire, as well as tactical bombing, interdiction. As such, the operation required a complex structure, incorporating land, naval.
The overall commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, as Commander-in-Chief of all the Allied forces in North Africa, British General Sir Harold Alexander acted as his second-in-command and as the 15th Army Group commander. The American Major General Walter Bedell Smith was appointed as Eisenhowers Chief of Staff, the overall Naval Force Commander was the British Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham. The Allied land forces were from the American and Canadian armies, the Eastern Task Force was led by General Sir Bernard Montgomery and consisted of the British Eighth Army. The Western Task Force was commanded by Lieutenant General George S. Patton, the two task force commanders reported to Alexander as commander of the 15th Army Group. Seventh Army consisted initially of three divisions, organized under II Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Omar Bradley. Middleton, sailed from the United States via Oran in Algeria, the 2nd Armored Division, under Major General Hugh Joseph Gaffey, sailing from Oran, was to be a floating reserve and be fed into combat as required.
On 15 July, Patton reorganized his command into two corps by creating a new Provisional Corps headquarters, commanded by his deputy army commander, Major General Geoffrey Keyes. The two divisions of XIII Corps, the 5th and 50th Infantry Divisions, commanded by Major-Generals Horatio Berney-Ficklin and Sidney Kirkman and this request was granted by the British, displacing the veteran British 3rd Infantry Division. The Red Patch Division was added to Leeses XXX Corps to become part of the British Eighth Army, in addition to the amphibious landings, airborne troops were to be flown in to support both the Western and Eastern Task Forces. To the east, the British 1st Airborne Division, commanded by Major-General George F. Hopkinson, was to seize vital bridges and high ground in support of the British Eighth Army. The initial plan dictated that the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division, Allied naval forces were grouped into two task forces to transport and support the invading armies
Valle dei Templi
The Valle dei Templi is an archaeological site in Agrigento, southern Italy. It is one of the most outstanding examples of Greater Greece art and architecture, the area was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 1997. Much of the excavation and restoration of the temples was due to the efforts of archaeologist Domenico Antonio Lo Faso Pietrasanta, the archaeological park and landscape of the Valley of the Temples is the largest archaeological site in the world with 1,300 hectares. The term valley is a misnomer, the site being located on a ridge outside the town of Agrigento, the Valley includes remains of seven temples, all in Doric style. The ascription of the names, apart from that of the Olympeion, are a tradition established in Renaissance times. The temples are, Temple of Concordia, whose name comes from a Latin inscription found nearby, turned into a church in the 6th century AD, it is now one of the best preserved in the Valley. Temple of Juno, built in the 5th century BC and it was burnt in 406 BC by the Carthaginians.
Temple of Heracles, who was one of the most venerated deities in the ancient Akragas and it is the most ancient in the Valley, destroyed by an earthquake, it consists today of only eight columns. Temple of Olympian Zeus, built in 480 BC to celebrate the victory over Carthage. It is characterized by the use of large scale atlases, despite its remains including only four columns, it is now the symbol of modern Agrigento. Temple of Vulcan, dating from the 5th century BC and it is thought to have been one of the most imposing constructions in the valley, it is now however one of the most eroded. Temple of Asclepius, located far from the ancient towns walls, the Valley is home to the so-called Tomb of Theron, a large tuff monument of pyramidal shape, scholars suppose it was built to commemorate the Romans killed in the Second Punic War. Due to its state of preservation, the Temple of Concordia is ranked amongst the most notable edifices of the Greek civilization existing today. Notably the UNESCO symbol alludes to this temple 6 column facade, the exterior and the interior of the temple were covered by polychrome stucco.
The upper frame had gutters with lion-like protomes, while the roof was covered by marble tiles, when the temple was turned into a church the entrance was moved to the rear, and the rear wall of the cella was destroyed. The spaces between the columns were closed, while 12 arched openings were created in the cella, in order to obtain a structure with one nave, the pagan altar was destroyed and sacristies were carved out in the eastern corners. The sepultures visible inside and outside the temple date to the High Middle Age and this temple was constructed on a mostly artificial spur. It dates to c.450 BC, measuring 38.15 x 16.90 m, it is in Doric style, peripteros 6 columns wide by 13 long, current remains consist of the front colonnade with parts of the architrave and of the frieze
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
The word shaman probably originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. The term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552, Mircea Eliade writes, A first definition of this complex phenomenon, and perhaps the least hazardous, will be, shamanism = technique of religious ecstasy. Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul, alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness. The shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community, Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements. The shaman operates primarily within the world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment, hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism.
The word shaman probably originates from the Evenki word šamán, most likely from the dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples. The Tungusic term was adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum, adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China, a translation of his book, published the same year, introduced the word shaman to English speakers. The etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- to know, other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, and as such would be the only commonly used English word that is a loan from this language. This proposal has been thoroughly critiqued since 1917, ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an anachronism and an impossibility that is nothing more than a far-fetched etymology. Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, there is no single agreed-upon definition for the word shamanism among anthropologists.
The English historian Ronald Hutton noted that by the dawn of the 21st century, the first of these uses the term to refer to anybody who contacts a spirit world while in an altered state of consciousness. The second definition limits the term to refer to those who contact a spirit world while in a state of consciousness at the behest of others. Problematically, scholars advocating the third view have failed to agree on what the defining technique should be, the fourth definition identified by Hutton uses shamanism to refer to the indigenous religions of Siberia and neighboring parts of Asia. According to the Golomt Center for Shamanic Studies, a Mongolian organisation of shamans, Shamans are normally called by dreams or signs which require lengthy training. However, shamanic powers may be inherited and colleagues mention a phenomenon called shamanistic initiatory crisis, a rite of passage for shamans-to-be, commonly involving physical illness and/or psychological crisis
Polizzello archaeological site
The archaeological site of Polizzello or mountain of Polizzello was a site inhabited probably from the eleventh to the sixth century BC The name apparently derives from the tyrant Polyzelus. According to another thesis the name derives from the Greek πολις Ειθηλος, the site is located on a hill at 877 m above sea level and is near Mussomeli in the Province of Caltanissetta. The site is great for a settlement for its easily defensible position. XI-IX centuries BC with the creation of a Acropolis placed on top of the hill, inside which exceptional historical artifacts have been found including the Polizzello helmet of Cretan workmanship and a clay figurine of ithyphallic warrior. Of the fifth century BC are the remains of the House of Temenos and this is a residential building with multiple rooms. Castelluccio Culture Monte Grande Vassallaggi Castelluccio di Noto Rosalba Panvini, Carla Guzzone, Scavi del 2004 nellarea del santuario arcaico dellacropoli. La Sicilia nel II millennio a. C, storia della Sicilia dalle origini ai giorni nostri.
La cultura dei dolmen nella Preistoria della Sicilia sud-orientale, La Civiltà Castellucciana Luigi Bernabò Brea, La Sicilia prima dei Greci,1958 Mambella, Raffaele. La problematica dei sacelli circolari del santuario sicano di Polizzello, Dario Palermo e Davide Tanasi, Diodoro a Polizzello Descrizione del sito di Polizzello
Province of Messina
Messina was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital was the city of Messina and it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Messina. It had an area of 3,247 square kilometres, which amounts to 12.6 percent of area of the island. There are 108 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Messina, the province included the Aeolian Islands, all part of the comune of Lipari. The territory is mountainous, with the exception of alluvial plain at the mouths of the various rivers. Much of the population is concentrated in the area, after the hill towns have been largely abandoned from the 19th century. The main mountain ridges are the Peloritani, up to 1,300 metres in elevation, and the Nebrodi, up to 1,900 metres, rivers of the province include the Alcantara and the Pollina, which forms the border with the province of Palermo to the west
Morgantina is an archaeological site in east central Sicily, southern Italy. It is sixty kilometres from the coast of the Ionian Sea, the closest modern town is Aidone, two kilometres southwest of the site. The site consists of a long ridge running southwest-northeast, known as Serra Orlando. Morgantina was inhabited in several periods, the earliest major settlement was made at Cittadella and lasted from about 1000/900 to about 450 BCE. The other major settlement was located on Serra Orlando, and existed from about 450 BCE to about 50 CE, Morgantina has been the subject of archaeological investigation since the early 20th century. Serra Orlando was identified as Morgantina by Kenan Erim following the discovery of a number of bearing the Latin word HISPANORUM. Erim used these coins and passages from Livy to argue that the city found at Serra Orlando was in fact the ancient city of Morgantina, the name is variously written by Latin writers as Murgantia and Morgentia. The inhabitants were called Murgentini by Cicero and Pliny the Elder, according to Strabo Morgantina was founded by a pre-Roman Italian group known as the Morgetes of Rhegium.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote that the Morgetes were led by a king named Morges, the earliest historical date associated with Morgantina is 459 BCE, when Ducetius, leader of the indigenous Sicel population of central Sicily, attacked the city and captured it. Morgantina was probably still under Ducetius control when he was defeated at Nomai by Syracuse in 449 BCE, thucydides says that Syracuse agreed at the Congress of Gela to give Morgantina to Kamarina in return for payment of an indemnity. Kamarina was destroyed in 405 by the Carthaginians, Morgantina therefore must have been independent from at least this date, although it was soon recaptured by Dionysios of Syracuse in 396. Syracuse retained control of Morgantina until the Second Punic War, in 317, Morgantina received the tyrant Agathocles, in exile, and offered him help in returning to Syracuse. He was elected praetor at Morgantina, and dux, as part of the Syracusan kingdom of Hiero II, Morgantina fell under the hegemony of Rome when Hieron became a Roman vassal in 263.
In 214, Morgantina switched its allegiance from Rome to Carthage, Morgantina remained autonomous until 211, when it became the last Sicilian town to be captured by the Romans. It was given as payment by Rome to a group of Spanish mercenaries, in 133, Morgantina was the place where Eunus, the leader of the slave rebellion known as the First Servile War, died. In the Second Servile War, Morgantina was besieged and taken by slaves, the final mention of Morgantina comes again from Strabo, who notes that in his own time, the first century CE, the city had ceased to exist. A few literary sources describe Morgantina and its economy, most famous of these are the references to the vitis murgentina, a strain of grape mentioned by Cato and Pliny the Elder. These grapes were prized for their wine — Pliny called it the very best among all those that come from Sicily — and had been transplanted from Sicily to mainland Italy by the 2nd century BCE, the earliest excavations at Morgantina were undertaken by Luigi Pappalardo in 1884
Province of Agrigento
The Province of Agrigento is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy, situated on its south-western coast. It has an area of 3,041.90 square kilometres, there are 43 comunes in the province. It is surrounded by Province of Palermo in the north, Trapani in the west, Mediterranean Sea in the south, gela inhabitants founded the province in 6th century B. C. as Akragas. The province was destroyed by the Carthage in 406 B. C. but was ruled by the Romans, Byzantines. The Arabs rebuilt several parts of the province, several ancient Doric temples were constructed during the 6th and 5th century B. C. for the purpose of worshiping Hercules, Olympian Jupiter, Castor and Demeter. They are located in the Valley of Temples, the ancient temples and other architectural structures were built using the stones of the hills near Capo San Marco. The most important cities are Agrigento, Canicattì, Licata, Agrigento is the birthplace of the noted writer Luigi Pirandello and the philosopher Empedocles.
According to the government records the number of unemployed people is about 17% of the labour force. The province faces the Channel of Sicily in the south and is known for its beaches, the beaches of Torre Salsa have been designated as natural reserves and are protected due to their environmental importance. The province is known for its vineyards and wines. The total areas covered by vineyards in 1984 was almost triple to that in 1949, during this period Marsala based wine merchants used the grapes produced in the province to produce Marsala wine. In 1984 the local government passed a law which regulated this practice, around three-quarters of the Sicilian land devoted to growing Fiano grapes is in the province. Some of the important municipalities known for their vineyards include Sambuca di Sicilia and Santa Margherita di Belice. The road network in the province comprises 540 km. of street roads,1,000 km. of provincial roads,260 km. of communal roads and 56 km. of regional roads, 55% of the total rail network is suitable for electric trains
Hominoids are a primate superfamily, the hominid family is currently considered to comprise both the great ape lineages and human lineages within the hominoid superfamily. The Homininae comprise both the human lineages and the African ape lineages, the term African apes refers only to chimpanzees and gorillas. The terminology of the biological family is currently in flux. The term hominin refers to any genus in the human tribe, the great apes were considered the closest relatives of human beings, based on morphological similarity. The science arguably began in the late 19th century when important discoveries occurred that led to the study of human evolution. The discovery of the Neanderthal in Germany, Thomas Huxleys Evidence as to Mans Place in Nature, the modern field of paleoanthropology began in the 19th century with the discovery of Neanderthal man, and with evidence of so-called cave men. Debates between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen focused on the idea of human evolution, Huxley convincingly illustrated many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes in his 1863 book Evidence as to Mans Place in Nature.
By the time Darwin published his own book on the subject, Descent of Man, even many of Darwins original supporters balked at the idea that human beings could have evolved their apparently boundless mental capacities and moral sensibilities through natural selection. Prior to todays general acceptance of Africa as the root of genus Homo, although Schlosser was very cautious, identifying the tooth only as “. Anthropoide g. et sp. indet. ”He was hopeful that future work would discover a new anthropoid in China. Eleven years later, the Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson was sent to China as a mining advisor and it was he who, in 1918, discovered the sites around Zhoukoudian, a village about 50 kilometers southwest of Beijing. However, because of the nature of the initial finds. Work did not resume until 1921, when the Austrian paleontologist, Otto Zdansky, fresh with his degree from Vienna. Zdansky conducted short-term excavations at Locality 1 in 1921 and 1923, with that done, Zdansky returned to Austria and suspended all fieldwork.
News of the fossil hominin teeth delighted the scientific community in Beijing, at the epicenter of excitement was Davidson Black, a Canadian-born anatomist working at Peking Union Medical College. Black shared Andersson’s interest, as well as his view that central Asia was a home for early humankind. The Zhoukoudian Project came into existence in the spring of 1927, being the first institution of its kind, the Cenozoic Laboratory opened up new avenues for the study of paleogeology and paleontology in China. The Laboratory was the precursor of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of the Chinese Academy of Science, the first of the major project finds are attributed to the young Swedish paleontologist, Anders Birger Bohlin, serving as the field advisor at Zhoukoudian. He recovered a left lower molar that Black identified as unmistakably human, the news was at first met with skepticism, and many scholars had reservations that a single tooth was sufficient to justify the naming of a new type of early hominin