Grotta delle Felci
|Grotta delle Felci|
|Location||Capri, Campania, Italy|
|This Italian location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|Grotta delle Felci|
|Location||Capri, Campania, Italy|
|This Italian location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Cimitero acattolico di Capri is a non-Catholic cemetery on the island of Capri. Established in 1878 by Englishman George Hayward, it contains 204 graves from a total of 21 different nations, most of the people buried in the cemetery though are of English nationality, Russian or American. Aside from Protestants, buried in the cemetery are Jews, Orthodox Christians, notable interments include French Baron Jacques dAdelsward-Fersen, Lucio Amelio, Günter Ammon, Gracie Fields, Norman Douglas and Jakob Johann von Uexküll. After the Second World War, the cemetery saw a period of great neglect, which ended in 1986 when the Municipality of Capri ensured the preservation and restoration of the cemetery graves
Castello Barbarossa is an archaeological ruin and ornithological station in Anacapri, on the island of Capri, Italy. It derives its name from the pirate and Ottoman admiral, nicknamed Barbarossa, the construction date is uncertain but it perhaps dates back to the late ninth century. From 1898, the structure, now in ruins, was owned by the Swedish psychiatrist Axel Munthe who donated it to his foundation, the surroundings, interesting for their botanical features, are home to the islands ornithological station. The castles construction date is uncertain and it is known to have existed at the end of the tenth century. Taking advantage of local labour, the Dukes of Amalfi built it in order to full control over the island of Capri. The manor house was owned by Adelferio, son of Sergius II. On 15 November 988, Adelferio donated the castle, as well as his possessions in Anacapri, to Giovanni. The document refers to unam silvam ad angulum ipsum castellum, protected by the fortress, the area enjoyed a period of stability in the tenth and eleventh centuries.
The Norman conquest of Campania forced the Dukes of Amalfi to modernize the structure to provide resistance to the enemy. The interior of the fortress was extended with new features. Other additions from the century included a cylindrical tower, two protective walls and other items necessitated by the development of siege techniques and firearms. In the fifteenth century, the island of Capri was subjected to attacks by Muslim pirates, the population often used the fortress as a refuge. But after the raids in 1535, led by Ottoman pirates Hayreddin Barbarossa and Dragut, the fortress was destroyed in 1544, rather than being named after its builder, the castle derives its name from its pirate destroyer. The Angevins attempted to reconstruct the fortress, but without success as the Neapolitans had little building experience and it therefore fell on the inhabitants of Anacapri to care for the fortress which, as a result, was never rebuilt. Barbarossa Castle was almost totally forgotten until the eighteenth century when the manor was included in some geographical treaties, as already mentioned, the castle with the surrounding land was purchased by Munthe who, as he hated hunting, made it a sanctuary for birds.
Throughout his life, Munthe campaigned to abolish hunting and was able to convince Benito Mussolini himself to draw up legislation denying hunters access to the island. As of 1950, a year after Munthes death, the became part of the Axel Munthe Foundation under the ownership of the Swedish Consulate. The plan of the castle is quadrangular with a semicircular wall, the ruins of the highest part, as well as forming the core of the building, belong to what was once the residential area of the castle
In Italian, faraglioni are stacks, a coastal and oceanic rock formation eroded by waves. The word may be derived from the Greek pharos or Latin pharus and is cognate with the Spanish farallón. They are found at the coasts of several regions of Italy, In the Apulia region, faraglioni are found at the Gargano Peninsula, two are in Zagare Bay near Mattinata, protected within Gargano National Park. In the Campania region, there are three famous faraglioni in the Bay of Naples, off the island of Capri, part of the Campanian Archipelago, they are named, connected to the island,109 m. The Blue-tinted lizard is endemic to Scopolo, stack Coastal and oceanic landforms Capri - Faraglioni
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
The Gulf of Naples, called the Bay of Naples, is a roughly 15-kilometer-wide gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy. It opens to the west into the Mediterranean Sea and it is bordered on the north by the cities of Naples and Pozzuoli, on the east by Mount Vesuvius, and on the south by the Sorrentine Peninsula and the main town of the peninsula, Sorrento. The Peninsula separates the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno, the islands of Capri and Procida are located in the Gulf of Naples. The area is a tourist destination, with the seaside Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, along with the island of Ischia and gulfs of Pozzuoli and Gaeta, local waters are home to varieties of whales and dolphins including fin and sperm whales. It is said that The Roman emperor Caligula built a bridge of boats across the bay, the Gulf of Naples hosted the sailing events for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Purcell, N. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
Casa Malaparte is a house on Punta Massullo, on the eastern side of the Isle of Capri, Italy. It is one of the best examples of Italian modern and contemporary architecture, the house was conceived around 1937 by the well-known Italian architect Adalberto Libera for Curzio Malaparte. Malaparte actually rejected Liberas design and built the home himself with the help of Adolfo Amitrano, Casa Malaparte is a red masonry box with reverse pyramidal stairs leading to the roof patio. On the roof is a freestanding curving white wall of increasing height and it sits on a dangerous cliff 32 metres above the sea overlooking the Gulf of Salerno. Access to this property is either by foot from the Town of Capri or by boat. Casa Malapartes interior and exterior are prominently featured in Jean-Luc Godards 1963 film, Casa Malaparte was abandoned and neglected after the death of Curzio Malaparte in 1957. The building was donated to the Giorgio Ronchi Foundation in 1972, Malapartes great-nephew, Niccolò Rositani, is primarily responsible for restoring the house to a livable state.
Much of the furniture is still there, because it is too large to remove. The marble sunken tub in the bedroom of his mistress still exists and his bedroom and book lined study are still intact. Many Italian industrialists have donated materials for the preservation, today the house is used for serious study and cultural events. The house can only be reached by traversing the island, the last twenty-minute walk is over private property, belonging to The Giorgio Ronchi Foundation. It takes an hour and a half to walk there from Capris Piazzetta at the summit of the funiculare from the Marina Grande. The house can be reached by sea, on calm days only, as the waves are cast upon treacherous rocks, from the sea, one must climb 99 steps to reach the house. Malaparte gave his friend and boatman money to open a restaurant which is run by the boatmans son today and it is the only restaurant one would pass on the path from the Piazzetta to the promontory where Tiberius built his palace, Villa Jovis. Adalberto Libera, Casa Malaparte a Capri 1938–1942, Giorgio Ronchi Foundation Casa Malaparte at ArchiTravel
Capri, Italian pronunciation, ) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri that is located on the shares the name. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic, Capri is part of the region of Campania, Province of Naples. The town of Capri is the main population centre. The island has two harbours, Marina Piccola and Marina Grande, the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, it might either be traced back to the Ancient Greeks, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the etymology, on the other hand. Finally, there is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for rocky, Capri is a large and sandstone rock. The sides of the island are perpendicular cliffs and the surface of the island is composed of more cliffs, Edwin Cerio was mayor of Capri from 1920 to 1923.
Although he was three years in office, his vision and policies had far-reaching impact on the nature and role of the government on the island. Italy is a Republic, thus Capri, as part of Italy, has adopted those same principles too, the voters of the island elect representatives for the two villages on the island. The chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them, the city has been inhabited since early times. The emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of his main residence, modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri, he built temples, aqueducts, in his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that in ancient times in Capri there were two towns, reduced to one, tacitus records that there were twelve Imperial villas in Capri. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century, augustus successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of which is the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy.
In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD, in 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, in 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi
Via Krupp is a historic switchback paved footpath on the island of Capri, connecting the Charterhouse of San Giacomo and the Gardens of Augustus area with Marina Piccola. Commissioned by German industrialist Friedrich Alfred Krupp, the covers a elevation difference of about 100 m. Secretly however, this path conveyed him to Grotta di Fra Felice a grotto where sex orgies with local youths are supposed to have taken place, when the scandal surfaced, Krupp was asked to leave Italy in 1902. Since 1976, Via Krupp has been closed most of the due to the danger of falling rocks. Media related to Via Krupp at Wikimedia Commons
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves