The Grotto, Victoria
The Grotto is a sinkhole geological formation and tourist attraction, found on the Great Ocean Road outside Port Campbell in Victoria, Australia. Wooden steps wind down the cliff face to the bottom, providing visibility of the sea beyond a pool at low tide. Gibson Steps, Victoria List of sinkholes of Australia Loch Ard Gorge London Arch Protected areas of South Australia The Twelve Apostles, Victoria Media related to The Grotto, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons Official Website for 12 Apostles Region of Victoria
The Grotta-Pelos culture refers to a "cultural" dating system used for part of the early Bronze Age in Greece. It is the period that marks the beginning of the so-called Cycladic culture and spans the Neolithic period in the late 4th millennium BC, continuing in the Bronze Age to about 2700 BC; the term was coined by Colin Renfrew, who named it after the sites of Grotta and Pelos on the Cycladic islands of Naxos and Milos, respectively. Other archaeologists prefer a "chronological" dating system and refer to this period as the Early Cycladic I. Keros-Syros culture Kastri culture Phylakopi I culture History of the Cyclades Cycladic art The Chronology and Terminology of Aegean Prehistory, Dartmouth Aegean prehistoric archaeology
Grotto of the Redemption
The Shrine of the Grotto of the Redemption is a religious shrine located in West Bend, Iowa, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux City. A conglomeration of nine grottos depicting scenes in the life of Jesus, the Grotto contains a large collection of minerals and petrifications and is believed to be the largest grotto in the world, it is "considered to be the world's most complete man-made collection of minerals, fossils and petrifications in one place." The total value of all the rocks and minerals which make up the Grotto is over $4,308,000. Over 100,000 people visit the Grotto each year; the shrine includes a museum with precious and semiprecious stones from throughout the world, photos and artifacts about the construction of the shrine. Father Paul Dobberstein was a German immigrant ordained in 1897, he became critically ill with pneumonia and promised to build a shrine to the Virgin Mary if she interceded for him. After his recovery, he began precious stones. Construction of the grotto continued year round for 42 years.
Father Dobberstein used the knowledge and skills gained during construction of his first grotto honoring Our Lady of Lourdes, while training at St. Francis Seminary in St. Francis, Wisconsin, his method was to set fancy gems into concrete. In 1946, Father Louis Greving began helping Dobberstein with the construction; the grotto covered an area the size of a city block when Dobberstein died in 1954. Matt Szerensce helped work on the grotto until his retirement in 1959. Construction still continues and has been maintained by Deacon Gerald Streit since 1994. Father Dobberstein's works inspired Mathias Wernerus to build the Dickeyville Grotto in Dickeyville, Wisconsin, in 1930, thus starting the grotto building movement in America; as of August 1, 2015, the grotto has been raised to the status of diocesan shrine by R. Walker Nickless, Bishop of Sioux City; this is the first Catholic religious shrine designated in the diocese. The Grotto of the Redemption is featured in the David Lynch film The Straight Story.
Our Mother of Sorrows Grotto Historic District in Cedar Rapids, Iowa Video Tour of the Grotto of the Redemption Official website
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, or prehistorically. Occurring grottoes are small caves near water that are flooded or liable to flood at high tide. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features; the Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes. Whether in tidal water or high up in hills, grottoes are made up of limestone geology, where the acidity of standing water has dissolved the carbonates in the rock matrix as it passes through what were small fissures. See karst topography, cavern; the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, Latin crypta. It is related by a historical accident to the word grotesque. In the late 15th century, Romans accidentally unearthed Nero's Domus Aurea on the Palatine Hill, a series of rooms, decorated with designs of garlands, slender architectural framework and animals; the rooms had sunk underground over time.
The Romans who discovered this historical monument found it strange because it was uncovered from an "underworld" source. This led the Romans of that era to give it the name grottesca, from. Grottoes were popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollo's oracles at Delphi and Clarus; the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural. At the great Roman sanctuary of Praeneste south of Rome, the oldest portion of the primitive sanctuary was situated on the second lowest terrace, in a grotto in the natural rock where a spring developed into a well. According to tradition, Praeneste's sacred spring had a native nymph, honored in a grotto-like watery nymphaeum. Tiberius, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology channeling Polyphemus' cave in the Odyssey; the numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient: in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated before Minoan palace-building.
Farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced the Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century. Two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo. Before the Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor; the Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a small garden building, built in 1573–4 as a garden feature in the extensive grounds of the Villa "Riposo" of Bernardo Vecchietti. It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner; the outsides of garden grottoes are designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang.
Inside, they are decorated as a temple or with fountains and imitation gems and shells. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, but they became fashionable in the cool drizzle of the Île-de-France. In Kuskovo in the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths. Courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola, a little theater designed in the grotto manner, they were combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de' Medici's château in Paris, the Tuileries, was renowned. There are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles. In England, an early garden grotto was built at Wilton House in the 1630s by Isaac de Caus. Grottoes were suitable for less formal gardens too. Pope's Grotto, created by Alexander Pope, is all that survives of one of the first landscape gardens in England, at Twickenham.
Pope was inspired after seeing grottoes in Italy during a visit there. Efforts are under way to restore his grotto. There are grottoes in the landscape gardens of Painshill Park, Clandon Park and Stourhead. Scott's Grotto is a series of interconnected chambers, extending 67 ft into the chalk hillside on the outskirts of Ware, Hertfordshire. Built during the late 18th century, the chambers and tunnels are lined with shells and pieces of coloured glass; the Romantic generation of tourists might not visit Fingal's Cave, on the remote isle of Staffa in the Scottish Hebrides, but they have heard of it through Felix Mendelssohn's "Hebrides Overture", better known as "Fingal's Cave", inspired by his visit. In the 19th century, when miniature Matterhorns and rock-gardens became fashionable, a grotto was found, such as at Ascott House. In Bavaria, Ludwig's Linderhof contains an abstraction of the grotto under Venusberg, which figured in Wagner's Tannhäuser. Although grottoes have fallen from fashion since the British Pic
Grotten is a nineteenth-century building located on the premises of the Royal Palace in the city centre of Oslo, Norway. Grotten is an honorary residence owned by the Norwegian state; the house is situated over a grotto on a rocky outcrop at the edge of Palace Park. The house was designed by architect Hans Linstow, it was the home of the poet Henrik Wergeland who lived there from 1841 to 1845. Since the 1920s, it has been awarded as a permanent residence to a person bestowed this honour by the King of Norway. Residents at Grotten have included composer Christian Sinding, writer Arnulf Øverland, composer Arne Nordheim and playwright Jon Fosse. Velkommen til Grotten
Santa Claus known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture, said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved children on Christmas Eve and the early morning hours of Christmas Day. The modern Santa Claus grew out of traditions surrounding the historical Saint Nicholas, the British figure of Father Christmas and the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas; some maintain Santa Claus absorbed elements of the Germanic god Wodan, associated with the pagan midwinter event of Yule and led the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Santa Claus is depicted as a portly, white-bearded man—sometimes with spectacles—wearing a red coat with white fur collar and cuffs, white-fur-cuffed red trousers, a red hat with white fur and black leather belt and boots and who carries a bag full of gifts for children; this image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast.
This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, television, children's books and advertising. Santa Claus is said to make lists of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior, to deliver presents, including toys and candy, to all of the well-behaved children in the world, coal to all the misbehaved children, on the night of Christmas Eve, he accomplishes this feat with the aid of his elves, who make the toys in his workshop at the North Pole, his flying reindeer, who pull his sleigh. He is portrayed as living at the North Pole, laughing in a way that sounds like "ho ho ho". Saint Nicholas of Myra was a 4th-century Greek Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes, he was religious from an early age and devoted his life to Christianity. In continental Europe he is portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of Myra were subjugated by newly arrived Muslim Turkish conquerors, soon after their Greek Orthodox church had been declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the Greek church in Myra. Over the objection of the monks of Myra the sailors took the bones of St. Nicholas to Bari, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. Sailors from Bari collected just half of Nicholas' skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the church sarcophagus; these were taken by Venetian sailors during the First Crusade and placed in Venice, where a church to St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the San Nicolò al Lido. St. Nicholas' vandalized sarcophagus can still be seen in the St. Nicholas Church in Myra; this tradition was confirmed in two important scientific investigations of the relics in Bari and Venice, which revealed that the relics in the two Italian cities belong to the same skeleton.
Saint Nicholas was claimed as a patron saint of many diverse groups, from archers and children to pawnbrokers. He is the patron saint of both Amsterdam and Moscow. During the Middle Ages on the evening before his name day of 6 December, children were bestowed gifts in his honour; this date was earlier than the original day of gifts for the children, which moved in the course of the Reformation and its opposition to the veneration of saints in many countries on the 24th and 25 December. The custom of gifting to children at Christmas has been propagated by Martin Luther as an alternative to the previous popular gift custom on St. Nicholas, to focus the interest of the children to Christ instead of the veneration of saints. Martin Luther first suggested the Christkind as the bringer of gifts, but Nicholas remained popular as gifts bearer for the people. Father Christmas dates back as far as 16th century in England during the reign of Henry VIII, when he was pictured as a large man in green or scarlet robes lined with fur.
He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, bringing peace, good food and wine and revelry. As England no longer kept the feast day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December, the Father Christmas celebration was moved to the 25th of December to coincide with Christmas Day; the Victorian revival of Christmas included Father Christmas as the emblem of'good cheer'. His physical appearance was variable, with one famous image being John Leech's illustration of the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's festive classic A Christmas Carol, as a great genial man in a green coat lined with fur who takes Scrooge through the bustling streets of London on the current Christmas morning, sprinkling the essence of Christmas onto the happy populace. In the Netherlands and Belgium the character of Santa Claus has to compete with that of Sinterklaas, Santa's presumed progenitor. Santa Claus is known as de Kerstman in Dutch and Père Noël in French, but for children in the Netherlands Sinterklaas remains the predominant gift-giver in December.