Our Mother of Sorrows Grotto Historic District
Our Mother of Sorrows Grotto Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district located on the Mount Mercy University campus in Cedar Rapids, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015; the grotto consists of five structures that are dedicated to the Virgin Mary. They include two arched entryways, a bridge, a 10-column structure representing the Ten Commandments, a canopy that encloses a marble statue of the Virgin Mary; the grotto was built by William H. Lightner, a self-trained architect, between 1929 and 1941, he utilized 12 tons of stone and 300 varieties of Italian mosaic glass that he acquired in his travels of more than 40,000 miles. Popular in southern Europe, grottoes are natural or artificial caves that are places of spiritual reflection. In the United States, they are found in the Midwest, are created by self-trained artists and builders. Lightner died in 1968, the grotto fell into disrepair. Grants from the Smithsonian Institution’s American Heritage Preservation Project-Save Outdoor Sculpture, the Iowa Arts Council, The National Endowment for the Arts were used to restore the structures.
The grotto is used for a variety of communal uses. Grotto of the Redemption in West Bend, Iowa
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r
David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, musician and photographer. He has been described by The Guardian as "the most important director of this era", while AllMovie called him "the Renaissance man of modern American filmmaking", his films Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive are regarded by critics to be among the greatest films of their respective decades, while the success of his 1990–91 television series Twin Peaks led to him being labeled "the first popular Surrealist" by film critic Pauline Kael. He has received three Academy Award nominations for Best Director, has won France's César Award for Best Foreign Film twice, as well as the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. In 2016, Mulholland Drive, was named the top film of the 21st century by the BBC following a poll of 177 film critics from 36 countries. Born to a middle-class family in Missoula, Lynch spent his childhood traveling around the United States before he studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he first made the transition to producing short films.
He moved to Los Angeles, where he produced his first motion picture, the surrealist horror film Eraserhead. After Eraserhead became a cult classic on the midnight movie circuit, Lynch was employed to direct the biographical film The Elephant Man, from which he gained mainstream success, he was employed by the De Laurentiis Entertainment Group and proceeded to make two films: the science-fiction epic Dune, which proved to be a critical and commercial failure, a neo-noir mystery film Blue Velvet, which stirred controversy over its violence but grew in critical reputation. Next, Lynch created his own television series with Mark Frost, the popular murder mystery Twin Peaks, he created a cinematic prequel, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, a road film Wild at Heart and a family film The Straight Story in the same period. Turning further towards surrealist filmmaking, three of his subsequent films operated on dream logic non-linear narrative structures: Lost Highway, Mulholland Drive, Inland Empire.
Meanwhile, Lynch embraced the Internet as a medium, producing several web-based shows, such as the animated DumbLand and the surreal sitcom Rabbits. Lynch and Frost reunited for the Showtime limited series Twin Peaks: The Return, with Lynch co-writing and directing every episode. Lynch's other artistic endeavours include: his work as a musician, encompassing two solo albums—Crazy Clown Time and The Big Dream —as well as music and sound design for a variety of his films. An avid practitioner of Transcendental Meditation, Lynch founded the David Lynch Foundation in 2005, which sought to fund the teaching of TM in schools and has since widened its scope to other at-risk populations, including the homeless and refugees. Lynch was born in Missoula, Montana, on January 20, 1946, his father, Donald Walton Lynch, was a research scientist working for the U. S. Department of Agriculture, his mother, Edwina "Sunny" Lynch, was an English language tutor. Two of Lynch's maternal great-grandparents were Finnish, had immigrated to the United States from Finland in the 19th century.
Lynch was raised a Presbyterian. The Lynch family moved around according to where the USDA assigned Donald, it was because of this that when he was two months old, Lynch moved with his parents to Sandpoint and only two years after that, following the birth of his brother John, the family moved to Spokane, Washington. It was here; the family moved to Durham, North Carolina Boise and Alexandria, Virginia. Lynch found this transitory early life easy to adjust to, noting that he found it easy to meet new friends whenever he started attending a new school. Commenting on much of his early life, Lynch has remarked: I found the world and fantastic as a child. Of course, I had the usual fears, like going to school... For me, back school was a crime against young people, it destroyed the seeds of liberty. The teachers didn't encourage a positive attitude. Alongside his schooling, Lynch joined the Boy Scouts, although he would note that he only "became so I could quit and put it behind me." He rose to the highest rank of Eagle Scout.
As an Eagle Scout, he was present with other Boy Scouts outside the White House at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, which took place on Lynch's birthday in 1961. Lynch had been interested in painting and drawing from an early age, became intrigued by the idea of pursuing it as a career path when living in Virginia, where his friend's father was a professional painter. At Francis C. Hammond High School in Alexandria, Lynch did poorly academically, having little interest in school work, but was popular with other students, after leaving decided that he wanted to study painting at college, beginning his studies at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1964, where he was a roommate of Peter Wolf. Nonetheless, he left the School of the Museum of Fine Arts after only a year, stating that "I was not inspired AT ALL in that place", instead deciding that he wanted to travel around Europe for three years with his friend Jack Fisk, unhappy with his studies at Cooper Union, they had some hopes tha
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Lawrence Donald Soens
Lawrence Donald Soens is a bishop of the Catholic Church in the United States. He served as Bishop of Sioux City in the state of Iowa from 1983 to 1998. Soens was born in Iowa City, Iowa on August 26, 1926, he was educated at Loras College in Dubuque, Saint Ambrose College in Davenport and studied for the priesthood at Kenrick Seminary near Saint Louis, Missouri. He completed graduate studies at the University of Iowa, he was ordained a priest on May 1950 for the Diocese of Davenport. He was engaged in both pastoral work in the diocese as a priest. Soens' first assignment was as an assistant pastor at St. Paul's Church in Burlington, he joined the faculty of St. Ambrose Academy in Davenport and became the assistant pastor at St. Bridget's Church in Victor. Soen's next assignment was as director of Regina High School in Iowa City, he went on to become the rector of St. Ambrose Seminary and served on the faculty of St. Ambrose College in Davenport, his next assignment was as pastor at Assumption Church in St. Patrick in Villa Nova.
He was pastor at St. Mary's Church in Clinton when Pope John Paul II named him a Prelate of Honor, with the title of Monsignor on December 18, 1981. On June 15, 1983 Pope John Paul II named Soens as the fifth bishop of Sioux City, he was ordained a bishop and installed on August 17, 1983 at the Cathedral of the Ephiphany by Archbishop James Joseph Byrne. Bishops Gerald Francis O'Keefe of Davenport and Frank Henry Greteman Bishop Emeritus of Sioux City were the principal co-consecrators. While he was bishop of the diocese many programs were established or expanded including: Ministry 2000, the Priests Retirement Fund, youth ministry programs and the diocese mandated parish pastoral and finance commissions. In 1997 Soens requested a coadjutor bishop be named and on August 19, 1997, Pope John Paul II named Msgr. Daniel DiNardo from the Diocese of Piitsburgh. Soens resignation as Bishop of Sioux City was accepted by the Holy See on November 28, 1998, he was named Bishop Emeritus of Sioux City. After his resignation as bishop of Sioux City he was accused of fondling as many as 15 students during his tenure as principal at Regina Catholic High School in Iowa City during the 1960s.
Soens denies the allegations. Numerous allegations continue and the actual number of students who say he abused them has risen. Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux City Official Site