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Groundskeeping is the activity of tending an area of land for aesthetic or functional purposes. It includes trimming hedges, pulling weeds, planting flowers, etc.. The U. S. Department of Labor estimated that more than 900,000 workers are employed in the landscape maintenance and groundskeeping services industry in the United States in 2006. Of these over 300,000 workers were greenskeepers for golf courses, schools and public parks. Compare gardener. A groundskeeper is a person who maintains landscaping, gardens or sporting venues for appearance and functionality. In Britain the word groundsman or park-keeper is used much more commonly. In Australia, the word curator is used for a person undertaking this job those involving cricket pitches. At university campuses, groundskeepers are called horticulturists; the equivalent on a golf course is a greenskeeper. The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated in May 2015 that statistical group 37-3011 "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" numbered 895,600 with a median annual wage of $25,030.

The BLS describes the functions of this group as "Workers perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, trimming, watering, digging, sprinkler installation, installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units". A groundskeeper's job requires a wide range of knowledge of horticulture, pest control, weed abatement; as many institutions are moving away from the use of chemical pesticides and toward integrated pest management the experience and scholastic requirements of top groundskeepers are increasing. While groundskeepers follow a site plan created by a landscape architect, there can be many opportunities for creativity in detailed design and presentation. Groundskeeping equipment comprise implements and vehicles used in groundskeeping, including: mowers lawn mowers tractors string trimmers snow blowers snow plows edgers rotary brushes rakes leaf blowers shovels trowels sprinklers garden tools watering cans or truck mounted watering system line markers Pollution from gas-powered groundskeeping equipment is a significant source of air pollution.

US emission standards limit emissions from small engines. Electric models may shift pollution to power plants. Emissions may still be reduced by the use of renewable energy in grid generation, or because central power plants must have stricter emissions control equipment installed. Groundskeepers have appeared as minor characters in fiction and moving images, they are presented as comic or peculiar characters exhibiting a compulsive or obsessive personality defect. Some examples of fictional groundskeepers include: On Cartoon Network's animated series Regular Show, Rigby, Muscle Man, High Five Ghost and Thomas are groundskeepers at a local park. Groundskeeper Willie is a gruff speaking Scot in the television animated series The Simpsons, he is both a janitor. Ben Weatherstaff in The Secret Garden, is the only adult in the story to have some idea of the children's doings. Carl Spackler is an assistant groundskeeper played by actor Bill Murray in the movie Caddyshack, who obsessively pursues the destruction of a gopher on the golf course that he maintains.

Boothby is the longtime Starfleet Academy groundskeeper and grandfatherly figure to many cadets in the Star Trek series The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager. Chauncey Gardiner, played by Peter Sellers in Being There. In this case the character is central to the plot. Although of limited intelligence he uniquely mirrors all who interact with him and so becomes a popular persona to the point of being suggested by others as a possible United States presidential candidate. In the Harry Potter book series, Rubeus Hagrid is the Half-Giant groundskeeper at Hogwarts. Organic horticulture List of organic gardening and farming topics American gardeners Turf management Professional Grounds Management Society Notes


WAS/WASL-interacting protein family member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WIPF1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of WIP in mammalian cells has been shown to increase actin polymerization; the encoded protein binds to a region of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, mutated in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive disorder. Impairment of the interaction between these two proteins may contribute to the disease. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. In patients lacking the WIPF1 gene WASp protein levels are depleted and WAS symptoms present. WIPF1 has been shown to interact with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, N-WASp, Cortactin, NCK1, MYO1e and ITSN1. While Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is expressed only in haematopoetic cells, WIPF1 is expressed ubiquitously. Majority of the mutations causing Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome are located in the WH1 domain of WASp.

These mutations affect WASp-WIPF1 binding. WIPF1 has an N-terminal profilin binding domain, two actin binding WH2 domains, a central polyproline stretch, a C-terminal WASP Binding Domain. WASp protein is degraded in the absence of WIP. WIPF1 functions and interactions have been studied in multiple fungal systems including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans, Magnaporthe grisea. Yeast Vrp1 is recruited to sites of endocytosis by WASp homologs. Here it enhances myosin-1 mediated activation of the Arp2/3 complex. In addition to a role in endocytosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vrp1 functions in cytokinesis and cell polarization. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Vrp1 interaction with myosin-1 is believed to help position new actin branches near the membrane, enhancing the amount of force against the membrane; this interaction is disrupted by the yeast specific protein Bbc1/Mti1/SPAC23A1.17, which competes with Vrp1 for binding the Myo1e homolog

Joseph J. Marbach

Dr. Joseph J Marbach DDS was a leader in the field of facial pain, he was a chaired professor at University of Dentistry of New Jersey. Marbach was born in New Jersey to immigrant parents, he was educated at Drew University, New Jersey and University of Pennsylvania where he received his degree in dentistry. From 1960 to 1963, he was a Captain in the US Air Force based in Italy, he returned to NYC in 1963 and joined the practice of Lazlo Schwartz, DDS and began working in the dental clinic at Columbia University. He assisted Laszlo Schwartz in clinical tasks and research, as the result of Schwartz's illness taught the course in TMJ disorders to the third year dental students during the 1964/65 academic year. From 1966 to 1971 he worked as an Assistant Clinical Professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Marbach established a TMJ Facial Pain Clinic at Mount Sinai Hospital, he taught practice of pain disorders to general dental and oral surgery residents. He attended Mount Sinai Hospital Arthritis Clinic and conducted combined research with the director Dr Harry Spiera.

Between 1969 and 1983 Marbach directed the TMJ Facial Pain Clinic at Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The clinic was changed during that time from a patient care clinic to encompass a center for clinical research. From 1969 to 1976 he held an adjunct professorship at Columbia University and from 1976 to 1984 he was the clinical professor of dentistry there, he taught third doctorate students of dentistry. From 1983 to 1997 Marbach worked at Columbia University School of Public Health as a Clinical Professor of Public Health. There he developed teaching programs in chronic pain for graduate students in the social sciences. From 1983 to 1996 he was the Director of the Pain Research Unit Columbia University School of Public Health He was responsible for developing research programs applying the social sciences to problems in chronic pain, he linked sociology and psychology methods to help address issues in the diagnosis and treatment of various painful disorders affecting various organ systems.

From 1985 to 1987 he became a lecturer on Social Medicine & Health Policy at Harvard University School of Medicine. He initiated research projects related to social issues that affected the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. From 1985 to 1987 Marbach was a visiting professor and Director of the Harvard University Oral and Facial Pain Clinic at Harvard University School of Dental Medicine; the clinic is designed to serve as a research facility while at the same time offering diagnosis and care for unusual chronic pain disorders. From 1993 to 1997 he held a joint appointment as Clinical Professor of Public Health in the Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University. From 1998 to 2001 Marbach held a joint appointment as lecturer at the School of Public Health Division of Sociomedical Sciences and Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University. From 1996 to 2001 he was the first Robert & Susan Carmel Professor in Algesiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Oral Pathology, Biology & Diagnostic Science Department of Psychiatry.

1. Schwartz, L. and Marbach, J. J. Changes in the Temporomandibular Joints with Age. Journal American Society Periodontology. 3:184_189, 1965. 2.*Marbach, J. J. Hysterical Trismus, a Study of Six Cases. New York State Dental Journal. 32:413_416, 1966. 3.*Marbach, J. J. and Spiera, H. Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joints. Annals Rheumatic Diseases. 26:538_543, 1967. 4. Klatell, J. and Marbach, J. J; the Temporomandibular Joints: a Survey of Disorders and Treatment Methods. Journal Mt. Sinai Hospital. 35:228–233,1968. 5.*Marbach, J. J. Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joints. Dental Radiology. 42:51_58,62_69, 1969. 6.*Marbach, J. J. and Spiera, H. Rheumatoid Spondylitis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Temporomandibular Joint Changes. New York State Medical Journal. 69:2908_2910, 1969. 7.*Marbach, J. J. and Lane, S. Attempted Pressure Jet Injection of Temporomandibular Joints. Journal Oral Surgery. 28:99_100, 1970. 8.*Marbach, J. J. Therapy for Mandibular Dysfunction in Adolescents and adults. American Journal Orthodontics.

62:601_605, 1972. 9.*Marbach, J. J. and Dworkin, S. F. Chronic MPD, Group Therapy and Psychodynamics. Journal American Dental Association. 90:827_833,1975. 10. Simon, G. and Marbach, J. J. Familial Mediterranean Fever with Temporomandibular Joint Arthritis. Pediatrics. 57:810_812, 1976. 11.*Marbach, J. J. and Levitt, M. Erythrocyte Catechol_o_Methyl_Transferase Activity in Facial Pain Patients. Journal Dental Research. 55:711, 1976. 12.*Marbach, J. J. Phantom Bite. American Journal Orthodontics. 70:190_199, 1976. 13.*Marbach, J. J. A Holistic Approach to the Treatment of Facial Pain. Alpha Omegan. 69:32_38, 1976. 14.*Marbach, J. J; the Facial Pain of TMJ Syndrome. Nursing Care. 10:16_17,29, 1977. 15.*Marbach, J. J. Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joints and Facial Pain. Bulletin Rheumatic Diseases. 27:918_921, 1977. 16.*Marbach, J. J. and Lipton, J. A; the Relation of Diagnosis to Treatment in the Facial Pain Patient. New York State Dental Journal. 43:282_285, 1977. 17.*Marbach, J. J. Phantom Bite Syndrome. American Journal Psychiatry 135:476_479, 1978.

18.*Marbach, J. J. and Lipton, J. A. Aspects of Illness Behavior in Facial Pain Patients. Journal American Dental Association. 96:630_638, 1978. 19.*Marbach, J. J. Hohn, C. Hulbrock, J. and Segal, A. Phantom Tooth Pain: Incidence and Prevalence. Journal Dental Research. 58:490, 1979. 20.*Marbach, J. J. Lipton, J. A. Lund, P. Delahanty, F. and Blank, R. Fac

Armenian Philanthropic Society of Baku

The Armenian Philanthropic Society of Baku or the Mardasirakan was a philanthropic organization built and operated by the Armenian community of Baku. It became the first philanthropic organization in the Caucasus. In 1870 the Armenian Philanthropic Society established the first library and publication house in Baku; the library was the largest in the Caucasus. The Armenian Philanthropic Society of Baku was founded by Dr. David Rostomyan and Movses Zohrabiants; the structure would be built on 195 Gimnazicheskaya Street. Rostomyan, who wrote the constitution of the Armenian Philanthropic Society, presented a petition to the local government of Baku to have the Society be built. Once the petition was accepted, the resources for the construction of the Society were provided by donations from wealthy Armenians in Baku and through admission and membership fees; the general purpose of the Society was to aid the poor and construct libraries and schools, raise funds for scholarships, publish books and improve the general welfare of the community.

By 1895, the organization subsidized nineteen schools which contained 1,440 students. By 1896, the Society had funded 110,000 rubles worth of projects towards education; the Society operated a nursery of forty children, a girls school, an orphanage for 20-30 orphans, a gymnasium, a library, a publication house and educational facilities. By 1899 the Society had 500 members. Many members of the management included prominent Armenian figures such as politician Mikayel Babajanian; the Society made significant donations to the funding of schools and education of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. During World War I and the September Days the Armenian Philanthropic Society assisted many wounded Armenians. After the September Days however, the Society suspended its activity. After the establishment of the Soviet Union in Baku in 1920, the Armenian Philanthropic Society ceased operations; the Armenian Philanthropic Society had opened a library in 1870 which became the first of its kind in Baku. The library, which contained books in numerous languages, was used by all nationalities.

In order to read the books, there was a monthly membership charge of 30 kopecks. The library had 9,000 books. By 1914, the number of books had risen to 21,800 with 68 periodicals. Many of the librarians would become prominent Armenian intellectuals and writers. Chief among them was playwright Aleksandr Movsisian or more known as Shirvanzade, the librarian between 1881 and 1883. Owing to the strict censorship of the Russian Czarist government, the activities of the library were suspended. After the construction of the St. Gregory the Illuminator's Church of Baku, the library moved onto its premises in 1913 where it resumed operations. After the Armenian Philanthropic Society ceased operations, the library was shut down, it was reopened as the Lenin Public Library during the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the library became known as the Central City Library. In 2003 the Central City Library became the Presidential Library of Azerbaijan and continues to serve Baku residents till this day.

Prominent Azerbaijani writer and publicist Hasan bey Zardabi admired the efforts of the Armenian community. Zardabi expressed discontent over the failures of the Muslim population in Baku to construct their own philanthropic organization in 1871. In 1905 issue of the Hayat newspaper, Zardabi recalled his failed attempts to open a philanthropic organization and exclaimed, "Brothers, compare us with our Armenian neighbors!"The library was considered the richest in Transcaucasia by the Union of Soviet Writers

History of Jainism

History of Jainism is the history of a religion founded in ancient India. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative and a subjective interpretation. This theory has not been accepted by most scholars because little is known about the Indus Valley iconography and script; the last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira are considered historical figures. Mahavira was the elder contemporary of the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara Neminath lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna. Jains consider their religion eternal; the two main sects of Jainism, the Digambara and the Śvētāmbara sect started forming about the 3rd century BCE and the schism was complete by about 5th century CE. These sects subdivided into several sub-sects such as Sthānakavāsī and Terapanthis.

Jainism co-existed with Hinduism in ancient and medieval India. Many of its historic temples were built near the Buddhist and Hindu temples in 1st millennium CE. After the 12th-century, the temples and naked ascetic tradition of Jainism suffered persecution during the Muslim rule, with the exception of Akbar whose religious tolerance and support for Jainism led to a temporary ban on animal killing during the Jain religious festival of Paryusan; the origins of Jainism are obscure. The Jains claim their religion is eternal, consider Rishabhanatha the founder in the present time-cycle, someone who lived for 8,400,000 purva years. Rishabhanatha is the first tirthankar among the 24 Tirthankaras who are considered mythical figures by historians. Different scholars have had different views on the origin; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative. According to a 1925 proposal of Glasenapp, Jainism's origin can be traced to the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha, he considers the first twenty-two Tirthankaras as legendary mythical figures.

According to another proposal by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first vice president of India, Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed. Jain texts and tradition believe in 24 Tirthankaras. Historians only consider the last two based on historical figures of the 1st millennium BCE. Buddhist sources don't mention Mahavira as a founder of new tradition, but as part of an ascetic Nirgranthas tradition; this has led scholars to conclude that Mahavira was not the founder, but a reformer of a tradition established by his predecessor, Parsvanatha. During the 6th century BCE, Mahāvīra became one of the most influential teachers of Jainism. Jains revere him as the last Tirthankara of present cosmic age. Though, Mahavira is sometimes mistakenly regarded as the founder, he appears in the tradition as one who, from the beginning, had followed a religion established long ago. There is reasonable historical evidence that the 23rd Tirthankara, the predecessor of Mahavira, lived somewhere in the 9th–7th century BCE.

The Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the Rigveda and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva. Hindu mythical texts such as the Bhagavata Purana include Rishabha Jina as an avatar of Vishnu. After the nirvana of Parshvanatha, his disciple Subhadatta became the head of the monks. Subhadatta was succeeded by Haridatta, Aryasamudra and lastly Kesi. Uttaradhyayana, a Svetambara text have records of a dialogue between Kesi; the Tirthankaras are believed in the Jain tradition to have attained omniscience, known as kevala gyana. After Mahavira, one of his disciples Sudharma Svami is said to have taken over the leadership, he was the head of Jain community till 600 BCE. After his death, Jambuswami, a disciple of Sudharma Svami became the head of the monks, he was the head till 463 BCE. Sudharma Svami and Jambu Svami are traditionally said to have attained keval jnana.

It is said. During Chandragupta Maurya's reign, Acharya Bhadrabahu moved to Karnataka to survive a twelve-year-long famine. Sthulabhadra, a pupil of Acharya Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha; when followers of Acharya Bhadrabahu returned, there was a dispute between them regarding the authenticity of the Angas. Those who stayed at Magadha started wearing white clothes, unacceptable to the others who remained naked; this is how the Digambara and Śvētāmbara sects arose, the Digambara being naked whereas the Svetambara were white clothed. Digambara found this as being opposed to the Jain tenets, according to them, required complete nudity for the monks; some interpret the presence of gymnosophists in Greek records as referring to Digambaras Jain Śramaṇa practice. Vallabhi council was formed at 454 CE. At this council, Svetambara accepted their texts as the scriptures of Jainism; the Digambara sect rejects these scriptures as not being authentic. This 5th century event solidified the schism between these major traditions within Jainism.

Jainism is related to an extinct Indian religious tradition named Ājīvika. The is mentioned in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism, it is attributed to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the

St. Rose of Viterbo Convent

St. Rose of Viterbo Convent is the motherhouse of the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, an American religious congregation, located in La Crosse, Wisconsin; the convent is dedicated to Rose of Viterbo, a 13th-century Franciscan tertiary, a noted mystic and street preacher in Italy who died while still a teenager. The convent contains three chapels, of which one, Mary of the Angels Chapel, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places of the United States. Another, the Adoration Chapel, is the site of perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, an uninterrupted practice of the Sisters since August 1, 1878; the central portion of the convent was built in 1871, when the Sisters moved their motherhouse from Jefferson, Wisconsin, at the invitation of Michael Heiss, Bishop of the newly established Diocese of La Crosse. The convent was built both as the administrative center of the congregation and as a secondary school for girls. With the growing numbers of members of the congregation and of the student body, two wings were added to the initial building which were completed in 1914.

The original building had to be rebuilt, which took two years. The Sisters built the first Chapel of Mary of the Angels to serve their own spiritual needs and that of their students, it was dedicated on August 2, 1873, the Feast of the Dedication of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels in Assisi, the first home of the Franciscan Order. In 1903, they began construction on a new chapel, designed by Eugene R. Liebert, completed on August 2, 1906. Thaddeus von Zukotynski was the artist for the oil-on-canvas painting located above the main altar of the chapel; this work shows St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order, at prayer in the Porziuncola, having a famous vision of Jesus and Mary in which he was granted the Porziuncula Indulgence; this chapel, along with the Adoration Chapel, have over 100 windows of Munich-style stained glass created by the Royal Bavarian Stained Glass Factory in Munich, Germany. Viterbo University Zimmerman, H. Russell, The architecture of Eugene Liebert: Teutonic style in the American midwest, 2006.

Media related to St. Rose of Viterbo Convent at Wikimedia Commons Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration