Since then, Group GT3 has expanded to become the de facto category for many national and international grand touring series, although some series modify the ruleset from the FIA standard. By 2013, nearly 20 automobile manufacturers have built or been represented with GT3 machines, Group GT3 allows for a wide variety of car types to be homologated with almost no limit on engine sizes and configurations or chassis construction or layout. GT3 cars must be based on road car models in mass production. The cars in GT3 are designed to have a weight between 1200kg and 1300kg with horsepower between 500hp and 600hp. All cars have a similar power to weight ratio but achieved either by high power and high weight such as the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG or low power. GT3 cars have control, ABS and built in air jacks for quick pit stops. The concept behind Group GT3 was introduced by Stéphane Ratel, head of the SRO Group and this would allow drivers a bridge between smaller national series and the professional international FIA GT Championship.
Further, the category was conceived to use sprint formats for races, a similar category, under the same name, had been in use in the British GT Championship which the SRO Group organized. The British GT Championship, International GT Open, Spanish GT Championship, the SRO Group expanded the category in 2007 with the launch of two new regional championships, the Brazilian GT Championship and the German ADAC GT Masters, exclusively running Group GT3 cars. The British GT Championship abandoned Group GT2 cars, promoting GT3 to their premiere category, the French FFSA GT Championship added a new GT3 category. The Australian GT Championship brought on board the GT3 category in 2008 while the VLN Series and 24 Hours Nürburgring added GT3 categories in 2009, GT3 category cars replaced Group GT1 cars in the FIA GT1 World Championship before rebranding as the FIA GT Series in 2013. As of March 2017,47 cars have been homologated in Group GT3 by the FIA, although four of these homologations have expired. S
Group 5 (racing)
Group 5 was an FIA motor racing classification which was applied to four distinct categories during the years 1966 to 1982. Initially Group 5 regulations defined a Special Touring Car category and from 1970 to 1971 the classification was applied to limited production Sports Cars restricted to 5 litre engine capacity. The Group 5 Sports Car category was redefined in 1972 to exclude the production requirement. From 1976 to 1982 Group 5 was for Special Production Cars, in 1966 the FIA introduced a number of new racing categories including one for highly modified touring cars, officially known as Group 5 Special Touring Cars. The regulations permitted vehicle modifications beyond those allowed in the concurrent Group 1, Group 5 regulations were adopted for the British Saloon Car Championship from 1966 and for the European Touring Car Championship from 1968. The Special Touring Cars category was discontinued after the 1969 season, for the 1970 season, the FIA applied the Group 5 classification to the Sports Car class which had previously been known as Group 4 Sports Cars.
The minimum production requirement remained at 25 and the engine capacity maximum at 5 litres as had applied in the superseded Group 4, Group 5 Sports Cars contested the FIAs International Championship for Makes in 1970 &1971, alongside the 3 litre Group 6 Prototype Sports Cars. Surprisingly, Ferrari decided to give up any official effort with the 512 in order to prepare for the new 1972 season regulations. But many 512s were still raced by teams, most of them converted to M specification.5 atmo engine formula. This targeted existing cars like the aging Ford GT40 and the newer Lola T70 coupe and this was mainly to allow the homologation in Group 4 of cars such as the Ferrari 250 LM and the Lola T70 which had not been manufactured in sufficient quantities to qualify. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and very expensive effort to take advantage of this rule, other ways of weight reduction were rather simple, like a gear lever knob made of Balsa wood. When Porsche was first visited by the CSI inspectors only three cars were completed, while 18 were being assembled and seven additional sets of parts were present.
Porsche argued that if they assembled the cars they would have to take them again to prepare the cars for racing. The inspectors refused the homologation and asked to see 25 assembled, on April 20 Ferdinand Piëch displayed 25 917s parked in front of the Porsche factory to the CSI inspectors. Piëch even offered the opportunity to one of the cars. With the financial help of Fiat, that investment was made. Within 9 months Ferrari manufactured 25 512S cars, Ferrari entries only consisted of the factory cars, tuned by SpA SEFAC and there were the private cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, N. A. R. T. Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team and Escuderia Montjuich which not receive the support from the factory
Class 1 Touring Cars
Class 1 permitted more liberal modifications to the vehicles than those allowed for Class 2 cars. Class 1 regulations restricted engines to a maximum of six cylinders,2.5 litres capacity, all-wheel drive, traction control, anti-lock brakes and electronically controlled differentials were permitted. Aerodynamic aids were free below the centreline and, from 1995. Super Touring – FIA Class 2 Touring Cars Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft – The German Touring Car Championship
Group 4 (racing)
The Group 4 racing class referred to regulations for cars in sportscar racing, GT racing and rallying, as regulated by the FIA. The Group 4 class was replaced by Group B for the 1983 season, prior to 1966, the FIA’s Group 4 classification applied to Sports Cars which were in compliance with FIA Appendix C regulations. A 5000cc engine capacity limit was applied for 1968 and the production requirement was reduced to 25 units for the 1969 season. For 1969, Appendix J of the FIA International Sporting Code defined groups for Touring cars, Grand Touring cars, in 1966 and 1967 the Group 4 Sports Cars played a supporting role to the Group 6 prototypes. While prototypes like the 7. 0L Ford GT40 Mk II & Mk IV raced for outright victories, in 1968, the rules were changed, so that prototypes were limited to 3. 0L, but Sports cars of up to 5. 0L could be still be entered. It was announced that the minimum production figure for the Group 4 sports cars would be reduced to 25 cars for 1969, with larger engines than the prototypes, the Group 4 cars were now in contention for outright race wins.
The Ford GT40 was the winner at Le Mans in both 1968 and 1969, Porsche began work on a production run of 25 cars for the Porsche 917. Ferrari, with financial help from Fiat, produced the similar Ferrari 512. For the 1970 season, the Group 4 Sports car category was renamed and became Group 5 Sports Cars, the new Group 4 was contested by production based cars such as the Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona, Porsche 911 Carrera RS and the De Tomaso Pantera. The Group 4 GT category was replaced by a new Group B GT class for 1983, the Group 4 regulations were used as the basis for the World Rally Championships until they were replaced by the Group B regulations. In mid 1970s to early 1980s rallying, it was necessary to produce 400 identical cars for homologation as a Group 4 rally car, notable cars included the Ford Escort RS1800, Fiat 131 Abarth, Lancia Stratos HF and the Audi Quattro. World Sportscar Championship FIA Historic Racing Regulations Historic Appendix J Regulations FIA1969 Appendix J
Super Formula Championship
Super Formula, formerly known as Formula Nippon, is a type of formula racing and the top level of single-seater racing in Japan. Formula Nippon evolved from the Japanese Formula 2000 series begun in 1973 by way of the Japanese Formula Two, for the most part, the Japanese racing series have closely followed their European counterparts in terms of technical regulations, but there have been some important exceptions. In Japan, though touring and sports car racing was popular through the 1960s. Even the Japanese Grand Prix lost its popularity after changing its format from touring/sports car racing to formula car racing in 1971, the series was created based on the European Formula Two Championship. But the JAF approved use of purpose built racing engines was different from the European F2 series which only allowed race engines based on production models. Due to this difference, the series did not fit in with the Formula Two regulations in those days, the series was renamed Formula 2000, not Formula Two.
The revised Formula Two regulation in 1976 removed the restriction about engines which had limited the use of engines based on production models. With this change the reasoning behind the name Formula 2000 disappeared and it led to the series being renamed the All-Japan Formula Two Championship from 1978. When European Formula Two ended in 1984, its Japanese counterpart did not follow suit immediately, the JAF considered starting a new Formula Two series from 1988. However, all entrants ran Formula 3000 cars in 1987, so, the 1987 Formula Two Championship was cancelled due to no entry of any cars for that format. Switching to the open Formula 3000 standard in 1987, the All-Japan Formula 3000 Championship started in 1988, once again and European regulations paralleled one another until 1996, when the International Formula 3000 series became a one-make format to lower costs. Thanks to the economy and Formula One-fad in Japan, the series had many entrants. It attracted many promising young drivers outside of Japan to compete in the series, the end of such phenomena led to the decline of the series.
In the mid-1990s, the Japanese Formula broke away, changing the form of the series to Formula Nippon, the new Japan Race Promotion, formed by Fuji Television, became the promoter with the recognition of the series by the JAF as the Authority Sport Nationale of Japan. In the 2000s, sports car racing became popular in Japan. The 2006 season got off to one of the strangest starts in motorsport history, because of heavy rain, the opener at Fuji was called off after two safety car laps, and Benoît Tréluyer was awarded the win with half points awarded. Until 2002, Formula Nippon was a formula, where a variety of chassis builders. Chassis were supplied by Lola, and G-Force, while Mugen-Honda supplied the vast majority of the engines
Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the FIA. The Group B regulations fostered some of the fastest, most powerful, however, a series of major accidents, some of them fatal, were blamed on their outright speed and lack of crowd control. The short-lived Group B era has acquired legendary status among rally fans, Group B was introduced by the FIA in 1982 as a replacement for both Group 4 and Group 5 cars. Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, allowed technology, the base model had to be mass-produced and had to have 4 seats. Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of privately owned entries in races, by contrast, Group B had few restrictions on technology and the number of cars required for homologation to compete—200, less than other series. In just 5 years, the output of rally cars had more than doubled. The category was aimed at car manufacturers by promising outright competition victories, there was a Group C, which had a similarly lax approach to chassis and engine development, but with strict rules on overall weight and maximum fuel load.
Group B was initially a successful group, with many manufacturers joining the premier World Rally Championship. But the cost of competing quickly rose and the performance of the cars proved too much resulting in a series of fatal crashes. As a consequence Group B was canceled at the end of 1986, in the following years Group B found a niche in the European Rallycross Championship, with cars such as the MG Metro 6R4 and the Ford RS200 competing as late as 1992. Until 1983 the two classes of rallying were called Group 2 and Group 4. Major manufacturers competed in Group 4, which required a minimum of 400 examples of a competition car, notable cars of the era included the Lancia Stratos HF, the Ford Escort RS1800 and the Fiat 131 Abarth. In 1979 the FISA legalized four-wheel drive, Car companies were not keen on using 4WD as it was generally felt that the extra weight and complexity of 4WD systems would cancel out any performance benefits. This belief was shattered when Audi launched a car in 1980.
That year a Quattro was used in Portugals Algarve Rallye, registered by the Audi Sport Factory Rally Team, IN-NE3, as an opening car, it was driven by professional driver Hannu Mikkola. IN-NE 3s combined time for all stages on this rally was over 30 minutes quicker than that of the winner, while the new car was indeed heavy and cumbersome, its standing starts on gravel and road grip on Special Stages was staggering. The Quattro was officially entered in the 1980 Jänner-Rallye in Austria, Audi kept on winning throughout the 1980 and 1981 seasons, although lack of consistent results meant that Ford took the drivers title in 1981 with Ari Vatanen driving a rear-wheel-drive Escort. The teams victory at the 1981 Rallye San Remo was notable, Piloted by Michèle Mouton, Mouton placed second in the drivers championship the next year, behind Opels Walter Röhrl
FIA Formula 4, called FIA F4, is an open-wheel racing car category intended for junior drivers. There is no championship, but rather individual nations or regions can host their own championships in compliance with a universal set of rules. The series is a part of the FIA Global Pathway, the FIA-endorsed category was formally created in March 2013, when it was approved by the World Motor Sport Council. The first Formula 4 championships started in 2014 as a category before the regulations were opened up to multiple chassis. The engines are equalised so that no one Formula 4 championship is faster than the others, to become an eligible FIA Formula 4, the chassis must meet the FIA homologation requirements respecting technical and commercial regulations. Four chassis manufacturers have been approved by the FIA, Mygale, Dome, to become an eligible FIA Formula 4 engine, the engine must meet the homologation requirements. According to the requirements a FIA Formula 4 engine must last at least 10,000 km and have a maximum purchasing price of €9,500.
According to the FIA Formula 4 technical regulations only four engines are allowed. Both normally aspirated and turbocharged engines are permitted, the power output has been maximized at 160hp. Currently four engines are homologated for use in the FIA Formula 4 and these championships are held to Formula 4 regulations and approved by the FIA as the national Formula 4 series. Drivers participating in series can receive FIA Super Licence points. The French F4 Championship is a Formula Renault series, aimed at young drivers graduating from karting. The championship uses Formula Renault 1.6 Signatech cars, an entry level category, the Formula STCC Nordic will debut in 2016, replacing the Formula Renault 1.6 Nordic. The Formula 4 Sudamericana is a Formula 4 racing class that debuted in 2014, the class uses the same Signatech chassis and Fiat engines used previously in the Brazilian-based Formula Future Fiat. Japan Formula 4 is a racing series in Japan. The series was founded in 1993 by the Japan Automobile Federation as a class between the FJ1600 series and the All-Japan Formula Three Championship, japanese Formula 4 is an open formula, where competitors can choose the chassis and engine manufacturers.
The BRDC Formula 4 Championship was an entry level motorsport series based in the United Kingdom which began in 2013, although run to the FIAs regulations, it was not recognised by the FIA as an official Formula 4 championship. In 2016, the series was upgraded and renamed the BRDC British Formula 3 Championship, FIA Technical Regulations for Formula 4
Group A was a set of motorsport regulations introduced by FIA covering production-derived vehicles intended for outright competition in Touring car racing and Rallying. In contrast to the short-lived Group B and Group C, the Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, allowed technology, Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of privately owned entries in races. Group A was introduced by the FIA in 1982 to replace the outgoing Group 2 as modified touring cars, the FIA continued to promulgate regulations for Group A Touring Cars until at least 1993, and the category survived in domestic championships until 1994. However, Group A is still used as the basis for most rally competitions around the world. To qualify for approval, a minimum of 2500 cars of the model had to be built in one year. Up to 1991, the requirement was a minimum of 5000 cars in one year, without regard to the entire range, rules required some of the interior panels to be retained, e. g. interior door panels and dashboard.
However, not all manufacturers who built 500 such models sold them all, one such example of this was Volvo with the 240 Turbo in 1985. After they had produced 500 such models, Volvo stripped 477 cars of their competition equipment and sold them as standard 240 turbo roadcars. As a result, after FISAs failed attempt at finding an Evolution car in any European countries, these cars are treated as any other model in the range. Australian manufacturer Holden failed to build the required 500 cars for their VN Commodore SS Group A SV in 1991, there were in fact only 302 of the Group A SVs built. These cars competed in standard bodykits, with the production-derived nature required manufactures to release faster vehicles for the roads in order to be competitive on the track, tyre width was dependent on the cars engine size. The FIA continued to promulgate regulations for Group A Touring Cars until at least 1993, Group A survived in touring car racing in domestic championships until 1994, when the German Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft switched to a 2.
From 1993, CAMS replaced Group A with a new formula for Australian Touring Car racing and this was initially open to five litre V8 powered cars and two litre cars. Hillclimb races still use Group A as a Touring Car class across Europe, while in Australia Group A is now a historic class, though only actual cars raced from 1985-1993 are allowed to compete. In order to be homologated, manufacturers were required to produce 5,000 units worldwide, by 1990, Group A cars exceeded the performance of the Group B cars on many events, because although they had far less power they had better handling and traction. The last WRC car to use the old Group A homologation requirement was the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VI
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Group C was a category of motorsport, introduced by the FIA in 1982 for sports car racing, along with Group A for touring cars and Group B for GTs. It was designed to replace both Group 5 Special Production Cars and Group 6 Two Seater Racing Cars, Group C was used in the FIAs World Endurance Championship, World Sports-Prototype Championship, World Sportscar Championship and in the European Endurance Championship. It was used for sports car racing series around the globe. The final year for the class came in 1993, broadly similar rules were used in the North American IMSA Grand Touring Prototype series. The roots of the Group C category lie in both FIA Group 6 and particularly in the GTP category introduced by the ACO at Le Mans in the mid-1970s. GTP was a class for roofed prototypes with certain dimensional restrictions, the FIA applied the same concept in its Group C rules. It limited cars to a weight of 800 kg and a maximum fuel capacity of 100 litres. With competitors restricted to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in the FIAs Group A Touring Car or Group B GT Car categories.
With the new rules, it was possible for large naturally aspirated engines to compete with small forced induction engines. In addition, all races were to be contested over at least 1000 km — usually lasting more than six hours — so it was possible to emphasize the aspect of the competition as well. Ford and Porsche were the first constructors to join the series, the traditional turbocharged boxer engine in the 956 was already tested in the 1981 version of the Group 6936. Eventually, several other joined the series, including Lancia, Mercedes, Toyota, Mazda. Many of these took part in the IMSA championship, as its GTP class had similar regulations. With costs increasing, the FIA introduced a new Group C Junior class for 1983 and this was intended for privateer teams and small manufacturers and it limited cars to a minimum weight of 700 kg and a maximum fuel capacity of 55 liters. With competitors limited to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, as in Group C, engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in Group A or Group B.
Alba with a small, lightweight turbo, Spice, the low cost of these cars even lead to the notion of their use in national championships, such as the short-lived British BRDC C2 Championship. Group C Junior was formally renamed Group C2 for 1984, by 1989, the Group C series popularity was nearly as great as Formula One. What followed was the downfall of Group C, as the new engines were unaffordable for privateer teams like Spice