The Lancia Montecarlo is a Pininfarina-designed mid-engined sports car, produced by Lancia in Italy from 1975 to 1981. Cars from the first series, which were produced from 1975 to 1978, were known as Lancia Beta Montecarlos and those from the second series, produced from 1980 to 1981 as Lancia Montecarlos. In both cases Montecarlo was spelled unlike Monte Carlo in the Principality of Monaco. Both series were offered in Coupé and Spider versions, the latter featuring a unique roll-back manually operated targa style convertible top; the Spider was sold in the United States as the Lancia Scorpion during 1976 and 1977. Total production numbers come to 7,798 units, with production spanning from 1974 until 1982 with an interruption in 1979. 3,558 first series and 817 second series targas were built. There were 220 competition models built. Fiat was seeking a replacement for its 124 Coupe so Pininfarina was commissioned to design and develop the replacement. However, Bertone came up with cheaper alternative, which became Fiat X1/9.
Pininfarina continued with its project called Fiat X1/8 that called for a mid-engined sports car with 3-litre V6 motor. The X1/8 project was to be Pininfarina’s first car to be wholly developed and built in house rather than basing on existing production car. Initial design work was done by 1969, a final design was completed in 1971 by Paolo Martin. Due to the first oil crisis in the 1970s, the project was renamed as X1/20, the motor was changed to 2-litre four-cylinder version; the first X1/20 prototype was Fiat Abarth SE 030 for racing in 1974. After the racing season of 1974, Fiat terminated its Abarth SE 030 programme. X1/20 project was given to Lancia who wanted a premium alternative to Fiat X1/9 and somewhat a halo car; as to ensure the premium level of equipment, Lancia chose a two-litre twin-cam four-cylinder motor from Fiat 124 Sport Coupé, MacPherson suspension, five-speed gearbox, disc brakes at both front and rear. Because Montecarlo shared few components with other Beta cars, Pininfarin was chosen to build the car in its entirety.
Montecarlo were available as fixed head "Coupé" and as an open-roof "Spider" with a large folding canvas roof between solid A and B pillars. *stated by Pininfarina production records The Beta Montecarlo was unveiled at the 45th Geneva Salon International de l'Auto in March 1975. First Series cars were badged as Lancia Beta Montecarlo, they were named "Montecarlo", written as one word, not Monte Carlo, one of Monaco's administrative areas. Power came from 1995 cc Lampredi inline four, developing 120 PS at 6000 rpm. Lancia claimed a 0 -- 100 km/h acceleration time of 9.3 seconds. Distinctions of the first series were the solid panels to the rear wings above the engine bay and 8,8Jx13" alloy wheels, unique to this model; the interior was upholstered in vinyl in cloth as an option. The driver's side mirror was a Vitaloni Californian. In 1978 the production of the Beta Montecarlo was halted; the Beta Montecarlo was on sale in the United States for two years, 1976 and 1977. The federalized Montecarlo was re-christened Lancia Scorpion, because the name Monte Carlo was used in America by Chevrolet.
A total of 1,805 were manufactured in 1976 and sold as model year 1976 and 1977. Because of the strict U. S. emission regulations a smaller 1,756 cc twin cam engine and smog equipment had to be fitted. Therefore, the Scorpion delivered just 81 hp, down from the 120 of the Montecarlo. In order to meet federal crash test and lighting requirements, the Scorpion had bigger 5-mph bumpers and semi pop-up, sealed beam headlights. Two additional series of vents on the engine cover were required to cool the catalyst. All Scorpions featured the convertible top. After a two-year hiatus the revised second series was introduced in 1980; the Beta prefix was ditched, the car was now badged as the Lancia Montecarlo. On the exterior the most evident changes were the updated signature Lancia split grille first introduced with the 1979 Delta, the glazed rear buttresses and, in place of the model badging on the tail, a full width brushed aluminium strip. Larger eight-spoke 5,5Jx14" alloy wheels from the Beta were adopted to clear the upsized brake rotors and calipers, the brake servo was removed to address the brake lockup issue.
In the cabin there was a new three spoke Momo steering wheel in place of the old two spoke one, as well as revamped trim and fabrics. The engine was revised too: a higher compression ratio, Marelli electronic ignition and new carburettors made for torque gain; the Montecarlo/Scorpion suffered from several issues. Between the taller springs used to meet the US height requirements, a lack of caster, bump steer, handling of US market Scorpions did not meet the promises of the car’s design; the engine noise in the interior of the car was sometimes criticized. Harsh shifting increases as the bushings wear; the rear crossmember is a design flaw. The S1 Montecarlos and Scorpions suffered from overly boosted brakes, which caused the fronts to lock up in the wet; these were criticised in reviews.
Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The Group B regulations fostered some of the fastest, most powerful, most sophisticated rally cars built and is referred to as the golden era of rallying. However, a series of major accidents, some of them fatal, were blamed on their outright speed and lack of crowd control at events. After the death of Henri Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto in the 1986 Tour de Corse, the FIA disestablished the class, dropped its previous plans to replace it by Group S, instead replaced it as the top-line formula by Group A; the short-lived Group B era has acquired legendary status among rally fans and automobile enthusiasts in general. Group B was introduced by the FIA in 1982 as a replacement for Group 5 cars. Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, allowed technology and overall cost; the base model had to have 4 seats.
Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of owned entries in races. By contrast, Group B had few restrictions on technology and the number of cars required for homologation to compete—200, less than other series. Weight was kept as low as possible, high-tech materials were permitted, there were no restrictions on boost, resulting in the power output of the winning cars increasing from 250 hp in 1981, the year before Group B rules were introduced, to there being at least two cars producing in excess of 500 by 1986, the final year of Group B. In just 5 years, the power output of rally cars had more than doubled; the category was aimed at car manufacturers by promising outright competition victories and the subsequent publicity opportunities without the need for an existing production model. There was a Group C, which had a lax approach to chassis and engine development, but with strict rules on overall weight and maximum fuel load. Group B was a successful group, with many manufacturers joining the premier World Rally Championship, increased spectator numbers.
But the cost of competing rose and the performance of the cars proved too much resulting in a series of fatal crashes. As a consequence Group B was canceled at the end of 1986 and Group A regulations became the standard for all cars until the advent of World Rally Cars in 1997. In the following years Group B found a niche in the European Rallycross Championship, with cars such as the MG Metro 6R4 and the Ford RS200 competing as late as 1992. For 1993, the FIA replaced the Group B models with prototypes that had to be based on existing Group A cars, but still followed the spirit of Group B, with low weight, 4WD, high turbo boost pressure and staggering amounts of power; until 1983 the two main classes of rallying were called Group 2 and Group 4. Major manufacturers competed in Group 4, which required a minimum of 400 examples of a competition car. Notable cars of the era included the Lancia Stratos HF, the Ford Escort RS1800 and the Fiat 131 Abarth. In 1979 the FISA legalized four-wheel drive.
Car companies were not keen on using 4WD as it was felt that the extra weight and complexity of 4WD systems would cancel out any performance benefits. This belief was shattered when Audi launched a competition car in 1980, the Turbocharged and 4WD Quattro; that year a Quattro was used in Portugal's Algarve Rallye. Registered by the Audi Sport Factory Rally Team, IN-NE 3, as an opening car, it was driven by professional driver Hannu Mikkola. Mikkola's Co-Driver was Arne Hertz. IN-NE 3's combined time for all stages on this rally was over 30 minutes quicker than that of the winner. While the new car was indeed heavy and cumbersome, its standing starts on gravel and road grip on Special Stages was staggering; the Quattro was entered in the 1980 Jänner-Rallye in Austria and won. Audi kept on winning throughout the 1980 and 1981 seasons, although lack of consistent results meant that Ford took the driver's title in 1981 with Ari Vatanen driving a rear-wheel-drive Escort; the team's victory at the 1981 Rallye San Remo was notable: Piloted by Michèle Mouton, it was the first time a woman won a World Championship rally.
Mouton placed second in the drivers' championship the next year, behind Opel's Walter Röhrl. The FISA decided to separate the rally cars into three classes: Group N, Group A, Group B; these groups were introduced in 1982. Group N and Group A cars were the same cars with different amounts of race preparation allowed; the cars had to be produced in large numbers. This was 5000 cars/year between 1982 and 1991, it changed to 2500 cars/year if the version being homologated was derived from a mass-market car. Group B was conceived when the FISA found that numerous car manufacturers wanted to compete in rallying. By reducing the homologation minimum from 400 to 200, FIA enabled manufacturers to design specialised RWD or 4WD rally cars without the financial commitment of producing their production counterparts in such large numbers. Group B cars could be two-seaters
Martini Racing is the name under which various motor racing teams race when sponsored by the Italian company Martini & Rossi, a distillery that produces Martini vermouth in Turin. Martini's sponsorship program began in 1958 as Martini International Club, founded by Count Metello Rossi di Montelera of Martini & Rossi; the race cars are marked with the distinctive dark blue, light blue and red stripes on white, red or silver background body cars. The car model which has won the most titles for Martini Racing is the Lancia Delta HF Integrale. Martini's first sponsorship program happened at the Daytona 3 hours in 1962 with two Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ Coda Troncas, but they had no Martini stickers or logos on them, only "Martini & Rossi Racing Team" written along the front quarter panels; the two key individuals at the start of Martini Racing's grand adventure were Paul Goppert, head of publicity and public relations for Martini Germany, his close friend Hans Dieter Dechent, a racing driver specializing in endurance racing who ran an Opel dealership in Saarbrücken, Germany.
At the start of 1968, advertising unrelated to racing was permitted for the first time on the bodywork of racing cars. Paul asked Hans Dieter to place a few stickers on his car in exchange for overalls and similar equipment. Martini stickers appeared, in April 1968 on the Porsche 910 raced by Scuderia Lufthansa Racing Team set up by Robert Huhn, an executive manager of the German airline; as Dechent wanted to race the sooner with its new car, the car's first appearance of 910-023 in its silver livery with front Lufthansa colors and Martini stickers was at Eberbach hill climb, the 28 April with n° 174. The same car appeared at Dijon-Lonvic GP on the fifth of May at Paris GP on May 12 and known at the 1000 km of Nürburgring on May 19. In a minor event at the Hockenheimring in 1968. Martini Racing was formed to enter two Porsche 907 in several sports car races in 1969 to back up the factory effort. During the 1970s, Martini became famous in connection with Porsche in motorsport, sponsoring the works Porsche 917 that won the 1971 24 Hours of Le Mans.
The Martini Porsche cars won Le Mans once more in 1976 and 1977 with Porsche 936, as well as in many other events in the 1970s for the factory Porsche team, with the RSR Turbo, 935 and 936. In 1978, Martini only sponsored the works team in Le Mans, while in 1980 they were associated with Joest Racing, once more only at Le Mans. In 1981, Martini Racing supported the Italian Lancia effort in sports car racing with the Group 5 Lancia Monte Carlo, Group 6 Lancia LC1 and Group C Lancia LC2; the works Lancia Martini drivers lineup included several contemporary Formula One racers, including Michele Alboreto, Teo Fabi and Riccardo Patrese. The association lasted until the 1986 24 Hours of Le Mans, but by Lancia was more involved with rallying. After that, Martini Racing has made only brief entries in sports car racing, including three seasons in the FIA Sportscar Championship with Gianni Giudici's Picchio. Martini Racing's association with Formula One began in 1972 with the Italian team Tecno. However, the car was uncompetitive and Martini withdrew after an unsuccessful 1972 and 1973 season.
Martini returned full-time in 1975. The initial colour scheme incorporated the Martini colours on a white background on the Cosworth powered Brabham BT44B in 1975; the Alfa Romeo flat-V12 powered Brabham BT45 and Brabham BT45B were used for the 1976 and 1977 seasons and the Martini colours appeared on a red rosso corsa background. Drivers such as Carlos Reutemann, Carlos Pace, Hans-Joachim Stuck and John Watson all drove for the team during this time. For the 1979 season, the Martini sponsorship moved to Team Lotus. In spite of having the 1978 championship winning Lotus 79 and Mario Andretti and Carlos Reutemann as drivers, the Martini Lotus association did not achieve a single win and by the end of the year, Martini withdrew from F1 once more. After a long break from the category, the Italian company began sponsoring Scuderia Ferrari in 2006 with a minor presence. Williams Grand Prix Engineering announced a partnership with Martini beginning with the 2014 season, continued their sponsorship by Martini into the 2015, 2016,2017, 2018 seasons.
In March 2018, Martini racing announced that they will end up their partnership with Willams by 2019. Martini's first rally challenge was taken up by usual stalwart Porsche. In 1978, Porsche made a return to the World Rally Championship as a works team, running a 911 SC for Björn Waldegård and Vic Preston Jr. in the Safari Rally. The project did not continue past this one-off entry, where Waldegård 4th; the second time Martini Racing sponsored a Rallyeteam was 1980, where Luigi Racing started with an BMW 323i E21 Group 2. Luigi Racing was before successful in the European Touring Car Championship with an BMW 3.0 Coupé CSL. Driver of the 323i have been Timo Mäkinen. In 1982, just as they had done one year with sports cars, Martini Racing signed with the works Lancia team, sponsoring the brand new Group B Lancia 037, with Attilio Bettega and Markku Alen as drivers; the Lancia Martini partnership in the World Rally Championship was one of the company's longest, remaining until the end of the 1992 season, with several cars, including the Group B Delta S4 and Group A Delta Integrale winning events and titles with drivers such as Juha Kankkunen, Bruno Saby, Massimo Biasion and Didier Auriol.
The Martini Lancia cars won the WRC Drivers' title in 1987 and 1991 with Kankkunen, 1988 and 1989 with Biasion, as well as the Constructors' title with the 037 in 1983, consecutively with the Group A Delta from 1987 to 1992. In the following years, Martini returned with a smaller sponsorship program, res
The Ferrari P was a series of Italian sports prototype racing cars produced by Ferrari during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although Enzo Ferrari resisted the move with Cooper dominating F1, Ferrari began producing mid-engined racing cars in 1960 with the Ferrari Dino-V6-engine Formula Two 156, which would be turned into the Formula One-winner of 1961. Sports car racers followed in 1963. Although these cars shared their numerical designations with road models, they were entirely dissimilar; the first Ferrari mid-engine in a road car did not arrive until the 1967 Dino, it was 1971 before a Ferrari 12-cylinder engine was placed behind a road-going driver in the 365 GT4 BB. Ferrari produced the 250 P in 1963 in response to the FIA introducing a prototype class for the upcoming season of the World Sportscar Championship; this was a new design, with a chassis unrelated to existing 250-series Grand Touring cars. Designed by Mauro Forghieri, the 250 P was an open cockpit mid-engined rear wheel drive design, utilizing a tubular space-frame chassis, double wishbone suspension and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and a longitudinally-mounted V12 engine with a 5-speed gearbox and transaxle.
The 250 Testa Rossa-type single-cam 3.0-litre engine was supplied by six Weber 38 DCN carburetors and produced 310 bhp at 7,500 rpm. This was the first time; the 250 P achieved immediate success on the racetrack, winning the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans, 12 Hours of Sebring, 1000 km Nürburgring, Canadian Grand Prix. The cars were raced by Scuderia Ferrari in NART in the Americas. Notable drivers included John Surtees, Ludovico Scarfioitti, Willy Mairesse, Lorenzo Bandini and Pedro Rodriguez. In total Ferrari produced four 250 P chassis and one development mule based on a Dino 246 SP chassis. All 250 P chassis were converted to 275 330 P specification following the 1963 racing season. For the 1964 season, Ferrari developed the 275 P and 330 P; these were improved versions of the 250 P with larger displacement engines and modified bodywork. The tubular space-frame chassis and most other components remained the same as in the 250 P; the 275 P used a bored-out 3.3L version of the 250 Testa Rossa-type engine utilized by the 250 P.
The 330 P used a different design, a 4.0L Colombo-designed V12 based on engines used in the 400 Superamerica road cars. The 330 P weighed more; some drivers preferred the extra power of the 330 P while others appreciated the more nimble feel of the 275 P and the two models were raced concurrently. Production of these types included three brand new chassis and conversions of all four 250 P chassis, it is not possible to determine the number of chassis produced with each engine type as 275 and 330 engines were swapped as needed between cars. 275 P and 330 P cars were and raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART and Maranello Concessionaires during 1964 and 1965 seasons. The most notable result was a 1-2-3 sweep at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans; the Scuderia Ferrari-run 275 P driven by Guichet and Vaccarella took first, followed by a Maranello Concessionaires 330 P in second and a Scuderia Ferrari 330 P in third. At the November 1963 Paris Auto Show, Ferrari introduced the 250 LM, it was developed as a coupe version of the 250 P and was ostensibly a new production car intended to meet FIA homologation requirements for the Group 3 GT class.
The intention was for the 250 LM to replace the 250 GTO as Ferrari's premier GT-class racer. However, in April 1964 the FIA refused to homologate the model, as Ferrari had built fewer than the required 100 units; the 250 LM thus had to run in the prototype class until it was homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for the 1966 season.32 total 250 LM chassis were built from 1963 to 1965, with all but the first chassis powered by 3.3-litre 320 bhp engines as used in the 275 P. According to Ferrari naming convention, the 3.3 litre cars should have been designated "275 LM", however Enzo Ferrari insisted that the name remain 250 LM in order to facilitate the homologation process. The 250 LM shared independent double wishbone suspension and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and 5-speed transaxle with the 250 P, however the tubular space frame chassis was strengthened with the roof structure, additional cross-bracing and heavier gauge tubing; the interior was trimmed out as a nod to the ostensible production status of the car, but it was little different from a prototype racer.
The 250 LM was raced around the world by both factory-supported and privateer racers. Unlike the 250/275/330 P cars, new 250 LMs were sold to private customers and campaigned by privateer teams. From 1964 through 1967, 250 LMs were raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART, Maranello Concessionaires, Ecurie Filipinetti, Ecurie Francorchamps and others when this model was no longer competitive with the latest factory prototypes. Notably, a 250 LM entered by the North American Racing Team won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans driven by Jochen Rindt and Masten Gregory; this remains Ferrari's last overall victory in the endurance classic. This car is now owned by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum and was displayed at the 2004 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and the 2013 Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance; the 250 LM is sought-after by serious auto collectors and individual cars are featured at auctions, car shows and historic racing events. 250 LMs sell for more than $10 milli
Silhouette racing car
A silhouette racing car is a race car which, although bearing a superficial resemblance to a production model, differs mechanically in fundamental ways. The purpose of silhouette cars is to provide a manufacturer with a tangible link to their consumer product offering so as to derive maximum marketing benefit from their investment in the sport, they provide spectators with familiar car models with which they can identify. Entire championship fields can consist of silhouettes, or sometimes only a single class in a multi-class field may permit silhouettes. Notable racing classes where silhouette cars have been used include NASCAR, Group 5 Special Production Cars, Group B rallying, DTM, JGTC/Super GT, Monster truck and the Australian Supercars Championship. Silhouette cars employ radically different chassis construction techniques such as tubular space frames or carbon fibre tubs in place of regular monocoques, many have different drivetrain configurations than their road-going counterparts; the bodyshells themselves are made of lightweight materials such as glass-reinforced plastic or carbon fibre and few or no parts are shared between race and road versions of the cars.
These changes are aimed at improving the desirable characteristics of the components, such as increasing the stiffness of the chassis, or the output of the engine. Due to homologation rules, some silhouette racing cars, such as the Lancia 037 and Lancia Delta S4 end up being sold as road cars
The Porsche 908 was a racing car from Porsche, introduced in 1968 to continue the Porsche 906/Porsche 910/Porsche 907 series of models designed under Ferdinand Piech. As the FIA had announced rule changes for Group 6 Prototype-Sports Cars limiting engine displacement to 3000 cc, as in Formula One, Porsche designed the 908 as the first Porsche sports car to have an engine with the maximum size allowed; the previous Porsche 907 only had a 2200 cc flat-8 engine with 270 hp. The new 3-litre flat-8 engine produced 257 kW at 8400 rpm, as well as some teething problems. Being traditionally air-cooled and with only 2 valves per cylinder, it was still down on power compared to more modern F1 designs which delivered over 400 hp, but were not suited to endurance racing; the 908 was a closed coupe to provide low drag at fast tracks, but from 1969 on was raced as the 908/2, a lighter open spyder. A more compact 908/3 was introduced in 1970 to complement the heavy Porsche 917 on twisty tracks that favored nimble cars, like Targa Florio and Nürburgring.
Sold off to privateers for 1972, various 908s were entered until the early 1980s retro-fitted with Porsche 934-based 2.1-litre turbocharged flat 6 engines. Despite winning the 1000km Nürburgring, the 908 was anything but convincing in 1968; the older and smaller 2200 cc 907 had started the season with dominating wins and delivered better results than Porsche's first serious attempt in the prototype category. Meanwhile, the older 4.7-litre Ford GT40s Group 5 Sports Cars were winning races on the faster tracks, with the Ford P68 being a failure, Ferrari remaining absent, the Alfa Romeo 33 still utilizing a 2000cc enigine. With the minimum production requirement for the 5000cc Group 5 Sports Car category reduced from 50 units to 25 for 1969, Porsche decided to go one step further and build the required 25 examples of a new 12-cylinder car, the Porsche 917; this risky investment should take about a year and the 908 was supposed to deliver results in the meantime. The 1968 24 Hours of Le Mans were postponed from June to the end of September due to political unrest in France, setting the stage for a showdown between the 908s and the GT40s.
The Porsche 908 LH Long Tails were the fastest in qualifying and the early stages of the race, but it showed that Porsche had not taken advantage of the additional time to improve the 908. Troubles with the alternator caused delays and disqualifications as the new Porsche team leaders had misinterpreted the repair rules. Once again, a V8-powered Ford won, a 907 Long Tail came in second in front of the sole surviving standard 908. In addition, Ford won the 1968 International Championship for Makes. For 1969, the Group 6 prototype rules were changed, Porsche lowered the weight of the Porsche 908/02 Spyder by 100 kg, removing the roof and the long tails. Aluminium tube frames were used, with air pressure gauges; the 1969 24 Hours of Daytona were a disaster for Porsche, as all three 908/02 failed, a Lola T70 won. At the 12 Hours of Sebring, a Ford GT40 defeated a trio of factory-entered 908/2s. At that time, the more powerful Porsche 917 was introduced in Geneva, it seemed that the career of the 908 would be over.
But with the larger car having arrived, the 908 started to succeed. The next race was the BOAC 500 at Brands Hatch, where the 908 was successful, finishing 1-2-3 ahead of a Ferrari 312P. With additional wins at the 1000km Monza, the Targa Florio, the 1000km Spa and an overwhelming 1-2-3-4-5 at the 1000 km Nürburgring, the 1969 International Championship for Makes was secured for Porsche by the 908/02, while the Porsche 917 suffered teething problems. On the other hand, the prestigious 24 hours of Le Mans was again won by a Ford GT40 in 1969, as the 917s had gearbox troubles after leading for many hours. A 908 challenged for the win, as Hans Herrmann came in as a close 2nd behind Jacky Ickx. Herrmann's 908 low drag coupé was fast on the straights, but near the race end the brake pads wore down, indicated by a light, introduced with the 908s; the team gambled on not changing the pads. Despite the more powerful 917 improving towards the end of 1969, the career of the 908 would continue. On rather twisty and slow tracks like Nürburgring and Targa Florio, the 917 was not suited well after being modified to the "917K".
So rather than trying to make "one size fit all", Porsche built dedicated cars for each type of racing track. Based upon the lightweight and short Porsche 909, used in hillclimbing, the new open cockpit version, the 908/03, was shorter than the 908/02, only weighed 500 kg - an astonishing figure for a long-distance racing car- in comparison, the 917K weighed about 840 kg; this version was successful in the 1970 Nurburgring 1000 km and the Targa Florio, where typical speeds were only about half of the 240 mph which the 917LH long tails could achieve at Le Mans. The 908/02 in which Steve McQueen finished second at the 1970 12 Hours of Sebring was used as a camera car for the Le Mans in the race itself. Steve McQueen intended to drive a Porsche 917 in the race, though this was vetoed by the studio funding the film. In 1971, vertical fins were added to the rear of the 908s which were outpaced at the Targa by two Alfa Romeo Tipo 33s. All entered 908s crashed; the next race at the Nurburgring saw a 1-2-3 finish for the 908 in front of two Alfas, but with Alfa scoring wins at Brands Hatch and Watkins Glen, it was proven that these prototypes could beat the 917s.
With the combination of the powerful 917 and the
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, two-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985; the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller naturally aspirated turbocharged two-litre engine, sold in Italy. The 308 had a tube frame with separate body; the 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, shared much with the original Dino. Both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase; the engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with two belt-driven overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transaxle transmission assembly, below and to the rear of the engine's sump. All models used a synchromesh 5-speed "dog-leg" manual gearbox and a clutch-type limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, anti-roll bars on both axles.
Steering was unassisted pinion. The 308's body was designed by Pininfarina's Leonardo Fioravanti, responsible for some of Ferrari's most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino and the Berlinetta Boxer; the 308 used elements of these shapes to create something much in contrast with the angular Bertone-designed GT4. GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use; the Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and a direct replacement for the 2-seater Dino 246. Its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to emissions control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication. Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4.
A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although still built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was made of glass-reinforced plastic, allowing a light weight of 1,050 kg. This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, resulting in an overall weight increase of 150 kg. Five-spoke 14-inch alloy wheels were standard, while 16-inch wheels were made available as an option on the 328, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons, high lift camshaft. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show, the targa topped. All GTSes were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981. There were 3219 GTSes and 2897 GTBs made from 1975 to 1980. Only 808 of the fibreglass version were made. In 1980 Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection was offered, leading to GTSi; the fuel injection was coupled to a Marelli MED 803A Digiplex electronic ignition, incorporating a coil and ignition module for each bank of cylinders. Outside, the car was identical to the 308 GTB/GTS, save for metric sized wheels of a different design, fitted with Michelin TRX radial tyres—Michelin XWX on 16-inch wheels were optional.
Inside, the clock and oil temperature gauge were moved to the centre console. 494 GTBis and 1743 GTSis were produced before the model was succeeded by the 308 Quattrovalvole in 1982. Two years at the 1982 Paris Motor Show, Ferrari launched the 308 quattrovalvole, in GTB and GTS form; the main change from the 308 GTBi/GTSi it succeeded were the four valves per cylinder—hence its name, quattrovalvole "four valves" in Italian—which pushed output back up to 240 hp restoring some of the performance lost to the emission control equipment. The new model could be recognized by the addition of a slim louvred panel in the front lid to aid radiator exhaust air exit, power operated mirrors carrying a small enamel Ferrari badge, a redesigned radiator grille with rectangular driving lights on each side, rectangular side repeaters; the interior received some minor updates, such as a satin black three spoke steering wheel with triangular centre. Available options included metallic paint, a deep front spoiler, air conditioning, wider wheels, 16-inch Speedline wheels with Pirelli P7 tyres, a satin black roof aerofoil.
Apart from the DOHC 32-valve cylinder heads, the V8 engine was of the same design as that used in the 308 GTSi model. Total displacement was 2,927 cc, with a bore x stroke of 81 mm × 71 mm. Output on European specification cars was 240 PS at 7000 rpm and 260 N⋅m at 5000 rpm of torque, while for US specification variants were 233 PS at 6800 rpm and 255 N⋅m at 5500 rpm of torque; the gear and final drive ratios were altered to suit the revised characteristics of the 4 multivalves per cylinder engine. One other significant benefit of the QV four valve heads was the replacement of the non-QV models sodium valves which have bee