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Group of Seven (artists)

The Group of Seven sometimes known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933 consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, Frederick Varley. A. J. Casson was invited to join in 1926, Edwin Holgate became a member in 1930, LeMoine FitzGerald joined in 1932. Two artists associated with the group are Tom Thomson and Emily Carr. Although he died before its official formation, Thomson had a significant influence on the group. In his essay "The Story of the Group of Seven", Harris wrote that Thomson was "a part of the movement before we pinned a label on it". Emily Carr was closely associated with the Group of Seven, though never an official member. Believing that a distinct Canadian art could be developed through direct contact with nature, the Group of Seven is best known for its paintings inspired by the Canadian landscape, initiated the first major Canadian national art movement; the Group was succeeded by the Canadian Group of Painters in 1933, which included members from the Beaver Hall Group who had a history of showing with the Group of Seven internationally.

Large collections of work from the Group of Seven can be found at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa as well as the Ottawa Art Gallery and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg, Ontario. The National Gallery, under the directorship of Eric Brown, was an early institutional supporter of artists associated with the Group, purchasing art from some of their early exhibitions before they had identified themselves as the Group of Seven; the Art Gallery of Ontario, in its earlier incarnation as the Art Gallery of Toronto, was the site of their first exhibition as the Group of Seven. The McMichael gallery was founded by Robert and Signe McMichael, who began collecting paintings by the Group of Seven and their contemporaries in 1955. Tom Thomson, J. E. H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer, Frederick Varley, Frank Johnston and Franklin Carmichael met as employees of the design firm Grip Ltd. in Toronto. In 1913, they were joined by A. Y. Lawren Harris.

They met at the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto to discuss their opinions and share their art. This group received monetary support from Dr. James MacCallum. Harris and MacCallum jointly built the Studio Building in 1914 in the Rosedale ravine to serve as a meeting and working place for the new Canadian art movement. MacCallum owned land on Georgian Bay and Thomson worked as a guide in nearby Algonquin Park, both places where he and the other artists travelled for inspiration; the informal group was temporarily split up during World War I, during which Jackson and Varley became official war artists. Jackson enlisted in June 1915 and served in France from November 1915 to 1917, at which point he was injured. Harris taught musketry at Camp Borden, he was discharged in May 1918 after suffering a nervous breakdown. Carmichael, MacDonald, Thomson and Johnston remained in Toronto and struggled in the depressed wartime economy. A further blow to the group came in 1917, he showed no signs of drowning. The circumstances of his death remain mysterious.

The seven who formed the original group reunited after the war. They continued to travel throughout Ontario the Muskoka and Algoma regions, sketching the landscape and developing techniques to represent it in art. In 1919, they decided to make themselves into a group devoted to a distinct Canadian form of art which didn't exist yet, began to call themselves the Group of Seven, it is unknown who chose these seven men, but it is believed to have been Harris. By 1920, they were ready for their first exhibition thanks to the constant support and encouragement of Eric Brown, the director of the National Gallery at that time. Prior to this, many artists believed. Reviews for the 1920 exhibition were mixed, but as the decade progressed the Group came to be recognized as pioneers of a new, school of art. After Frank Johnston left the group in 1920 to move to Winnipeg, A. J. Casson was invited to join in 1926. Franklin Carmichael had taken a liking to him and had encouraged Casson to sketch and paint for many years beforehand.

The Group's champions during its early years included Barker Fairley, a co-founder of Canadian Forum magazine, the warden of Hart House at the University of Toronto, J. Burgon Bickersteth; the members of the Group began to travel elsewhere in Canada for inspiration, including British Columbia, Nova Scotia, the Arctic. After Samuel Gurney Cresswell and other painters on Royal Navy expeditions, these were the first artists of European descent who depicted the Arctic. Soon, the Group made the decision that to be called a "national school of painters" there should be members from outside Toronto; as a result, in 1930 Edwin Holgate from Montreal, Quebec became a member, followed by LeMoine FitzGerald from Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1932. The Group's influence was so widespread by the end of 1931, after J. E. H. MacDonald's death in 1932, they no longer found it necessary to continue as a group of painters, they announced that the Group had been disbanded and that a new association of painters wo

The Fred Allen Show

The Fred Allen Show was a popular and long-running American old-time radio comedy program starring comedian Fred Allen and his wife Portland Hoffa. Over the course of the program's 17-year run, it was sponsored by Linit Bath Soaps, Hellmann's, Sal Hepatica and Tenderleaf Tea; the program ended in 1949 under the sponsorship of the Ford Motor Company. The most popular period of the program was the few years of sponsorship under the Texaco Gas Company. During this time, the program was known as Texaco Star Theatre with Fred Allen. On the December 6, 1942 episode of the program, Allen premiered his first in a series of segments known as "Allen's Alley"; the segments would have Allen strolling through an imaginary neighborhood, knocking on the "doors" of various neighbors, including average-American John Doe, Mrs. Nussbaum, pompous poet Falstaff Openshaw, Titus Moody, boisterous southern senator Beauregard Claghorn. Texaco ended its sponsorship of the program in 1944; some prominent guest stars on Allen's program over the years included Frank Sinatra, Orson Welles, Roy Rogers, Bela Lugosi, Ed Gardner, Norman Corwin and Edgar Bergen & Charlie McCarthy.

The first version of The Fred Allen Show premiered under the title of The Linit Bath Club Revue on the Columbia Broadcasting System Sunday night October 23, 1932. According to his official website, Fred Allen had trouble from the beginning of it all with the program's sponsor, Linit bath soaps and with the advertising agency that supervised production. After only a single season and 26 weeks on the air, on April 16, 1933, Linit pulled the plug on the Revue. After the failure and conflict brought on by Linit, in 1933 Allen made the move to NBC with The Salad Bowl Revue; the program premiered on NBC's Red Network on August 4 of that year. The program moved to Fridays. To avoid any unneeded conflict as he had with Linit, Allen took over all writing responsibilities of the show. Sponsorship changed over to Hellmann's Mayonnaise. Not popular enough with listeners, suffering increased tension between Allen and Hellmann's, The Salad Bowl Revue concluded on December 1, 1933; the same advertising agency that represented Hellmann's Mayonnaise served as the representative for Bristol-Myers' Sal Hepatica laxative.

So on January 3, 1934, The Sal Hepatica Revue was born. Edmund "Tiny" Ruffner from The Salad Bowl Revue rejoined Allen as announcer, as well as the Ferde Grofé Orchestra and actors Minerva Pious, Jack Smart and Allen's wife Portland Hoffa all rejoining Allen on Sal Hepatica; the biggest change besides the title and the commercials was the move from Friday to Wednesday nights. In writing the show, Allen did begin to experiment with a community show theme, he began to gain a reputation for topical humor with news from the fictional town of Bedlamville. He peppered his "Town Hall bulletins" with fictional local characters such as Hodge White the Grocer and Pop Mullen the Lunch Wagon Man, who were all described, but never given voice. Bristol-Myers were the manufacturers of Ipana toothpaste during this time and decided to expand The Sal Hepatica Revue to the entire 9:00 hour on March 21, 1934. Bristol-Myers felt as though they could save money by advertising two products on one single program in one hour.

The program was renamed The Hour of Smiles. The first half-hour was sponsored by Ipana, "the smile of beauty", the last half-hour was sponsored by Sal Hepatica, "the smile of health"; the concept was slightly retooled. Allen's concept for The Hour of Smiles was to be a small town hall weekly entertainment; the program didn't have the budgetary freedom to hire big-name acts to fill the hour-long program, so other features had to be invented. The weekly newsreels gave Allen a chance to burlesque current people in the public eye; the second half of the show was devoted to amateurs. Not only was this an inexpensive and entertaining time filler, but it allowed Allen to do the ad-lib, which he enjoyed much. On July 11, 1934, The Hour of Smiles was renamed Town Hall Tonight keeping in sync with Allen's town hall concept on Hour of Smiles. Regulars on the program included Allen, Hoffa and Smart along with newcomers Scrappy Lambert, Bob Moody, Randolph Weyant and Leonard Stokes and Helen Carroll. In the fall of 1938, Allen signed The Merry Macs to a full-season contract.

Tiny Ruffner was the original announcer for this version of the program with Harry Von Zell taking over those duties starting with the second season. Town Hall Tonight was renamed The Fred Allen Show on October 4, 1939. A typical opening heard by listeners on Town Hall Tonight might have been as follows: Announcer: An hour of smiles, it's Town Hall Tonight. 60 minutes of fun and music brought to you by Ipana toothpaste. Fun with our star comedian Fred Allen, music with Peter Van Steeden, new features, new laughs, it's Town Hall Tonight. A typical closing that could be heard by listeners every week on the program might have been as follows: Announcer: We hope and gentlemen, that tonight's program has brought you all another hour of smiles and that you'll remember to be with us again next Wednesday. In the meantime, we hope you'll remember the product that makes this Fred Allen show possible, Ipana toothpaste for the smile of beauty. Allen: Good night and gentlemen, don't forget next Wednesday night for another hour of smiles in the old town hall.

This is Fred Allen saying good night. Announcer: This is the Red Network of the National Broadcasting Company; the memorable "feud" between Fred Allen and Jack Benny of The Jell-O Program began on a 1936 episode of Town Hall Tonight. On December 30, 1936, All

Offside (ice hockey)

In ice hockey, a play is offside if a player on the attacking team does not control the puck and is in the offensive zone when a different attacking player causes the puck to cross the blue line into the offensive zone, until either the puck or all attacking players leave the offensive zone. Put, attacking players must not enter the attacking zone before the puck. If a player on the attacking team is in the offensive zone before the puck, they must retreat to the neutral zone. Under the delayed offside rule, an infraction occurs when a play is offside and any attacking player touches the puck or checks a player in the offensive zone. Under the immediate offside rule, it occurs when a play is offside and the attacking team has control. For example, under NHL's immediate offside rule, play is stopped when an attacking player carries the puck into the zone while a teammate is in the attacking zone, or when an attacking player in the neutral zone completes a pass to a teammate, in the attacking zone.

A delayed offside occurs when a player on the attacking team is in the offensive zone before the puck and the attacking team causes the puck to enter the zone without the attacking team having possession. When a delayed offside occurs, a linesman will keep an arm up to signal it, all attacking players must retreat back into the neutral zone without touching the puck or checking an opponent for the delayed offside to end. If an attacking player touches the puck during the delayed offside, play is stopped; some levels of hockey use the immediate offside rule and stop play instead of starting a delayed offside. When an offside violation occurs, a linesman will stop play. To restart play, a faceoff is held at the ice spot closest to the infraction a neutral spot, or if there is a delayed penalty, at a spot in the defending zone of the defending team, which incurred the penalty. If the linesman erred in calling offside, the faceoff will still occur; the National Hockey League and International Ice Hockey Federation apply similar rules for determining offside.

A player is judged to be offside if both of their skates cross the blue line dividing their offensive zone from the neutral zone before the puck crosses the same line. In both organizations, it is the position of a player's skates, they cannot use their stick or other part of their body to remain onside. The lone caveat to this rule is that an attacking player's skates may precede the puck into the attacking zone when they are skating backwards if they are in control of the puck; the position of the puck is used for determining offside. Offside is determined by the skate positions when the puck crosses the blue line. If the puck was in the attacking zone, touches the blue line, completely leaves the blue line back into the attacking zone, the puck is considered to have been in the attacking zone the entire time, so there is no determination of offside, the puck did not cross the blue line. If any individual player is in an offside position, their entire team is offside. A delayed offside occurs if the puck is passed or shot into the offensive zone while an attacking player is offside but has not been touched by a member of the attacking team.

In most leagues, the attacking team may "tag up" by having all players exit the offensive zone. At that point the offside is waved off and they may re-enter the offensive zone in pursuit of the puck. If a member of the attacking team has control of the puck while offside, a linesman will stop play and a faceoff will be held at the faceoff spot nearest the point of the infraction; this means the spot closest to the blue line if the puck is carried into the zone, or in the case of a pass, the spot closest to where the pass originated. If a linesman judges that the attacking team acted to force a deliberate stoppage in play by going offside, they can move the faceoff into that team's defensive zone. If a goal is scored from a shot that creates a delayed offside, the goal will be denied if the attacking team clears the offensive zone before the puck enters the goal. At some levels, such as younger divisions of minor hockey sanctioned by USA Hockey, the delayed offside rule is replaced by the immediate offside rule in which the linesman will stop play as soon as a play goes offside, regardless of whether or not the attacking team is in possession of the puck.

Under both NHL and IIHF rules, there is one condition under which an offside can be waved off with players in the attacking zone ahead of the puck. A defending player has carried the puck out of his own zone, passes the puck back into his own zone only for the puck to be intercepted by an attacking player. A defending player clears the puck out of his own zone, but the puck bounces off another defending player in neutral ice back into his own zone. During a faceoff, a player may be judged to be in an offside position if they are lined up within 15 feet of the centres before the puck is dropped; this may result in a faceoff violation, at which point the official dropping the puck will wave the centre out of the faceoff spot and require that another player take their place. If one team commits two violations during the same attempt to restart play, it will be assessed a minor penalty for delay of game. An offside pass occurs; when such a pass occurs, play is stopped and a faceoff is conducted in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction.

There are two determining factors in an o