Group psychotherapy

Group psychotherapy or group therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. The term can legitimately refer to any form of psychotherapy when delivered in a group format, including Art therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy, but it is applied to psychodynamic group therapy where the group context and group process is explicitly utilised as a mechanism of change by developing and examining interpersonal relationships within the group; the broader concept of group therapy can be taken to include any helping process that takes place in a group, including support groups, skills training groups, psychoeducation groups. The differences between psychodynamic groups, activity groups, support groups, problem-solving and psychoeducational groups have been discussed by psychiatrist Charles Montgomery. Other, more specialised forms of group therapy would include non-verbal expressive therapies such as art therapy, dance therapy, or music therapy.

The founders of group psychotherapy in the USA were Joseph H. Pratt, Trigant Burrow and Paul Schilder. All three of them were active and working at the East Coast in the first half of the 20th century. In 1932 Jacob L. Moreno presented his work on group psychotherapy to the American Psychiatric Association, co-authored a monograph on the subject. After World War II, group psychotherapy was further developed by Moreno, Samuel Slavson, Hyman Spotnitz, Irvin Yalom, Lou Ormont. Yalom's approach to group therapy has been influential not only in the USA but across the world. An early development in group therapy was the T-group or training group, a form of group psychotherapy where participants learn about themselves through their interaction with each other, they use feedback, problem solving, role play to gain insights into themselves and groups. It was pioneered in the mid-1940s by Kurt Lewin and Carl Rogers and his colleagues as a method of learning about human behavior in what became the National Training Laboratories, created by the Office of Naval Research and the National Education Association in Bethel, Maine, in 1947.

Moreno developed a specific and structured form of group therapy known as psychodrama. Another recent development in the theory and method of group psychotherapy based on an integration of systems thinking is Yvonne Agazarian's systems-centered therapy, which sees groups functioning within the principles of system dynamics, her method of "functional subgrouping" introduces a method of organizing group communication so it is less to react counterproductively to differences. SCT emphasizes the need to recognize the phases of group development and the defenses related to each phase in order to best make sense and influence group dynamics. In the United Kingdom group psychotherapy developed independently, with pioneers S. H. Foulkes and Wilfred Bion using group therapy as an approach to treating combat fatigue in the Second World War. Foulkes and Bion were psychoanalysts and incorporated psychoanalysis into group therapy by recognising that transference can arise not only between group members and the therapist but among group members.

Furthermore, the psychoanalytic concept of the unconscious was extended with a recognition of a group unconscious, in which the unconscious processes of group members could be acted out in the form of irrational processes in group sessions. Foulkes developed the model known as group analysis and the Institute of Group Analysis, while Bion was influential in the development of group therapy at the Tavistock Clinic. Bion's approach is comparable to social therapy, first developed in the United States in the late 1970s by Lois Holzman and Fred Newman, a group therapy in which practitioners relate to the group, not its individuals, as the fundamental unit of development; the task of the group is to "build the group" rather than focus on problem solving or "fixing" individuals. In Argentina an independent school of group analysis stemmed from the work and teachings of Swiss-born Argentine psychoanalyst Enrique Pichon-Rivière; this thinker conceived of a group-centered approach which, although not directly influenced by Foulkes' work, was compatible with it.

Irvin Yalom proposed a number of therapeutic factors. UniversalityThe recognition of shared experiences and feelings among group members and that these may be widespread or universal human concerns, serves to remove a group member's sense of isolation, validate their experiences, raise self-esteemAltruismThe group is a place where members can help each other, the experience of being able to give something to another person can lift the member's self esteem and help develop more adaptive coping styles and interpersonal skills. Instillation of hopeIn a mixed group that has members at various stages of development or recovery, a member can be inspired and encouraged by another member who has overcome the problems with which they are still struggling. Imparting informationWhile this is not speaking a psychotherapeutic process, members report that it has been helpful to learn factual information from other members in the group. For example, about their treatment or about access to services. Corrective recapitulation

Australian Aboriginal culture

Australian Aboriginal culture includes a number of practices and ceremonies centered on a belief in the Dreamtime and other mythology. Reverence and respect for the land and oral traditions are emphasised. Language and other groupings exhibit a range of individual cultures. Australian Aboriginal art has existed for thousands of years and ranges from ancient rock art to modern watercolour landscapes. Aboriginal music has developed a number of unique instruments. Contemporary Australian Aboriginal music spans many genres. Aboriginal peoples did not develop a system of writing before colonisation, but there was a huge variety of languages, including sign languages. Aboriginal Australians' oral tradition and spiritual values build on reverence for the land and on a belief in the Dreamtime, or Dreaming; the Dreaming is considered to be both the ancient time of creation and the present-day reality of Dreaming. It describes the Aboriginal cosmology, includes the ancestral stories about the supernatural creator-beings and how they created places.

Each story can be called a "Dreaming", with the whole continent is criss-crossed by of Dreamings or ancestral tracks represented by songlines. There are many different groups, each with their own individual culture, belief structure and language; the Rainbow Serpent is a major ancestral being for many Aboriginal people across Australia. Baiame or Bunjil are regarded as the primary creator-spirits in South-East Australia. Dingo Dreaming is a significant ancestor in the interior regions of Bandiyan, as Dingo formed the songlines that cross the continent from north to south and east to west; the Yowie and Bunyip have their roots in Aboriginal mythology. Aboriginal people that some places are sacred, owing to their central place in the mythology of the local people; the words "law" and "lore" are used interchangeably: "law" was introduced by the British, whereas "lore" relates to the customs and stories from the Dreamtime, passed on through countless generations through songlines and dance. Learned from childhood, lore dictates the rules on how to interact with the land and community.

The complete system of Yolngu customary law is the "Madayin", which embodies the rights and responsibilities of the owners of the law, or citizens. Madayin includes the rom, as well as the objects that symbolise the law, oral rules and song cycles, the sacred places that are used to maintain and provide education in the law. Rom can be translated as "law" or "culture", but it embodies more than either of these words. Galarrwuy Yunupingu has described Rom watangu as the overarching law of the land, "lasting and backbone". It covers the resources within this region; these include laws for farming of flora and fauna. Observance of Madayin creates a state of balance and true justice, known as Magaya. Rom includes bush crafts such as basket-weaving and mat-making, stories which teach history, spear-making, gathering food, building shelters and rafts, various rituals, taking care of others."Rom" is a word and concept shared by at least one of the nearby peoples, the Anbarra, who perform a Rom ceremony.

Australian Aboriginal Ceremonies have been a part of Aboriginal culture since the beginning, still play a vital part in society. They are held for many different reasons, all of which are based on the spiritual beliefs and cultural practices of the community, they include Dreaming stories, secret events at sacred sites, homecomings and deaths. They still play a important part in the lives and culture of Aboriginal people, they are performed in Arnhem Land and Central Australia with the aim of ensuring a plentiful supply of foods. Most include dance, song and elaborate body decoration and/or costume. Ancient Aboriginal rock art shows traditions are still continued today. Ceremonies provide a time and place for everyone in the group and community to work together to ensure the ongoing survival of spiritual and cultural beliefs. Certain stories are individually "owned" by a group, in some cases dances, body decoration and symbols in a ceremony pass on these stories only within the group, so it is vital that these ceremonies are remembered and performed correctly.

Men and women have different roles, are sometimes appointed as guardians of a sacred site, whose role it is to care for the site and the spiritual beings who live there, achieved by performing ceremonies. The terms “men’s business” and “women’s business” are sometimes used. Men conduct ceremonies, but women are guardians of special knowledge, hold great spiritual power within a group, conduct ceremonies. Participation in ceremonies can be restricted by age, family group, language group, but are sometimes open to all, depending on the purpose of the ceremony. Right of access to songs and dances pertaining to a specific ceremony belong to a certain defined group. There is a wide range of songs, music, body ornamentation and symbolism, designed to connect the body with the spiritual world of the ancestors. Ceremonies help to sustain Aboriginal identity as well as the group's connection to c

Henry Paustian House

The Henry Paustian House is a historic building located in the West End of Davenport, United States. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1983. There are few examples left of the early houses built in the city of Davenport in the Vernacular style from its formative years, the Henry Paustian House is one such example. Henry C. F. Paustian was a carpenter and he may have had the assistance of John Paustian, a stone mason, to build this house. There are no city directories available before 1856 so it is impossible to date the house, but it was built in the early 1850s; the house is constructed of limestone. Typical elements of Davenport's early homes that are found in this structure are the single story, side-gable roof, the entrance on the long side of the house; the only style elements of the house are found in its symmetry and the molded cornices above the windows and door