Batsto Village, New Jersey
Batsto Village is a historic unincorporated community located on CR 542 within Washington Township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. It is located in Wharton State Forest in the south central Pine Barrens, a part of the Pinelands National Reserve, it is listed on the New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places, is administered by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's Division of Parks & Forestry. The name is derived from bathing place. In 1766, Charles Read, a well-known ironmaster, built the Batsto Iron Works along the Batsto River on the site of the future village; the area had an abundance of bog ore which could be mined from the area's streams and rivers, wood from the area's forests was harvested for charcoal for smelting the ore. The rivers, despite their modest drop, were harnessed for iron making. In 1773, John Cox bought the Iron Works, which produced cooking pots and other household items. Batsto manufactured supplies for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
In 1779, the Iron Works manager, Joseph Ball, bought the works and in 1784, his uncle, William Richards, bought a controlling interest. Over the next 91 years, the Richards family built most of the structures in the village. Richards was ironmaster until he retired in 1809, he was succeeded by his son, Jesse Richards, who ran the operation until his death in 1854 and was followed in turn by his son Thomas H. Richards. In the mid-19th century, demand for iron declined and Batsto turned to glassmaking, though without lasting success. Soon Batsto was in bankruptcy. In 1876, Philadelphia businessman Joseph Wharton purchased Batsto along with a substantial number of other properties in the area, he improved many of the village buildings and was involved in a number of forestry and agricultural projects, including cranberry farming and a sawmill. After his death in 1909, his properties in the Pine Barrens were managed by the Girard Trust Company in Philadelphia. Starting in 1952, the Air Force reviewed the Batsto location for an arms depot.
Included in that construction was a plan for a "trans-ocean airport" and congress was working on authorizing $73,523,000 for the establishment of a combined depot and air transport service. However, by 1956, the depot plans had shifted to Long Branch and the Air Force was no longer interested in this location; the state of New Jersey purchased the Wharton properties in the late 1950s and began planning the use and development of the property, allowing the few people still living in the Village to remain. After the property was purchased, in 1958, the plans started with the restoration of the 50 room mansion and rebuild the dam for recreation on the lake. After work began the property was concurrently opened to visitors. In 1959 the historic village of Batsto became the most popular site for that year as measured by visitors relative to other state historic sites; the historic village was dedicated on May 27th 1961 at 1:30pm. In 1961, the visitor center was started, it housed the office, information desk, museum and an auditorium.
Today there are more than forty sites and structures, including the Batsto mansion, a sawmill, a 19th-century ore boat, a charcoal kiln and milk houses, a carriage house and stable, a blacksmith and wheelwright shop, a gristmill and a general store. The Post Office is still in operation, collectors have stamps hand-cancelled, with no zip code; the Batsto-Pleasant Mills United Methodist Church building erected in 1808 as the Batsto-Pleasant Mills Methodist Episcopal Church, is still active as a place of worship. National Register of Historic Places listings in Burlington County, New Jersey List of museums in New Jersey Batsto Village New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection– Batsto Village Batsto Mansion and other area houses Early history of the area History of the Batsto Methodist Episcopal Church
Trenton Battle Monument
The Trenton Battle Monument is a massive column-type structure in the Battle Monument section of Trenton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. It commemorates the December 26, 1776, Battle of Trenton, a pivotal victory for the Continental forces during the American Revolutionary War. Designed by John H. Duncan, the architect of Grant's Tomb, the monument is an early example of Beaux-Arts architecture in America; the design is based on "The Monument", a 1671 structure built to commemorate the Great Fire of London, on the London street where the 1666 fire started. The height of the Trenton monument is intentionally the same height as the London monument; the hollow Roman-Doric fluted column of the monument is constructed of granite, as is the pedestal which supports it, although darker stone was used to give the base the appearance of more solidity. The column is capped by a round pavilion, forming an observation deck. Encircling the column, just above the cap, thirteen electric lights, symbolizing the original Thirteen Colonies, shed their radiance at night.
The pavilion is surmounted by an acanthus leaf pedestal where, atop the entire structure, a colossal bronze statue of General George Washington by William Rudolf O'Donovan crowns the monument. Washington is depicted as he appeared at the opening of the engagement and, with his extended right hand, directs the fire of the Continental artillery down King Street; the figure is 13 feet feet tall, while the monument, including the statue, is 150 feet above street level. On the base of the pedestal are two bronze relief panels by Thomas Eakins depicting "The Continental Army Crossing the Delaware River" and "The Opening of the Battle." The latter panel depicts the battery of Alexander Hamilton about to fire down King Street. A third bronze relief panel, "The Surrender of the Hessians," was modeled by Charles Henry Niehaus. On the north side of the pedestal is a bronze tablet presented by the Society of the Cincinnati of New Jersey. Guarding the entrance to the monument stand two bronze figures of Continental soldiers by O'Donovan.
One is a statue of Private John Russell, a member of Colonel John Glover's Marblehead Regiment of seafaring men from Marblehead, who gained fame by transporting Washington's army across the ice-choked Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776. The other figure is modeled after a likeness of Private Blair McClenachan, of the Philadelphia Light Horse Troop, a unit which took part in the battle; the monument is located in an area of the city known as "Five Points". It was here, at the intersection of Warren Street, North Broad Street, Brunswick and Princeton Avenues, that the American artillery was placed. From this high vantage point, they dominated the streets of Trenton, preventing the Hessian troops from organizing an effective counterattack. A movement to erect a monument commemorating the victory at Trenton began in 1843. About forty years in 1886, the property for the monument was acquired by the Trenton Monument Association. To build the monument, the New Jersey legislature appropriated $15,000, Congress $30,000, citizens contributed $15,000.
Monument Park at the "Five Points" was acquired under the provisions of an ordinance passed June 28, 1893. The cornerstone was laid Saturday, December 26, 1891, on the 115th anniversary of the Battle of Trenton; the base and pedestal were erected in the spring of 1892, the capstone raised into position on Saturday, August 31, 1893, the statue of General Washington placed atop the shaft September 5 of the same year. The completed memorial was dedicated with elaborate ceremonies on October 19, 1893, the 112th anniversary of the surrender of General Lord Cornwallis at the Siege of Yorktown in Virginia. Although various changes have taken place in the immediate vicinity of the monument since its dedication, the commanding figure of Washington still looks down upon the city, which has developed from what was a small village in 1776; the monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. An inoperable elevator makes visiting the vantage point impossible. Battle of the Assunpink Creek Battle of Princeton Princeton Battlefield National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey List of monuments in the United States List of memorials to George Washington Trentoniana Collection, Trenton Free Public Library, Trenton, NJ'Some Early Trenton Washington Celebrations.'
Trenton Historical Society, 1933. "Battle Monument Unveiling. — The New York Times, 1893. Trenton Historical Society,'A History of Trenton,' 1679-1929: Two Hundred and Fifty Years of a Notable Town with Links in Four Centuries. Princeton University Press, 1929. Trenton Newspapers, 1778-1932. Trenton, Trenton Times, 1932. New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection parks and forestry
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Brendan T. Byrne State Forest
The Brendan T. Byrne State Forest is a 37,242 acres state forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, its protected acreage is split between Ocean Counties. The Brendan T. Byrne State Forest is the state's second largest state forest. There are 25 miles of a camping area; the park is maintained by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry. Named for the Lebanon Glassworks, which operated in the 1850s and 1860s, it was renamed for Brendan Byrne in 2004. Byrne served as governor of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982, he championed and signed the Pinelands Protection Act in February 1979 which preserved thousand of acres in southern New Jersey. The park was renamed for him during the 25th anniversary of the Pinelands legislation by Governor James McGreevey; the forest lies within the Atlantic coastal pine barrens ecoregion. It includes the 735-acre Cedar Swamp Natural Area: with upland pine-oak forest, oak-pine forest, pitch pine lowland forest, Atlantic white cedar swamp forest plant communities; the Natural Area protects habitat of the threatened Swamp pink and other endangered plant species.
The Mount Misery Trail allows mountain biking. The Cranberry Trail is wheelchair-accessible; the Batona Trail, designed for hiking, cross country skiing, snowshoeing, is 50 miles in length. There is a loop trail of about 2 miles, starting at the forest office, a 1 mile loop at Pakim Pond. By combining different trails with the Batona Trail, loops of 6 miles and 14 miles provide day hikes; the forest contains Whitesbog Village, an historic company town, founded in the 1870s by Joseph J. White, once one of the largest cranberry and blueberry farms in the state, active through the mid-20th century; the cultivated blueberry, a hybrid of the native Vaccinium caesariense, was developed and commercialized here by Elizabeth Coleman White and Frank Coville. The now silent Whitesbog Village exemplifies the changes in agriculture in this state; the site has been leased to the nonprofit Whitesbog Preservation Trust for restoration. List of New Jersey state parks Whitesbog Preservation Trust NY-NJTC: Brendan T. Bryne State Forest Trails information website Historic American Landscapes Survey No.
NJ-1, "Whitesbog Village and Cranberry Bog, Whitesbog Road, Burlington County, NJ", 72 photos, 13 measured drawings, 67 data pages, 4 photo caption pages
The Steuben House known as the Zabriskie-Steuben House, is a noted example of Bergen Dutch sandstone architecture, located at New Bridge Landing on the Hackensack River in River Edge, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. It was confiscated from Loyalist Jan Zabriskie, served as a military headquarters through much of the Revolutionary War. General George Washington made it his headquarters, September 4 to 17, 1780. Following the war, it was given to Major General Baron von Steuben, who occupied it from 1783 to 1788; the Steuben House has long been esteemed a Revolutionary landmark. Its architecture and historic furnishings recall the Bergen Dutch, an agricultural community whose language and culture blended contributions from Dutch, Angolan African, English, French and Scandinavian settlers. At a place known as Aschatking, about ten miles above the head of Newark Bay, a Swedish land-clearer named Cornelius Mattyse acquired 420 acres at the juncture of Tantaqua's Creek and the Hackensack River, in 1682.
This was called Tantaqua's Plain. David Ackerman, residing in the village of Hackensack, purchased the land from Matheus Corneliuson, son of Cornelius Matheus of Hackensack River, in 1695, he devised that portion of this tract of land lying east of Kinderkamack Road to his son, Johannes Ackerman, who built a dwelling on the Steenrapie Road at the time of his marriage to Jannetje Lozier in 1713. A tidal gristmill was built on the Hackensack River; this mill got its power from an artificial pond: the high tide was trapped in the mouth of Cole's Brook by a dam with a special drop-gate, suspended from a horizontal timber. When the tides flowed out of the Hackensack River, the tidal millpond was released through the waterwheel. Sloops pulled alongside the mill at New Bridge Landing. On March 9, 1744, a road was surveyed from Kinderkamack Road to the chosen spot on the banks of the Hackensack River where a "New Bridge" was to be erected. Jan and Annetje Zabriskie purchased the Johannes Ackerman mill and farm in September 1745, shortly after construction of the first draw-bridge at the narrows of the Hackensack River.
This wooden span was called New Bridge to distinguish it from an older crossing several miles upstream. In 1752, Jan Zabriskie built the oldest part of the Steuben House, its walls were built with blocks of sandstone cut from the Kinderkamack Ridge - dressed stone on the two sides of the building facing the roadway and coursed rubble on the other sides. The front door opened into a center-hall; the Zabriskie family grew wealthy from increased trade brought on by the French and Indian War and doubled the size of their dwelling about 1765, increasing it from five to twelve rooms, warmed by seven fireplaces, covering it with a fashionable gambrel roof. The gambrel roof has four slopes instead of two, providing more headroom and storage space in the garret; the Jersey Dutch adopted the gambrel roof to span the depth of a house, one-and-a-half to two rooms deep. New Bridge Landing was the business center of the upper Hackensack Valley. Iron made in stone furnaces along the Ramapo Mountains was carried in ox-carts to New Bridge Landing where it was loaded onto sloops, some as large as 50 ton, for shipment to market.
Flour and animal feed was shipped from the mill. All kinds of wares came in from boats returning from the city; this location had an added advantage: because of the wide Hackensack Meadowlands downstream, New Bridge remained the nearest river crossing to Newark Bay until 1790. Overland traffic including farm wagons and stage coaches, going to and from New York City, crossed the river at this spot on their way into the interior parts of the country; the house was occupied as a military headquarters during much of the American Revolutionary War. General Washington headquartered here in September 1780 for 14 days when the Continental Army encamped on the Kinderkamack Ridge. While a constant arena for conflict, the following significant Revolutionary War events are associated with Historic New Bridge Landing: November 21, 1776: British troops under Major General Vaughan attacked the American rear guard and seized the New Bridge, which American engineers were dismantling. May 18, 1779: British and Loyalist troops under command of Captain Patrick Fergusen attacked about 40 Bergen militiamen at New Bridge.
August 18, 1779: Major Henry Lee led American troops from New Bridge, to attack the British earthworks at Paulus Hook. March 23, 1780: A force of Bergen Militia and Continental troops attacked 600 British troops and German auxiliaries at New Bridge on their retreat from Hackensack and Paramus, during the two hours it took for the British to repair and cross the New Bridge. April 15, 1780: A body of 312 British and German infantry and overwhelmed an American outpost at New Bridge commanded by Lieutenant Bryson. May 30, 1780: Eight British soldiers were killed, several wounded, by friendly fire when British troops attempted to attack a body of Bergen Militia in the Zabriskie-Steuben House at New Bridge. July 20, 1780: Brigadier General Anthony Wayne led American troops from New Bridge on a raid against the Bull's Ferry Blockhouse. September 4–17, 1780: General Washington made his headquarters in the Zabriskie-Steuben House during the Steenrapie encampment of the Continental Army, encompassing nearly 14,000 men.
The State of New Jersey confiscated the stone mansion from Jan Zabriskie, a Loyalist, in 1781. The New Jersey Legislature gave the Zabriskie estate at New Bridge to Major General Baro
Skylands is a 1,119 acres estate property located in Ringwood State Park in Ringwood, New Jersey, a borough in Passaic County in the state of New Jersey. The Skylands property consists of the historic Skylands Manor mansion, The Castle at Skylands Manor and the New Jersey Botanical Garden; the Skylands property is within the Ramapo Mountains and it is maintained by the Skyland Association. The property is marketed with the garden as New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skylands; the house and gardens, including formal gardens and specimen plantings, were built in the 1920s by Clarence MacKenzie Lewis, a New York City stockbroker and civil engineer. Lewis hired architect John Russell Pope to design the 44-room Tudor revival manor house; the manor is a reproduction English mansion featuring rectangular and oriel windows. A nine-hole golf course once graced this property. In 1966 the entire estate was bought by the State of New Jersey to form a State Botanical Garden whose settings include a Lilac Garden, Magnolia Walk, the Wild Flower Garden, the Crab Apple Vista, an allée of 166 trees extending a half-mile, the Perennial Garden.
The entire section now comprises over 4,000 acres of parkland. The Winter Garden included New Jersey's largest Jeffery pine, its east side features a weeping beech beside a century-old upright beech, as well as a Japanese umbrella pine. Other interesting non-native trees include an Algerian Atlas cedar. List of botanical gardens in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Passaic County, New Jersey New Jersey Botanical Garden, Skylands Manor House