Stratton-on-the-Fosse is a village and civil parish located on the edge of the Mendip Hills, 2 miles south-west of Westfield, 6 miles north-east of Shepton Mallet, 9 miles from Frome, in Somerset, England. It has a population of 1,108, has a rural agricultural landscape, although it was part of the once-thriving Somerset coalfield. Within the boundaries of the parish are the hamlets of Benter and Nettlebridge. Stratton-on-the-Fosse straddles the Fosse Way, an ancient Roman road which linked the cities of Lincoln and Exeter, it lies between the parish of Westfield and the village of Oakhill. St Vigor and St John Church of England Primary School is situated in nearby Chilcompton. There is evidence of human occupation of the area since the Bronze Age with skeletons and pottery being found in local caves. Blacker's Hill is believed to be an Iron Age camp occupied by the Belgae in the Iron Age with the Romans occupying it; the parish of Stratton-on-the-Fosse was part of the Kilmersdon Hundred,The manor was given to Glastonbury Abbey by King Edgar the Peaceful and during the time of Edward the Confessor was let by the abbey to a Saxon thane named Alwold.
After the Norman Conquest William the Conqueror took many lands, including Stratton-on-the-Fosse, from the abbey and gave them to Geoffrey de Montbray the Bishop of Coutances. The manor passed to the Gourney family. Sir Thomas de Gournay was concerned in the murder of Edward II at Berkeley Castle, for which his estates were confiscated, Stratton was annexed to the Duchy of Cornwall. Land just south of Benter Cross which contains the remains of coal mines from around 1700 is owned by the Somerset Wildlife Trust to be managed for grassland species. Benter House is a small country house dating from 1829, it has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. Many of the houses in Nettlebridge are owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Coal mining on the Somerset coalfield was a major industry but all mines have now closed; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny.
The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic. The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Mendip, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Shepton Mallet Rural District, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning.
It is part of the Wells county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. Close to Nettlebridge is the ancient Harridge Wood, in the care of the Somerset Wildlife Trust, it comprises five sites with a total area of 54 ha. It forms a major element of the Mells Valley Prime Biodiversity Area. Hillside House in Nettlebridge, a former pub, is a Grade II listed building; the abbey church of St Gregory the Great, known as Downside Abbey church, is an example of neo-gothic architecture. It dominates the village with its 55 metres tower, is a Grade I listed building. Downside School, which has grown in conjunction with the abbey, is a Roman Catholic Public School. There is a catholic church in the village, dedicated to St Benedict and opened in 1857.
The Anglican Church of St. Vigor dates from the 12th century and is Grade I listed. Stratton-on-the-Fosse at Curlie village web site
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
An alumnus or an alumna of a college, university, or other school is a former student who has either attended or graduated in some fashion from the institution. The word is Latin and means student; the plural is alumni for mixed groups and alumnae for women. The term is not synonymous with "graduate". An alumnus can be and is more expanded to include a former employee of an organization and it may apply to a former member, contributor, or inmate; the Latin noun alumnus means "foster son" or "pupil" and is derived from the verb alere "to nourish". The word alumnus appears in Roman law to describe a child placed in fosterage. According to John Boswell, the word "is nowhere defined in relation to status, privilege, or obligation." Citing the research of John Boswell, who studied the many inscriptions about alumni, Boswell concluded that it referred to exposed children who were taken into a household where they were "regarded as somewhere between an heir and a slave, partaking in different ways of both categories."
Despite the warmth of feelings between the parent and child, "an alumnus might be treated both as a beloved child and as a household servant." An alumnus or alumna is a former student and most a graduate of an educational institution. According to the United States Department of Education, the term alumnae is used in conjunction with either women's colleges or a female group of students; the term alumni is used in conjunction with either men's colleges, a male group of students, or a mixed group of students: In accordance with the rules of grammar governing the inflexion of nouns in the Romance languages, the masculine plural alumni is used for groups composed of both sexes: the alumni of Princeton University. The term is sometimes informally shortened to "alum". Alumni reunions are popular events at many institutions, they are organized by alumni associations and are social occasions for fundraising. The term is used exclusively in the USA. Category:Alumni by educational institution Boswell, John.
The Kindness of Strangers:The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 9780226067124; the dictionary definition of alumnus at Wiktionary
GQ is an international monthly men's magazine based in New York City and founded in 1931. The publication focuses on fashion and culture for men, though articles on food, fitness, music, sports and books are featured. Gentlemen's Quarterly was launched in 1931 in the United States as Apparel Arts, it was a men's fashion magazine for the clothing trade, aimed at wholesale buyers and retail sellers. It had a limited print run and was aimed at industry insiders to enable them to give advice to their customers; the popularity of the magazine among retail customers, who took the magazine from the retailers, spurred the creation of Esquire magazine in 1933. Apparel Arts continued until 1957 when it was transformed into a quarterly magazine for men, published for many years by Esquire Inc. Apparel was dropped from the logo in 1958 with the spring issue after nine issues, the name Gentlemen's Quarterly was established. Gentlemen's Quarterly was re-branded as GQ in 1967; the rate of publication was increased from quarterly to monthly in 1970.
In 1983 Condé Nast bought the publication, editor Art Cooper changed the course of the magazine, introducing articles beyond fashion and establishing GQ as a general men's magazine in competition with Esquire. Subsequently, international editions were launched as regional adaptations of the U. S. editorial formula. Jim Nelson was named editor-in-chief of GQ in February 2003. Nonnie Moore was hired by GQ as fashion editor in 1984, having served in the same position at Mademoiselle and Harper's Bazaar. Jim Moore, the magazine's fashion director at the time of her death in 2009, described the choice as unusual, observing that "She was not from men's wear, so people said she was an odd choice, but she was the perfect choice" and noting that she changed the publication's more casual look, which "She helped dress up the pages, as well as dress up the men, while making the mix more exciting and varied and approachable for men."GQ has been associated with metrosexuality. The writer Mark Simpson coined the term in an article for British newspaper The Independent about his visit to a GQ exhibition in London: "The promotion of metro-sexuality was left to the men's style press, magazines such as The Face, GQ, Arena and FHM, the new media which took off in the Eighties and is still growing...
They filled their magazines with images of narcissistic young men sporting fashionable clothes and accessories. And they persuaded other young men to study them with a mixture of envy and desire." The magazine has expanded its coverage beyond lifestyle issues. For example, in 2003, journalist Sabrina Rubin Erdely wrote an eight-page feature story in GQ on famous con man Steve Comisar. In 2018, writing for GQ, Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for her article about Dylann Roof, who had shot nine Afro-Americans in a church in Charleston. GQ first named their Men of the Year in 1996, featuring the award recipients in a special issue of the magazine. British GQ launched their annual Men of the Year awards in 2009 and GQ India launched theirs the following year. Spanish GQ launched their Men of the Year awards in 2011 and GQ Australia launched theirs in 2007. In 2010, GQ magazine had a few members of the television show Glee partake in a photoshoot; the sexualization of the actresses in the photos caused controversy among parents of teens who watch the show Glee.
The Parents Television Council was the first to react to the photo spread when it was leaked prior to GQ's planned publishing date. Their President Tim Winter stated, "By authorizing this kind of near-pornographic display, the creators of the program have established their intentions on the show's directions, and it isn't good for families". The photoshoot was published as planned and Dianna Agron went on to state that the photos that were taken did not represent who she is and that she was sorry if anyone was offended by them. GQ's September 2009 U. S. magazine published, in its "backstory" section, an article by Scott Anderson, "None Dare Call It Conspiracy". Before GQ published the article, an internal email from a Condé Nast lawyer referred to it as "Vladimir Putin's Dark Rise to Power"; the article reported Anderson's investigation of the 1999 Russian apartment bombings, included interviews with Mikhail Trepashkin who investigated the bombings while he was a colonel in Russia's Federal Security Service.
The story, including Trepashkin's own findings, contradicted the Russian Government's official explanation of the bombings and criticized Vladimir Putin, the President of Russia. Condé Nast's management tried to keep the story out of Russia, it ordered executives and editors not to distribute that issue in Russia or show it to "Russian government officials, journalists or advertisers". Management decided not to publish the story on GQ's website or in Condé Nast's foreign magazines, not to publicize the story, asked Anderson not to syndicate the story "to any publications that appear in Russia". Within 24 hours of the magazine's publication in the U. S. bloggers published a translation into Russian on the Web. On April 19, 2018, the editors of GQ published an article titled "21 Books You Don’t Have To Read" in which the editors compiled a list of works they think are overrated and should be passed over, including Catcher in the Rye, The Alchemist, Blood Meridian, A Farewell to Arms, The Old Man and the Sea, The Lord of the Rings, Catch-22
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel, its coastline facing southeastern Wales, its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset's county town is Taunton. Somerset is a rural county of rolling hills, the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park, large flat expanses of land including the Somerset Levels. There is evidence of human occupation from Paleolithic times, of subsequent settlement by the Celts and Anglo-Saxons; the county played a significant part in Alfred the Great's rise to power, the English Civil War and the Monmouth Rebellion. The city of Bath is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somerset's name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, meaning "the people living at or dependent on Sumortūn"; the first known use of Somersæte is in the law code of King Ine, the Saxon King of Wessex from 688 to 726, making Somerset along with Hampshire and Dorset one of the oldest extant units of local government in the world.
An alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning "settlers by the sea lakes". The Old English name is used in the motto of the county, Sumorsǣte ealle, meaning "all the people of Somerset". Adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Somerset was a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, the phrase refers to the wholehearted support the people of Somerset gave to King Alfred in his struggle to save Wessex from Viking invaders. Somerset settlement names are Anglo-Saxon in origin, but numerous place names include Brittonic Celtic elements, such as the rivers Frome and Avon, names of hills. For example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as "the hill the British call Cructan and the Anglo-Saxons call Crychbeorh"; some modern names are Brythonic in origin, such as Tarnock, while others have both Saxon and Brythonic elements, such as Pen Hill. The caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the Palaeolithic period, contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge.
Bones from Gough's Cave have been dated to 12,000 BC, a complete skeleton, known as Cheddar Man, dates from 7150 BC. Examples of cave art have been found in Aveline's Hole; some caves continued to be occupied until modern times, including Wookey Hole. The Somerset Levels—specifically dry points at Glastonbury and Brent Knoll— have a long history of settlement, are known to have been settled by Mesolithic hunters. Travel in the area was facilitated by the construction of one of the world's oldest known engineered roadways, the Sweet Track, which dates from 3807 BC or 3806 BC; the exact age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but it is believed to be Neolithic. There are numerous Iron Age hill forts, some of which, like Cadbury Castle and Ham Hill, were reoccupied in the Early Middle Ages. On the authority of the future emperor Vespasian, as part of the ongoing expansion of the Roman presence in Britain, the Second Legion Augusta invaded Somerset from the south-east in AD 47.
The county remained part of the Roman Empire until around AD 409, when the Roman occupation of Britain came to an end. A variety of Roman remains have been found, including Pagans Hill Roman temple in Chew Stoke,Low Ham Roman Villa and the Roman Baths that gave their name to the city of Bath. After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon peoples. By AD 600 they had established control over much of what is now England, but Somerset was still in native British hands; the British held back Saxon advance into the south-west for some time longer, but by the early eighth century King Ine of Wessex had pushed the boundaries of the West Saxon kingdom far enough west to include Somerset. The Saxon royal palace in Cheddar was used several times in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot. After the Norman Conquest, the county was divided into 700 fiefs, large areas were owned by the crown, with fortifications such as Dunster Castle used for control and defence. Somerset contains HM Prison Shepton Mallet, England's oldest prison still in use prior to its closure in 2013, having opened in 1610.
In the English Civil War Somerset was Parliamentarian, with key engagements being the Sieges of Taunton and the Battle of Langport. In 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in neighbouring Dorset; the rebels landed at Lyme Regis and travelled north, hoping to capture Bristol and Bath, but they were defeated in the Battle of Sedgemoor at Westonzoyland, the last pitched battle fought in England. Arthur Wellesley took Duke of Wellington from the town of Wellington; the Industrial Revolution in the Midlands and Northern England spelled the end for most of Somerset's cottage industries. Farming continued to flourish and the Bath and West of England Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce was founded in 1777 to improve farming methods. Despite this, 20 years John Billingsley conducted a survey of the county's agriculture in 1795 and found that agricultural methods could still be improved. Coal mining was an important industry in north Somerset during the 18th and 19th centuries, by 1800 it was prominent in Radstock.
The Somerset Coalfield reached its peak production by the 1920s, but all the pits have now been closed, the last in 1973. Most of the surface
Downside School is a co-educational Catholic independent school for children aged 11 to 18, located in Stratton-on-the-Fosse, between Westfield and Shepton Mallet in Somerset, south west England, attached to Downside Abbey. It has both day pupils. A school for English Catholic boys, it was established in 1617 by English and Welsh monks living in exile at Douai, France; the monastic community returned to England in 1795, with both the community and its school housed in the Shropshire home of Sir Edward Smythe, a former pupil. By 1814 the abbey and school had been re-established at its present site in Somerset. Downside School became co-educational with boys and girls in all year groups in 2005. In 2017 the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse began an investigation into the English Benedictine Congregation, including Ampleforth College and Downside School. Ten individuals from the two schools, including monks, were convicted or accepted a caution for abuse; the final report released in August 2018 said that the abuse had been inflicted on pupils for over 40 years, but the schools had tried to cover up the allegations.
Downside School has since instituted measures for protecting and safeguarding its students and appointed a new headmaster. Downside is run by the Benedictine monks of Downside Abbey. Several monks work in the school as chaplains, it has a board of governors consisting of seven others. Of the latter three are members of the Benedictine community; however the school does not have a separate legal status from the abbey, so the monastic trustees have financial and executive control of the school. The governors provide general management; the school is divided into six houses. Each house takes its name from the Community's martyrs or benefactors: Powell House although in the senior school is a Junior House for all boys in Third Form before they join their senior house in Fourth Form, it is named after the Martyr Blessed Philip Powell, a monk of St Gregory's at Douai. Barlow House is situated on the south side of the main quad, it is named after the Martyr, Ambrose Barlow, a monk of St Gregory's at Douai.
The house colours are white. Caverel House was a boys' house but was re-furbished and changed to a girls' house following the admission of girls to Downside in September 2005. Caverel is named after Abbot Philippe de Caverel; the house colours are white. Isabella House was founded in 2007 as a second girls' house in the senior school; the house is situated in a purpose built building in the south-east of the school grounds. Isabella is named after Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain and Portugal; the house colours are blue. Roberts House is situated in the west sides of the main quad, it is named after the Martyr and monk of St. Gregory's in St. John Roberts; the house colours are white. Smythe House is situated in the east side of the main quad, is named after the major Benefactor Sir Edward Smythe; the house colours are black. Monks from the monastery of St Gregory's, Douai in Flanders, came to Downside in 1814. In 1607, St Gregory's was the first house after the Reformation to begin conventual life with a handful of exiled Englishmen.
For nearly 200 years St Gregory's trained monks for the English mission and six of these men were beatified by Pope Pius XI in 1929. Two of these monks, SS John Roberts and Ambrose Barlow, were among the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970. Imprisoned driven from France at the Revolution, the community remained at Acton Burnell in Shropshire for 20 years before settling in Somerset in 1814; the Monastery was completed in 1876 and the Abbey Church in 1925, being raised to the rank of a minor basilica in 1935 by Pius XI. Attached to the Monastery, the School provides a Catholic boarding education for boys and girls between the ages of 11 and 18 years. During the 19th century Downside remained a small monastic school, it was Dom Leander Ramsay who founded the modern Downside and planned the new buildings, designed by Leonard Stokes, that opened in 1912 and now form two sides of the "Quad". The 20th century brought about changes for Downside in the expansion of the school buildings and school numbers — over 600 boys at one point.
Over the decades the number of pupils had been falling but development drives and renewed demand for boarding education has seen numbers rise. As part of the renewal, girls were admitted in 2004. Since the opening of Isabella House in 2007 60% of the pupils are boys and 40% are girls. On Saturday 15 May 1943, during a cricket match between the school and an army team, two Hawker Hurricane fighter aircraft appeared over the playing fields at around 3 pm, they proceeded to circle the fields, performing manoeuvres as they did so, an eyewitness describing them "diving over the field and banking steeply". In what would be the final pass, at around 3:20 pm, both aircraft flew across the cricket ground at an low altitude, climbed to clear the tall fir trees bordering the field; the second aircraft appeared to clip the trees with its tail and nose-dived straight into the ground and bouncing, the burning debris coming to rest amongst the schoolboys watching the cricket match from an embankment. The pilot and nine people on the ground were killed, with ten of them seriously.
In September 2013 a single-person aircraft crashed in the school grounds, causing the death of the pilot. The IICSA, following investigation into the English Benedictine Congregati