A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science, the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline and often completely amorphous. Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family. The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with materials like silica, sintered.
Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering. The word ceramic comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, of pottery or for pottery, from κέραμος, potters clay, the earliest known mention of the root ceram- is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, workers of ceramics, written in Linear B syllabic script. The word ceramic may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more commonly, as the plural noun ceramics. A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic, often crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material, some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments.
Ceramics generally can withstand high temperatures, such as temperatures that range from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is often not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the process and its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide. The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide, both are valued for their abrasion resistance, and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations. Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a range of processing
The Pan-American Exposition was a Worlds Fair held in Buffalo, New York, United States, from May 1 through November 2,1901. The fair occupied 350 acres of land on the edge of what is now Delaware Park, extending from Delaware Avenue to Elmwood Avenue. It is remembered primarily for being the location of the assassination of President William McKinley. The event was organized by the Pan-American Exposition Company, formed in 1897, cayuga Island was initially chosen as the place to hold the Exposition because of the islands proximity to Niagara Falls, which was a huge tourist attraction. When the Spanish–American War broke out in 1898, plans were put on hold, after the war, there was a heated competition between Buffalo and Niagara Falls over the location. Buffalo won for two main reasons, Buffalo had a much larger population—with roughly 350,000 people, it was the eighth-largest city in the United States. Second, Buffalo had better railroad connections—the city was within a days journey by rail for over 40 million people, in July 1898, Congress pledged $500,000 for the Exposition to be held at Buffalo.
The Pan American theme was carried throughout the event with the commercial well being. The advent of the current power transmission system in the US allowed designers to light the Exposition in Buffalo using power generated 25 miles away at Niagara Falls. The exposition is most remembered because President William McKinley was shot by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, the President died eight days on September 14 from gangrene caused by the bullet wounds. On the day prior to the shooting, McKinley had given an address at the exposition and they stimulate the energy and intellect of the people, and quicken human genius. They broaden and brighten the daily life of the people and they open mighty storehouses of information to the student. Also, the room at the expositions emergency hospital did not have any electric lighting. Doctors used a pan to reflect sunlight onto the table as they treated McKinleys wounds. Buildings and exhibits featured at the Pan-American Exposition included, The Administration Building The Agricultural, the Electric Tower designed by John Galen Howard.
The Electricity Building designed by Green & Wicks, the Ethnology Building designed by George Cary. The Government Building designed by James Knox Taylor, the Machinery and Transportation Building designed by Green & Wicks. The Mines and Graphic Arts Building, and Horticulture Buildings all designed by Robert Swain Peabody, the New York State Building designed by George Cary and constructed of Vermont Marble
Rookwood Pottery Company
Rookwood Pottery is an American ceramics company now located in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1880, and successful until the Great Depression, production has been intermittent and at a low level since 1967, though there was a change of ownership in 2006, and expansion is planned. The first Rookwood Pottery was located in a school house on Eastern Avenue which had been purchased by Marias father at a sheriffs sale in March 1880. Mrs. Storer named it Rookwood, after her fathers estate near the city in Walnut Hills. The first ware came from the kiln on Thanksgiving Day of that year, through years of experimentation with glazes and kiln temperatures, Rookwood pottery became a popular American art pottery, designed to be at least as decorative as it is useful. The artist Laura Anne Fry worked at Rookwood as a painter and teacher from 1881 to 1888, the second Rookwood Pottery building, on top of Mount Adams, was built in 1891-1892 by H. Neill Wilson, who was son of prominent Cincinnati architect James Keys Wilson.
Each era of Rookwood work has its own unique character, the earliest work is relief-worked on colored clay, in red, pinks and sage or olive greens. Some were gilt, or had stamped patterns, and some were carved, often these were painted or otherwise decorated by the purchaser of the greenware, a precursor to todays do-it-yourself movement. However, such personally decorated pieces are not usually considered Rookwood for purposes of sale or valuation, after this period, Storer sought a standard look for Rookwood and developed the Standard Glaze, a yellow-tinted, high-gloss clear glaze often used over leaf or flower motifs. A series of portraits — often of generic American Indian characters or certain historical figures — were produced using the Standard Glaze, a variant on the Standard Glaze was the less-common but very collectible tiger eye which appears only on a red clay base. Tiger Eye produces a golden shimmer deep within the glaze, however, it was unpredictable, Rookwood produced pottery in the Japonism trend, after Storer invited Japanese artist Kitaro Shirayamadani to come to Cincinnati in 1887 to work for the company.
Davis Collamore & Co. a high-end New York City importer of porcelain and glass, were Rookwoods representatives at the Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889. In 1894, Rookwood introduced three glazes, Iris a remarkably clear, colorless glaze, Sea Green which was clear but green-tinted, the latter glaze was produced for just one year, while the two former glazes were used for more than a decade. With increased interest in the American Arts & Crafts Movement, a matte glaze was needed which could be used over under-glaze decoration. Rookwood responded in 1904 with the introduction of the Vellum glaze, one of the last glaze lines of Rookwood was Ombroso, not used until after 1910. Ombroso, used on cut or incised pottery, is a brown or black matte glaze, in 1902, Rookwood added architectural pottery to its portfolio. Under the direction of William Watts Taylor, this division rapidly gained national and international acclaim, many flat pieces were used around fireplaces in homes in Cincinnati and surrounding areas, while custom installations found their places in grand homes and public spaces.
Original Rookwood-installed tiles can be viewed in Carew Tower, Union Terminal and Dixie Terminal in Cincinnati, as well as the Rathskeller Room at the The Seelbach Hilton in Louisville, Kentucky
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau. The staging of the first International Exhibition in 1855 was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride, the succession of exhibitions followed the same theme, the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles, the Exposition Universelle was a uniting and learning experience. It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences, new cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained. The learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war, the early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest that had been circling around the first German International Exposition.
It is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred more than the price of admission. The exhibition lost a total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event, with a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated, the concessionaires went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a refund of the rent they had paid. The financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians, the Exposition Universelle was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, and where Campbells Soup was awarded a gold medal.
At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his engine, running on peanut oil. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were apparently the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound, the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama. The centrepiece of the Palais de lOptique was the 1. 25-metre-diameter Great Exposition Refractor and this telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time. The optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror. Partly organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B, du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition, many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, and covered with staff, which was formed into columns, walls, etc
In 1865, Tiffany traveled to Europe, and in London he visited the Victoria and Albert Museum, whose extensive collection of Roman and Syrian glass made a deep impression on him. He admired the coloration of glass and was convinced that the quality of contemporary glass could be improved upon. His inventiveness both as a designer of windows and as a producer of the material with which to them was to become renowned. Tiffany wanted the glass itself to transmit texture and rich colors, the glass was manufactured at the Tiffany factory located at 96-18 43rd Avenue in the Corona section of Queens from 1901 to 1932. Some opalescent glass was used by several stained glass studios in England from the 1860s and 1870s onwards, notably Heaton, opalescent glass is the basis for the range of glasses created by Tiffany. Tiffany patented Favrile glass in 1892, Favrile glass often has a distinctive characteristic that is common in some glass from Classical antiquity, it possesses a superficial iridescence.
This iridescence causes the surface to shimmer, but causes a degree of opacity and this iridescent effect of the glass was obtained by mixing different colors of glass together while hot. Streamer glass refers to a sheet of glass with a pattern of glass strings affixed to its surface, Tiffany made use of such textured glass to represent, for example, twigs and grass. Streamers are prepared from very hot glass, gathered at the end of a punty that is rapidly swung back and forth and stretched into long, thin strings that rapidly cool. These hand-stretched streamers are pressed on the surface of sheet glass during the rolling process. Fracture glass refers to a sheet of glass with a pattern of irregularly shaped, Tiffany made use of such textured glass to represent, for example, foliage seen from a distance. The irregular glass wafers, called fractures, are prepared from very hot, colored molten glass, a large bubble is forcefully blown until the walls of the bubble rapidly stretch and harden.
The resulting glass bubble has paper-thin walls and is shattered into shards. These hand blown shards are pressed on the surface of the glass sheet during the rolling process. Fracture-streamer glass refers to a sheet of glass with a pattern of glass strings, Tiffany made use of such textured glass to represent, for example, twigs and grass, and distant foliage. The process is as above except that both streamers and fractures are applied to glass during the rolling process. Ring mottle glass refers to glass with a pronounced mottle created by localized, heat-treated opacification. Ring mottle glass was invented by Tiffany in the early 20th century, tiffanys distinctive style exploited glass containing a variety of motifs such as those found in ring mottle glass, and he relied minimally on painted details
It became the countrys first manufactury of architectural terra cotta. The production consisted of drain tile, chimney tops, urns, Gates used the facilities to experiment with clays and glazes in an effort to design a line of art pottery which led to the introduction of Teco Pottery in 1899. American Terra Cottas records are housed at the University of Minnesota, the smooth, micro-crystalline, matte Teco Green glaze of Teco Art Pottery was developed independently and wasnt an attempt to copy the famous Grueby green. The pottery shapes derived from line and color rather than elaborate decoration and they had rejected the revival styles of American architecture of the 19th century in favor of using wood and clay in simplicity of design. Any ornamentation consisted of geometrical or natural objects which merged gracefully with the form, Teco Pottery became closely linked with this style and the pottery was often an integral part of Prairie School homes Bungalow. Gates retired in 1913 to write for Clay-worker magazine, but returned in 1915 and his son Major Gates, a ceramic engineer, invented a pressing machine and tunnel kiln, and a glaze spraying appuratus called a pulischrometer.
In 1918, they acquired Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company, in 1919, a Minneapolis branch opened. Nearing the end of his life, William D. Gates constructed a residence just north of Crystal Lake, in October 1929, the Indianapolis branch closed due to the stock market crash. Later, the plant fell victim to the Great Depression, in 1930, ownership was transferred to George A. Berry, Jr, Gates attorney. Terra cotta production resumed until 1941, after World War II, they resumed manufacturing structural clay products through 1966. In 1972, TC inc. was formed from a merger of three businesses as production facility of ground engaging tools for construction equipment on the site, the following is taken directly from an early catalog, George A. Darling, Sharon S. Common Clay, A History of American Terra Cotta Corporation, 1881-1966, treasures of the Arts and Crafts Movement. New York, Harry N. Abrams, the Kovels Collectors Guide to American Art Pottery. The Teco Art Pottery Collection Modern day reproduction Teco Pottery Teco Pottery Marks Teco Pottery History Teco Pottery Examples Teco Pottery
Louis Comfort Tiffany
Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau, Tiffany was affiliated with a prestigious collaborative of designers known as the Associated Artists, which included Lockwood de Forest, Candace Wheeler, and Samuel Colman. Tiffany designed stained glass windows and lamps, glass mosaics, blown glass, jewelry, enamels and he was the first Design Director at his family company, Tiffany & Co. founded by his father Charles Lewis Tiffany. Louis Comfort Tiffany was born in New York City, the son of Charles Lewis Tiffany, founder of Tiffany and Company and he attended school at Pennsylvania Military Academy in West Chester and Eagleswood Military Academy in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. His first artistic training was as a painter, studying under George Inness in Eagleswood, New Jersey and Samuel Colman in Irvington and he studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City in 1866–67 and with salon painter Leon-Adolphe-Auguste Belly in 1868–69.
Bellys landscape paintings had a influence on Tiffany. Tiffany started out as a painter, but became interested in glassmaking from about 1875, in 1879, he joined with Candace Wheeler, Samuel Colman and Lockwood de Forest to form Louis Comfort Tiffany and Associated American Artists. The business was short-lived, lasting four years. The group made designs for wallpaper and textiles and he opened his own glass factory in Corona, New York, determined to provide designs that improved the quality of contemporary glass. Tiffanys leadership and talent, as well as his fathers money and connections and he commissioned Tiffany, who had begun to make a name for himself in New York society for the firms interior design work, to redo the state rooms, which Arthur found charmless. The Tiffany screen and other Victorian additions were all removed in the Roosevelt renovations of 1902, a desire to concentrate on art in glass led to the breakup of the firm in 1885 when Tiffany chose to establish his own glassmaking firm that same year.
The first Tiffany Glass Company was incorporated December 1,1885, in the beginning of his career, Tiffany used cheap jelly jars and bottles because they had the mineral impurities that finer glass lacked. When he was unable to convince fine glassmakers to leave the impurities in, Tiffany used opalescent glass in a variety of colors and textures to create a unique style of stained glass. Use of the glass itself to create stained glass pictures was motivated by the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement. Tiffany and Kimberly, along with La Farge, had learned their craft at the same glasshouses in Brooklyn in the late 1870s. In 1889 at the Paris Exposition, he is said to have been Overwhelmed by the work of Émile Gallé. He met artist Alphonse Mucha, in 1893, his company introduced the term Favrile in conjunction with his first production of blown glass at his new glass factory. Some early examples of his lamps were exhibited in the 1893 Worlds Fair in Chicago, at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, he won a gold medal with his stained glass windows The Four Seasons He trademarked Favrile on November 13,1894
In stream restoration, river engineering or coastal engineering, revetments are sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water. In military engineering they are structures, again sloped, formed to secure an area from artillery, River or coastal revetments are usually built to preserve the existing uses of the shoreline and to protect the slope, as defense against erosion. Many revetments are used to line the banks of rivers, lakes. Many materials may be used, wooden piles, loose-piled boulders or concrete shapes, revetments are used as a low-cost solution for coastal erosion defence in areas where crashing waves may otherwise deplete the coastline. Wooden revetments are made of planks laid against wooden frames so that they disrupt the force of the water, although once popular, the use of wooden revetments has largely been replaced by modern concrete-based defence structures such as tetrapods. In coastal engineering, a tetrapod is a concrete structure used as armour unit on breakwaters. A few log revetments have been preserved due to high resin pine or cypress, after an entrenchment was abandoned, many log or rail revetments were scavenged for other uses, causing the interior slope to slump more quickly.
An interior slope will appear more vertical if the parapet eroded with the revetment still in place, Revetment Riparian zone Riparian zone restoration Seawall Rip-rap Pisa Revetment Gabion Revetment EPA - River Bend Project Levee and Revetment Routine Maintenance US DOT - Design of Riprap Revetment
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, Dartmouth is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution, with a total student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is highly competitive, with a rate of 10. 4% for the Class of 2021. Dartmouths 269-acre campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England, the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its focus, strong Greek culture. Its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I, Dartmouth is consistently included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings. According to a Forbes study, despite its small size. In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouths graduates were shown to be among the most sought-after and valued in the world.
Dartmouth has produced prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate. Cabinet officials,3 Nobel Prize laureates,2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, and Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, wheelocks ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became a minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747. Wheelock founded Moors Indian Charity School in 1755, the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue schools operations, and Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches, with these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock. The head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, in seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire.
The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources, the reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity Schools unspent trust funds. The College granted its first degrees in 1771, given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his new college as one primarily for whites. An institution called Dartmouth University occupied the buildings and began operating in Hanover in 1817
Interborough Rapid Transit Company
The IRT was purchased by the City in June 1940. The former IRT lines are now the A Division or IRT Division of the Subway, the first IRT subway ran between City Hall and 145th Street at Broadway, opening on October 27,1904. It opened following more than twenty years of debate on the merits of subways versus the existing elevated rail system. Founded on May 6,1902, by August Belmont, Jr. the IRTs mission was to operate New York Citys initial underground rapid transit system after Belmonts, mcDonalds Rapid Transit Construction Company was awarded the rights to build the railway line in 1900, outbidding Andrew Onderdonk. On April 1,1903, over a year before its first subway line opened, the Manhattan EL was the operator of four elevated railways in Manhattan with an extension into the Bronx. The IRT coordinated some services between what became its subway and elevated divisions, but all the lines of the former Manhattan EL have since been dismantled. In 1913, as a result of expansion in the city.
The IRT ceased to function as a privately held company on June 12,1940, the IRT lines are operated as the A Division of the subway. The remaining lines are underground in Manhattan, except for a stretch across Harlem at 125th Street. Its Brooklyn lines are underground with a single elevated extension that reaches up to New Lots Avenue, the Flushing Line, its sole line in Queens, is entirely elevated except for a short portion approaching its East River tunnel and its terminal at Flushing–Main Street. The Flushing Line has had no connection to the rest of the IRT since 1942. It is connected to the BMT and the rest of the system via the BMT Astoria Line on the level of the Queensboro Plaza station. The Flushing Line became the responsibility of IRT, the Astoria Line had its platforms shaved back for exclusive BMT operation
Astor Place (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
Astor Place, called Astor Place – Cooper Union on signs, is a local station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Completed in 1904, it is one of the original twenty-eight stations in the system, the station is on the List of Registered Historic Places in New York. Construction started on the first IRT line in 1900, the part of the line from City Hall to just south of 42nd Street was part of the original IRT line including the Astor Place station, opened on October 27,1904. In 1981, the MTA listed the station among the 69 most deteriorated stations in the subway system, the station underwent renovation from June 1984 to May 1986. The station was renovated for $2,500,000, and was part of the Adopt-a-station program, the money included $600,000 from the Federal Urban Mass Transit Administration, $125,000 from private sources, including some from the Vincent Astor Foundation. A new piece of porcelain steel artwork by Cooper Union alumnus Milton Glaser was installed, there was an underpass between the uptown and downtown sides, but it was closed and covered up in the 1980s renovation.
The original plans for the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad included a spur along Ninth Street to this station, Astor Place is a local station with four tracks and two side platforms. The fare control is at level, and the underpass connecting northbound and southbound sides was removed in the 1980s. The access hatch to the underpass is visible behind the token booth inside the fare control area. The northbound platform contains a news and candy stand, which replaced the public womens lavatory. On the southbound side, the station has a department store entrance into a K-Mart and this store was originally constructed in 1868 as an A. T. Stewart. It had changed ownership and was a Wanamakers when the station was constructed, the heavy brick-faced square columns on the downtown platform support the store above. The northern building of Wanamakers store, but not the building above. Octagonal windows on the wall of the platform were the stores showcases. Plaques of beavers are located on the walls, in honor of John Jacob Astors fortune derived from the beaver-pelt trade, the plaques, as well as name tablets, were made by the Grueby Faience Company in 1904.
During the renovation, the magnificent maroon and gold tile Cooper Union signs underneath the tile Astor Place signs were destroyed and white pillar signs read Astor Place on one pillar, Cooper Union on the next. The station has two entrances, one in each direction, there is a reproduction of an IRT entry kiosk on the street level over the northbound entrance. The station itself is a point of local interest, as it is on the List of Registered Historic Places in New York, several other sites of historical and cultural importance located near the station
World's Columbian Exposition
The Worlds Columbian Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicagos self-image, and American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be and it was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor. The color of the generally used to cover the buildings facades gave the fairgrounds its nickname. Many prominent architects designed its 14 great buildings and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition.
The exposition covered more than 600 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, more than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21,1892, the fair continued until October 30,1893. On October 9,1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair one of the stars on its municipal flag. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, and Connecticut banking, the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. Worlds fairs, such as Londons 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines, the first American attempt at a worlds fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure. Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus landing started in the late 1880s.
Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, Congress was called on to decide the location. What finally persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million dollars in a 24-hour period, over. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park, Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, and George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the periods top talent to design the buildings, the temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the “White City”