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Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063. He was Angharad, daughter of Maredudd ab Owain, he was the great-great-grandson of Hywel Dda. Gruffydd was the son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, able to rule both Gwynedd and Powys, Angharad ferch Maredudd. On Llywelyn's death in 1023, a member of the Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd and began his rise to power in Powys. In 1039, King Iago of Gwynedd was killed and his son Cynan, who may have been as young as four, was forced into exile in Dublin. Gruffydd, who had recovered Powys, expanded into the vacuum. Soon after gaining power, he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and defeated it, killing Edwin, brother of the Leofric, Earl of Mercia, he attacked Dyfed, which his father had ruled but was now under Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of the south, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded returning to the mouth of the River Tywi with a Danish fleet to try to reclaim his kingdom.

Gruffydd, however and killed him in a fought engagement. Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard, he was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English in the Battle of Leominster. In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd allied himself with Ælfgar, son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers, they were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, he sacked the city and destroyed its motte-and-bailey castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter-attacking, seems to have built a fortification at Longtown in Herefordshire before refortifying Hereford.

Shortly afterwards Ælfgar was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded. Around this time Gruffydd was able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056, he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. Now recognized as King of Wales, he claimed sovereignty over the whole of the country – a claim, recognised by the English. Historian John Davies stated that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king to rule over the entire territory of Wales... Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor." During this time, between 1053 and 1063, Wales was at peace. Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgar in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan.

Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led the fleet first to south Wales and north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia. Gruffydd's head and the figurehead of his ship were sent to Harold; the Ulster Chronicle states that he was killed by Cynan in 1064, whose father Iago had been put to death by Gruffydd in 1039. Gruffydd had made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. According to Walter Map, Gruffydd said of this: Speak not of killing. Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys, thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king.

Gruffydd left two sons who in 1069 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, the other dying of exposure after the battle. Gruffydd married Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar of Mercia after his abduction of, marriage to, the unnamed wife of Hywel ab Edwin in 1041. Gruffydd had at least three children, two sons called Maredudd and Idwal who both died at the Battle of Mechain in 1069, a daughter called Nest verch Gruffydd who married Osbern fitzRichard of Richard's Castle, their daughter Nest ferch Osbern married Bernard de Neufmarché. Nest verch Gruffydd was married to Trahaearn ap Caradog before Osbern, they had seven children. He may have had another son Owain ap Gruffudd who died in 1059. John Edward Lloyd A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest John Davies A History of Wales ISBN 0-14-014581-8 K. L. Maund. Ireland and England in the Eleventh Century. Boydel

Victoria Aihar

Victoria Aihar, is a Uruguayan web designer and author. She studied at Crandon Institute, studied English and Arabic, she graduated as a Web designer in 2001, she is working as a programmer and a writer. She got married in 2000, she published her erotic novels under a pseudonym. Her books have been published by Editorial Planeta in countries like Spain; the book «"Un café no se le niega a nadie"» during its presale has reached the 7th place among the bestseller ranking by Amazon Spain above the bestseller and sequel to "Fifty Shades of Grey" by Erika James. 2014, Una canción para Abril 2014, ¿A cuántos centímetros de ti? 2015, Una segunda oportunidad 2015, Un café no se le niega a nadie This article draws on the in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, accessed in the version of 10/2015. Entrevista a la autora Victoria Aiha, 2014

Kumba (Swedish rapper)

Kumba M'bye, is a Swedish rap artist and former model. Kumba grew up in Landskrona. In 2005, M'bye became one of 9 contestant of Sweden in Scandavian version of Top Model after one contestant had to quit the competition, where she place 6th in Sweden. In the early 2000s she started writing lyrics in English. During the summer of 2013 the rapper Stor heard her rapping and invited her to do an audition at the record label Redline Records. Inspired by the rappers Linda Pira and Lilla Namo she started writing lyrics in Swedish. In 2014, she collaborated with Pira on her music single "Knäpper mina fingrar"; this led to Kumba being able to participate in a hiphop concert at the Dramaten for female rappers only. She has participated in the Sveriges Radio show "En kärleksattack på svensk hiphop". In 2014, her music single "I staden" was released for Redline Records. At the 2015 Kingsize gala she was nominated for Best Newcomer of 2015. In 2015, Kumba participated in the TV-show Lyckliga gatan broadcast on TV4 where she had to make a new version of the Kicki Danielsson song "Bra vibrationer, while Danielsson made a new version of Kumbas song "I staden".

Kumba has been modelling, having participated as a contestant on the first season of Top Model where she was eliminated on the 5th episode of Sweden pre-selection round

Richard III (play)

Richard III is a historical play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written around 1593. It depicts the Machiavellian rise to power and subsequent short reign of King Richard III of England; the play is grouped among the histories in the First Folio and is most classified as such. However, as in the quarto edition, it is termed a tragedy. Richard III concludes Shakespeare's first tetralogy, it is the second longest play in the Shakespearean canon after Hamlet and is the longest of the First Folio, whose version of Hamlet is shorter than its Quarto counterpart. The play is abridged. In such instances, extra lines are invented or added from elsewhere in the sequence to establish the nature of characters' relationships. A further reason for abridgment is that Shakespeare assumed that his audiences would be familiar with his Henry VI plays and made indirect references to events in them, such as Richard's murder of Henry VI or the defeat of Henry's wife, Margaret. House of York King Edward IVKing of England Richard, Duke of Gloucester – Edward IV's brother.

Other Although they do not appear in the text of the play, many productions include as on-stage characters Jane Shore, Elizabeth of York, George Stanley The play begins with Richard standing in "a street", describing the re-accession to the throne of his brother, King Edward IV of England, eldest son of the late Richard, Duke of York, implying the year is 1471. Richard is an ugly hunchback, "rudely stamp'd", "deformed, unfinish'd", cannot "strut before a wanton ambling nymph." He responds to the anguish of his condition with an outcast's credo: "I am determined to prove a villain / And hate the idle pleasures of these days." Richard plots to have his brother Clarence, who stands before him in the line of succession, conducted to the Tower of London over a prophecy he bribed a soothsayer to finagle the suspicious King with. Richard now schemes to woo "the Lady Anne" – Anne Neville, widow of the Lancastrian Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, he confides to the audience: The scene changes to reveal Lady Anne accompanying the corpse of the late king Henry VI, along with Trestle and Berkeley, on its way from St Paul's Cathedral to interment.

She asks them to set down the "honourable load – if honour may be shrouded in a hearse", laments the fate of the house of Lancaster. Richard appears and demands that the "unmanner'd dog" carrying the hearse set it down, at which point a brief verbal wrangling takes place. Despite hating him, Anne is won over by his pleas of love and repentance, agreeing to marry him; when she leaves, Richard exults in having won her over despite all he has done to her, tells the audience that he will discard her once she has served her purpose. The atmosphere at court is poisonous: The established nobles are at odds with the upwardly mobile relatives of Queen Elizabeth, a hostility fueled by Richard's machinations. Queen Margaret, Henry VI's widow, returns in defiance of her banishment and warns the squabbling nobles about Richard. Queen Margaret curses the rest who were present; the nobles, all Yorkists, reflexively unite against this last Lancastrian, the warning falls on deaf ears. Richard orders two murderers to kill Clarence in the tower.

Clarence, relates a dream to his keeper. The dream includes vivid language describing Clarence falling from an imaginary sh

St. Tropez (self-tan brand)

St. Tropez is a self-tan brand, specialising in self-tan, skin finishing treatments and bronzing cosmetics; the business was established in 1996. St Tropez has a range of 30 products which include cosmetics, self-tanning products, skin perfecting & finishing products. St. Tropez launched a range of new products including new dual gradual tanning products for legs, an evolved cosmetics range for summer 09. St. Tropez works with the Prince's Trust and helped to raise £90,000 with its sponsorship of its first Spring Ball in 2009, it participates in the charity’s Million Makers scheme, provides training via its staff for young people looking to gain additional skills in the workplace and has launched a Beauty steering group – led by CEO, Michelle Feeney. In May 2009 St Tropez began the Skin Smart campaign by announcing the launch of a new beauty industry lobby group to campaign for stricter regulations on sun beds in the UK; this included the launch of a petition backed by Sian James MP that aims to ban sun beds for under- 18s.

The All Parliamentary Parliament Lobbying Group*, being spearheaded by Sian James MP, is calling to ban all unmanned coin-operated sun beds in the UK, prevent any under 18 year old from using sun beds and introduce health and safety regulations for all sun bed shops and salons. At the 2009 Brit Awards and V Festival, St. Tropez gave performers and VIP’s the chance to experience their new ‘No Tan, Tan’ products backstage. Both events were a huge success, with over 3 gallons of tanning product being used at the V Festival. NewBeauty Magazine Beauty Choice Awards 2013 - Best Self Tanner for a Natural Look Star Beauty Awards 2009 - Best Facial Self Tanner Sunday Times Beauty Awards 2009 - Best Self Tan for Face and Body CEW UK Beauty Awards 2009 - Everyday Body *Woman & Home Beauty Awards 2009 - Everyday Body Favorite Sunless Tanning Line – Professional Choice Awards Bridal Beauty Awards 2008 and 2009 *Cosmo Girl 2006 – Auto Bronzant *Style 2006 – Whipped Bronze In-Style 2006 – Whipped Bronze Mousse Debenhams 2006 – Whipped Bronze Mousse - Best 2005/6 – Auto Bronzant Cosmopolitan 2005 – Whipped Bronze Mousse Cosmopolitan Hair 2005 – Whipped Bronze Mousse Cosmo Girl 2005 – Auto Bronzant Handbag 2005 – Self Tanning Mousse Official Site Skinsmart Campaign Petition Site

Optimistic concurrency control

Optimistic concurrency control is a concurrency control method applied to transactional systems such as relational database management systems and software transactional memory. OCC assumes that multiple transactions can complete without interfering with each other. While running, transactions use data resources without acquiring locks on those resources. Before committing, each transaction verifies that no other transaction has modified the data it has read. If the check reveals conflicting modifications, the committing transaction rolls back and can be restarted. Optimistic concurrency control was first proposed by H. T. Kung and John T. Robinson. OCC is used in environments with low data contention; when conflicts are rare, transactions can complete without the expense of managing locks and without having transactions wait for other transactions' locks to clear, leading to higher throughput than other concurrency control methods. However, if contention for data resources is frequent, the cost of restarting transactions hurts performance significantly.

However, locking-based methods can deliver poor performance because locking can drastically limit effective concurrency when deadlocks are avoided. More Optimistic concurrency control transactions involve these phases: Begin: Record a timestamp marking the transaction's beginning. Modify: Read database values, tentatively write changes. Validate: Check whether other transactions have modified data that this transaction has used; this includes transactions that completed after this transaction's start time, optionally, transactions that are still active at validation time. Commit/Rollback: If there is no conflict, make all changes take effect. If there is a conflict, resolve it by aborting the transaction, although other resolution schemes are possible. Care must be taken to avoid a TOCTTOU bug if this phase and the previous one are not performed as a single atomic operation; the stateless nature of HTTP makes locking infeasible for web user interfaces. It's common for a user to start editing a record leave without following a "cancel" or "logout" link.

If locking is used, other users who attempt to edit the same record must wait until the first user's lock times out. HTTP does provide a form of built-in testing testing testing: The GET method returns an ETag for a resource and subsequent PUTs use the ETag value in the If-Match headers; some database management systems offer OCC natively - without requiring special application code. For others, the application can implement an OCC layer outside of the database, avoid waiting or silently overwriting records. In such cases, the form includes a hidden field with the record's original content, a timestamp, a sequence number, or an opaque token. On submit, this is compared against the database. If it differs, the conflict resolution algorithm is invoked. MediaWiki's edit pages use OCC. Bugzilla uses OCC; the Ruby on Rails framework has an API for OCC. The Grails framework uses OCC in its default conventions; the GT. M database engine uses OCC for managing transactions. Microsoft's Entity Framework has built-in support for OCC based on a binary timestamp value.

Mimer SQL is a DBMS. Pyrrho is a DBMS. Google App Engine data store uses OCC; the Apache Solr search engine supports OCC via the _version_ field. The Elasticsearch search engine supports OCC via the version attribute. CouchDB implements OCC through document revisions; the MonetDB column-oriented database management system's transaction management scheme is based on OCC. Most implementations of software transactional memory use OCC Redis provides OCC through WATCH command. MySQL implements OCC in Group Replication configuration Firebird uses Multi-generational architecture as implementation of OCC for data management. DynamoDB uses Conditional Update as implementation of OCC. Server Message Block#Opportunistic locking Kung, H. T.. "On optimistic methods for concurrency control". ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 6: 213–226. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.101.8988. Doi:10.1145/319566.319567. Enterprise JavaBeans, 3.0, By Bill Burke, Richard Monson-Haefel, Chapter 16. Transactions, Section 16.3.5. Optimistic Locking, Publisher: O'Reilly, Pub Date: May 16, 2006,Print ISBN 0-596-00978-X, Andreas.

"Multi-Isolation: Virtues and Limitations". Multi-Isolation. 01069 Gutzkovstr. 30/F301.2, Dresden: Happy-Guys Software GbR. p. 8. Retrieved 2013-05-16. CS1 maint: location