Deheubarth was a regional name for the realms of south Wales as opposed to Gwynedd. It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales and not as a named land. In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated. Deheubarth was united around 920 by Hywel Dda out of the territories of Seisyllwg and Dyfed, which had come into his possession. On, the Kingdom of Brycheiniog was added. Caerleon was the principal court of the area, but Hywel's dynasty fortified and built up a new base at Dinefwr, near Llandeilo, giving them their name. After the high-water mark set by Hywel, Dinefwr was overrun. First, by the Welsh of the north and east: by Llywelyn ap Seisyll of Gwynedd in 1018.
In 1075, Rhys ab Owain and the noblemen of Ystrad Tywi succeeded in treacherously killing their English-backed overlord Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. Although Rhys was overrun by Gwynedd and Gwent, his cousin Rhys ap Tewdwr – through his marriage into Bleddyn's family and through battle – reëstablished his dynasty's hegemony over south Wales just in time for the second wave of conquest: a prolonged Norman invasion under the Marcher Lords. In 1093, Rhys was killed in unknown circumstances while resisting their expansion into Brycheiniog and his son Gruffydd was thrown into exile. Following the death of Henry I, in 1136 Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd for the purpose of a revolt against Norman incursions, he took part in Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd's victory over the English at Crug Mawr. The newly liberated region of Ceredigion, was not returned to his family but annexed by Owain; the long and capable rule of Gruffydd's son the Lord Rhys – and the civil wars that followed Owain's death in Gwynedd – permitted the South to reassert the hegemony Hywel Dda had enjoyed two centuries before.
On his death in 1197, Rhys redivided his kingdom among his several sons and none of them again rivalled his power. By the time Llywelyn the Great won the wars in Gwynedd, in the late 12th century, lords in Deheubarth appear among his clients. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, the South was divided into the historic counties of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire by the Statute of Rhuddlan. In the arena of the church, Sulien was the leader of the monastic community at Llanbadarn Fawr in Ceredigion. Born ca. 1030, he became Bishop of St David's in 1073 and again in 1079/80. Both of his sons followed him into the service of the church. At this time the prohibition against the marriage of clerics was not yet established, his sons produced a number of original Latin and vernacular poems. They were active in the ecclesiastical and political life of Deheubarth. One son, Rhygyfarch of Llanbadarn Fawr, wrote the Life of Saint David and another, was a skillful scribe and illuminator, he may have written the Life of St. Padarn.
Goronwy Foel House of Dinefwr List of Welsh kings The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6 Deheubarth at Castle Wales
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Caerleon, Bellevue Hill
Caerleon is a historic house in the Sydney suburb of Bellevue Hill. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate as well as having a New South Wales heritage listing, it was named after a small town in Wales. Caerleon is a two-storey Queen Anne home built in 1885. Original plans for the house were drawn up by Sydney architect Harry Kent, but they were reworked extensively by Maurice Adams in London, England. Controversy followed when Kent found that his name was left out altogether when the plans were exhibited in London. Kent supervised the construction of the house, designed for another member of the Fairfax family, Charles B. Fairfax; the house represents a rich example of Queen Anne elements: red brick walls with stone dressing, terracota shingles, bay windows, leadlight windows and elaborate chimneys. It is said to have been the first Queen Anne home in Australia and set the tone for the Federation Queen Anne homes that were to become so popular, it was sold for $22 million in January, 2008.
Architecture of Australia Architecture of Sydney Federation architecture
St Cadoc's Hospital
Not to be confused with the electoral ward of St Cadocs/Penygarn. Saint Cadoc's Hospital is a mental health facility located in Caerleon on the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, it is managed by the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board. The foundation stone for the hospital was laid in May 1903, it was designed by Alfred J. Wood using a compact arrow layout and was opened as the Newport Borough Asylum in January 1906, it became Newport County Borough Mental Hospital in 1919 and St. Cadoc's Emergency Hospital during the Second World War, it took its name from patron saint of the local church. It joined the National Health Service as St Cadoc's Hospital in 1948. A new admission unit and outpatient clinic was completed in 1961. St Cadoc's Hospital has been featured as a location of episodes in the BBC television programmes Doctor Who and Torchwood. Health Board
Caerleon Roman Fortress and Baths
The Caerleon Roman Fortress and Baths museum is a historical site located in the town of Caerleon, South Wales. Near to the city of Newport, it is run by the Welsh historic environment service Cadw. Roman Wales was the farthest point west that the Roman Empire in Roman Britain extended to, as a defence point, the fortress at Caerleon built in AD 75 was one of only three permanent Roman Legionary fortresses in Roman Britain, it was operational for just over 200 years. The site of the baths was excavated in the late 1970s, a curator was appointed in 1980 when the site was opened to the public; the Roman Baths Museum lies inside what remains of the fortress of Isca Augusta close to the National Roman Legion Museum. The baths museum has a covered walkway over part of the remains of the military bath house. There was a frigidarium and caldarium, as well as an open-air swimming pool; the baths museum is administered by Cadw. Within a short walk of the baths museum are: The most complete Roman amphitheatre in Britain Sections of the fortress walls The only remains of a Roman legionary barracks on view anywhere in Europe at Prysg FieldThere were over 40,000 visitors to the Baths in 2012.
National Roman Legion Museum Newport Museum Venta Silurum Caerleon Roman Fortress and Baths - Cadw
Caerleon Bridge is a bridge crossing of the River Usk at Caerleon in the city of Newport, Wales. The stone built bridge was opened in 1806 as a replacement for the previous wooden bridge, it carries the B4236 road from Caerleon-ultra-Pontem into Caerleon itself. Prior to the opening of the A449 dual carriageway a few miles to the east in 1972, the narrow bridge and streets of Caerleon carried the trunk road from Newport to Raglan via Caerleon Bridge; the bridge is the furthest upstream of the nine bridges over the River Usk within the city boundaries of Newport. The foundation stone of the original Newport Bridge is set into the stonework of Caerleon Bridge bearing the inscription "This bridge was erected at the expense of the County by David Edwards and his two sons William and Thomas. Completed AD MDCCC." Newport and Caerleon Bridges over Usk Act 1597 List of bridges in Wales
University of Wales, Newport
The University of Wales, was a university based in Newport, South Wales, prior to the merger that formed the University of South Wales in April 2013. The university had two campuses in Newport, Caerleon on the northern outskirts of the city, subsequently closed during July 2016, a £35 million campus on the east bank of the River Usk in the Newport city centre which opened in 2011. In 2012 the university was ranked 111th out of 120 UK universities in the Guardian League Table for university rankings, 105th out of 116 in The Complete University Guide and 104th out of 116 UK universities in the Times Good University Guide. Newport had been involved in higher education since 1841. A Mechanics Institute, set up to provide further education for workers and tradesmen, the institution was based in Newport’s Town Hall on Commercial Street. Working men and women were able to attend a variety of lectures for two shilling per quarter to study subjects including "The Pursuit of Attainment and Knowledge" and "Popular Superstition".
The institution was formed as Gwent College of Higher Education by a merger of the Caerleon College of Education, the Newport College of Art and Design and the Gwent College of Technology in 1975. All three former institutions had established regional and national reputations, most notably the College of Art with many of its students gaining commissions from the BBC and other major organisations in light of the College being amongst a select number of art colleges in the country awarded Diploma in Art and Design status; the college became an affiliated institution of the University of Wales in 1992, being admitted as a university college in 1996 where there was a ceremony at which trumpeters of the Prince of Wales Division played a fanfare from the top of the university clocktower and balloons were released in the faculty colours. In May 2004 the University of Wales College, Newport secured Privy Council Approval to use the title University of Wales, Newport, as a full constituent of the federal university.
As of 1 August 2011, the University was restructured, creating two new faculties, each containing three schools: The Faculty of Arts and Business School of Design, Engineering and Technology School of Film and Digital Media Newport Business SchoolThe Faculty of Education and Social Sciences School of Education School of Humanities and Lifelong Learning School of Sport and Applied Social SciencesThe Centre for Community and Lifelong Learning continued to be based in Tredegar and focused on the University’s work to widen participation within the Heads of the Valleys and the wider Gwent region. CCLL was a key deliverer of the UHOVI project in partnership with the University of Glamorgan and Further Education Colleges. 1841 Opening of Mechanics Institute, Newport 1872 Classes in Art and Science begin under the Free Library Committee 1882 New building opened in Dock Street, Newport 1886 Teacher training classes begin 1891 Newport Technical School opened 1898 New premises opened at 24 Bridge Street Separation of Art Department and Science, Technology & Commerce Two Heads appointed 1899 Clarence Place land bought from Lord Tredegar 1909 Foundation stone laid at Clarence Place 1910 Newport Technical Institute opened at Clarence Place 1912 Foundation stone laid at Caerleon Training College 1914-18 World War One 12 Caerleon students killed in the war 1915 Schools of Art and Science and Commerce combined under single Principal 1919 Newport Technical Institute renamed “The County Borough of Newport Technical College and Institute” 1923 Ordinary National Certificates offered for the first time 1934 Name changed to “Newport Technical College” 1938 Higher National Certificates offered for the first time 1939 – 45 World War Two College used to troop lectures and evacuees 19 Caerleon students killed in the war 1940 – 41 Classes run by Ministry of Labour 1950 Board of Governors given more power to run Caerleon College of Education 1958 Opening of Newport and Monmouthshire College of Technology which became the Allt-yr-ynn campus.
Closure of Newport Technical College. Clarence Place continues as Monmouthshire College of Art. 1962 Female students admitted to Caerleon College of Education for the first time 1975 Colleges merge to become “Gwent College of Higher Education” Four new faculties created 1985 New Art and Design building opens at Caerleon Campus 1987 First degree ceremony is held at Newport. 1992 Fire at Caerleon Campus 1992 GCHE leaves. 1994 Student Village opens at Caerleon Campus 1995 GCHE granted taught degree awarding powers 1996 GCHE formally changes to University of Wales College, Newport 2003 Becomes a full Constituent Institution of the University of Wales and is renamed the University of Wales, Newport. 2007 Kegie building opens on the Caerleon Campus. 2011 Newport City Campus opens after a £35 million investment. 2011 Allt-yr-ynn campus closes. 2012 Vice-Chancellor Peter Noyes resigns his post in May 2012 and Prof Stephen Hagen, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, is appointed by the Board to be the Acting Vice-Chancellor from 1st June 2012 until the legal point of merger.
2013 merger with the University of Glamorgan to form the University of South Wales on 11 April 2013. 2016 Caerleon Campus closes. Along with the University of Glamorgan and Cardiff Metropolitan University, it was proposed by the Welsh Government that the University of Wales, Newport merge to create a single post-92 university in South East Wales; the plans proved to be controversial, with Cardiff Metropolitan opposing any merger, citing the lack of a business case, concerns that the new institution (which would be the largest campus university