John Herschel Glenn Jr. was a United States Marine Corps aviator, astronaut and politician. He was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. Following his retirement from NASA, he served from 1974 to 1999 as a Democratic United States Senator from Ohio. Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War China and Korea, he shot down three MiG-15s, was awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals. In 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight across the United States, his on-board camera took the first panoramic photograph of the United States. He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the nation's first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, the fifth person and third American in space, he received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.
S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven. Glenn resigned from NASA in January 1964, he planned to run for a U. S. Senate seat from Ohio, he retired from the Marine Corps the following year. He lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 1999. In 1998, while still a sitting Senator, Glenn flew on the Discovery space shuttle's STS-95 mission, became the oldest person to fly in space and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012. He died at the age of 95 in 2016. John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born on July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, the son of John Herschel Glenn Sr. who worked for a plumbing firm, Clara Teresa née Sproat, a teacher. His parents had married shortly before his father, a member of the American Expeditionary Force, left for the Western Front during World War I.
The family moved to New Concord, soon after his birth, his father started his own business, the Glenn Plumbing Company. Glenn Jr. was only a toddler when he met Anna Margaret Castor, who would become his wife. The two would not be able to recall a time, he first flew in an airplane with his father. He became fascinated by flight, built model airplanes from balsa wood kits. Along with his adopted sister Jean, he attended New Concord Elementary School, he washed cars and sold rhubarb to earn money to buy a bicycle, after which he took a job delivering The Columbus Dispatch newspaper. He was a member of the Ohio Rangers, an organization similar to the Cub Scouts, his boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as a historic house education center. Glenn attended New Concord High School, where he played on the varsity football team as a center and linebacker, he made the varsity basketball and tennis teams, was involved with Hi-Y, a junior branch of the YMCA. After graduating in 1939, Glenn entered Muskingum College, where he studied chemistry, was a member of the Stag Club fraternity, played on the football team.
Annie majored in music with minors in secretarial studies and physical education while competing on the swimming and volleyball teams. Glenn earned a private pilot license and a physics course credit for free through the Civilian Pilot Training Program in 1941, he did not complete his senior year in residence or take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. When the United States entered World War II, Glenn quit college to enlist in the U. S. Army Air Corps, he was never called to duty by the Army, enlisted as a U. S. Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U. S. Marine Corps. Having completed his flight training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant.
After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353, which flew R4D transport planes from there. Glenn married Annie in a Presbyterian ceremony at College Drive Church in New Concord, Ohio, on April 6, 1943; the fighter squadron VMO-155 was at Camp Kearny flying the Grumman F4F Wildcat. Glenn approached the squadron's commander, Major J. P. Haines, who suggested that he could put in for a transfer; this was approved, Glenn was posted to VMO-155 on July 2, 1943, two days before the squadron moved to Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California. The Wildcat was obsolete by this time, VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944. VMO-155 became part of the garrison on Midway Atoll on February 21 moved to the Marshall Islands in June 1944 and flew 57 combat missions in the area, he received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals. At the end of his one-year tour of duty in February 1945, Glenn was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland.
He was ordered back to Cherry Point. There, he joined VMF-913, another Corsair squadron, learned that he had qualified for a regular commission. In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California, he volunt
The Argentine Navy is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force; the Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory in 1814 at the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence. The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, which started the war for independence from Spain; the navy was first created to support Manuel Belgrano in the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second fleet, which participated in the capture of the city; as Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish-born admiral William Brown, who directed the operation. As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval forces were composed of privateers.
Brown led the Argentine navy in further naval conflicts at the War with Brazil and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. In the 1870s the Argentine Navy began modernizing itself. At the close of the century, the force included: 5 armoured cruisers 4 coastal defence ironclads 3 second-class, high-speed, British-built cruisers 7 modern small cruisers and gunboats 4 destroyers and 22 torpedo boats; the most powerful ships at this time included the Italian-built Garibaldi and her sister ships: General Belgrano, Pueyrredón, San Martín, each at over 6,000 tons. Three older ironclads, Almirante Brown and Libertad dated from the 1880s and early 1890s; the navy's ships were built in Italy, Britain and Spain, were operated by over 600 officers and 7,760 seamen. These were supported by a battalion of an artillery battery. Argentina remained neutral in both world wars. In 1940 Argentina's navy was ranked the eighth most powerful in the world and the largest in Latin America. A ten-year building programme costing $60 million had produced a force of 14,500 sailors and over a thousand officers.
The fleet included two First World War-era American-built Rivadavia-class battleships, three modern cruisers, a dozen British-built destroyers, three submarines, plus minelayers, coastal defence ships, gunboats. A naval air force was in operation. In the postwar period, Naval Aviation and Marine units were put under direct Navy command. With Brazil, Argentina is one of two South American countries to have operated two aircraft carriers: the ARA Independencia and ARA Veinticinco de Mayo; the Argentine Navy has been traditionally involved in fishery protection, helping the Coast Guard: most notably in 1966 a destroyer fired on and holed a Soviet trawler that had refused to be escorted to Mar del Plata, in the 1970s there were four more incidents with Soviet and Bulgarian ships followed by other incidents such as the sinking of the Chian-der 3. The Navy took part in all military coups in Argentina through the 20th century. During the 1976 to 1983 dictatorship, Navy personnel were involved in the Dirty War in which thousands of people were kidnapped and killed by the forces of the military junta.
The Navy School of Mechanics, known as ESMA, was a notorious centre for torture. Among their more well-known victims were the Swedish teenager Dagmar Hagelin, French nuns Alice Domon and Léonie Duquet. During this regime, the Navy was the main supporter of a military solution for the country's two longest-standing disputes: the Beagle Conflict with Chile and the Falkland Islands with the United Kingdom. During the 1982 Falklands conflict the Main Argentine Naval Fleet consisted of modernised World War II era ships, newer vessels: two Type 42 destroyers, three French-built corvettes, one German-built Type 209 submarine; this fleet was supported by several ELMA tankers and transports, as well an ice breaker and a polar transport ship. New German MEKO type destroyers and Thyssen-Nordseewerke submarines were still under construction at the time. Despite leading the invasion of the Falkland Islands, in both strategic and tactical aspects the Argentine fleet played only a small part in the subsequent conflict with the Royal Navy.
After HMS Conqueror sank the ARA General Belgrano, the Argentine surface fleet did not venture from a 12-mile coastal limit imposed by the British because of the threat posed by the Royal Navy nuclear-powered submarines. The Argentine Navy's contributions to the war were principally the initial amphibious assaults on 2 and 3 April. In addition, the Type 42 destroyer ARA Santísima Trinidad, operating off Staten Island, played an important part in the destruction of the British landing ship Sir Galahad on 8 June,. Naval aviation carried out intensive maritime patrols, searching to locate the British fleet for the strike aircraft and British submarines for the anti-submarine Sea King helicopters, while their
North American P-51 Mustang
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in 1940 by North American Aviation in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission; the Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force. Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter; the prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, first flew on 26 October. The Mustang was designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine which, in its earlier variants, had limited high-altitude performance; the aircraft was first flown operationally by the RAF as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber. Replacing the Allison with a Rolls-Royce Merlin resulted in the P-51B/C model and transformed the aircraft's performance at altitudes above 15,000 ft, allowing it to compete with the Luftwaffe's fighters.
The definitive version, the P-51D, was powered by the Packard V-1650-7, a license-built version of the two-speed two-stage-supercharged Merlin 66, was armed with six.50 caliber M2/AN Browning machine guns. From late 1943, P-51Bs and Cs were used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF's Second Tactical Air Force and the USAAF's Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944; the P-51 was used by Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean and Pacific theaters. During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed to have destroyed 4,950 enemy aircraft. At the start of the Korean War, the Mustang, by redesignated F-51, was the main fighter of the United Nations until jet fighters, including North American's F-86, took over this role. Despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After the Korean War, Mustangs became air racing aircraft.
In April 1940 the British government established a purchasing commission in the United States, headed by Sir Henry Self. Self was given overall responsibility for Royal Air Force production and research and development, served with Sir Wilfrid Freeman, the Air Member for Development and Production. Self sat on the British Air Council Sub-committee on Supply and one of his tasks was to organize the manufacturing and supply of American fighter aircraft for the RAF. At the time, the choice was limited, as no U. S. aircraft in production or flying met European standards, with only the Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk coming close. The Curtiss-Wright plant was running at capacity, so P-40s were in short supply. North American Aviation was supplying its Harvard trainer to the RAF, but was otherwise underused. NAA President "Dutch" Kindelberger approached Self to sell the B-25 Mitchell. Instead, Self asked. Kindelberger said NAA could have a better aircraft with the same Allison V-1710 engine in the air sooner than establishing a production line for the P-40.
The Commission stipulated armament of four.303 in machine guns, a unit cost of no more than $40,000 and delivery of the first production aircraft by January 1941. In March 1940, 320 aircraft were ordered by Freeman, who had become the executive head of the Ministry of Aircraft Production and the contract was promulgated on 24 April; the NA-73X, designed by a team led by lead engineer Edgar Schmued, followed the best conventional practice of the era, but included several new features. One was a wing designed using laminar flow airfoils, which were developed co-operatively by North American Aviation and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; these airfoils generated low drag at high speeds. During the development of the NA-73X, a wind tunnel test of two wings, one using NACA five-digit airfoils and the other using the new NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils, was performed in the University of Washington Kirsten Wind Tunnel; the results of this test showed the superiority of the wing designed with the NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils.
The other feature was a new cooling arrangement. They discovered that, after much development, the cooling assembly could take advantage of the "Meredith effect", in which heated air exited the radiator with a slight amount of jet thrust; because NAA lacked a suitable wind tunnel to test this feature, it used the GALCIT 10 ft wind tunnel at the California Institute of Technology. This led to some controversy over whether the Mustang's cooling system aerodynamics were developed by NAA's engineer Edgar Schmued or by Curtiss, although NAA had purchased the complete set of P-40 and XP-46 wind tunnel data and flight test reports for US$56,000; the NA-73X was one of the first aircraft to have a fuselage lofted mathematically using conic sections. To aid production, the airframe was divided into five main sections—forward, rear fuselage, two wing halves—all of which were fitted with wiring and piping before being joined; the prototype NA-73X was rolled out in September 1940, just 102 days after the order had been placed.
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force, formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453
The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U. S. producer of military and civilian aircraft. Founded on December 6, 1929, by Leroy Grumman and partners, it merged in 1994 with Northrop Corporation to form Northrop Grumman. Leroy Grumman and others worked for the Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporation in the 1920s, but when it was bought by Keystone Aircraft Corporation and the operations moved from New York City to Bristol, Pennsylvania and his partners started their own company in an old Cox-Klemin Aircraft Co. factory in Baldwin on Long Island, New York. All of the early Grumman employees were former Loening employees; the company was named after Grumman. The company filed as a business on December 5, 1929, opened its doors on January 2, 1930. Keeping busy by welding aluminum tubing for truck frames, the company eagerly pursued contracts with the US Navy. Grumman designed the first practical floats with a retractable landing gear for the Navy, this launched Grumman into the aviation market.
The first Grumman aircraft was for the Navy, the Grumman FF-1, a biplane with retractable landing gear. This was followed by a number of other successful designs. During World War II, Grumman became known for its "Cats", Navy fighter aircraft, F4F Wildcat and F6F Hellcat, the less well known Grumman F7F Tigercat and Grumman F8F Bearcat, for its torpedo bomber TBF Avenger. Grumman ranked 22nd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Grumman's first jet aircraft was the F9F Panther; the company's big postwar successes came in the 1960s with the A-6 Intruder and E-2 Hawkeye and in the 1970s with the Grumman EA-6B Prowler and F-14 Tomcat. Grumman products were prominent in the film Top Gun and numerous World War II naval and Marine Corps aviation films; the U. S. Navy still employs the Hawkeye as part of Carrier Air Wings on board aircraft carriers, while the U. S. Marine Corps, the last branch of service to fly the Prowler retired it on March 8, 2019. Grumman was the chief contractor on the Apollo Lunar Module.
The firm received the contract on November 7, 1962, built 13 lunar modules. As the Apollo program neared its end, Grumman was one of the main competitors for the contract to design and build the Space Shuttle, but lost to Rockwell International; the company ended up involved in the shuttle program nonetheless, as a subcontractor to Rockwell, providing the wings and vertical stabilizer sections. In 1969 the company changed its name to Grumman Aerospace Corporation, in 1978 it sold the Grumman-American Division to Gulfstream Aerospace; the company built the Grumman Long Life Vehicle, a light transport mail truck designed for and used by the United States Postal Service. The LLV entered service in 1986. Grumman was responsible for a successful line of business aircraft including the Gulfstream I turboprop and Gulfstream II business jet which were operated by a number of companies and private individuals as well as by government agencies including various military entities and NASA. In addition, the Gulfstream I propjet was operated by several commuter/regional airlines in scheduled passenger services and included a stretched version, being the Gulfstream I-C which could transport 37 passengers.
Gulfstream business jets continue to be manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. For much of the Cold War period, Grumman was the largest corporate employer on Long Island. Grumman's products were considered so reliable and ruggedly built that the company was referred to as the "Grumman Iron Works"; as the company grew, it moved to Valley Stream, New York Farmingdale, New York to Bethpage, New York, with the testing and final assembly at the 6,000-acre Naval Weapons Station in Calverton, New York, all located on Long Island. At its peak in 1986 it employed 23,000 people on Long Island and occupied 6,000,000 square feet in structures on 105 acres it leased from the U. S. Navy in Bethpage; the end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s reduced defense spending and led to a wave of mergers as aerospace companies shrank in number. The new company closed all of its facilities on Long Island and converted the Bethpage plant to a residential and office complex, with its headquarters becoming the corporate headquarters for Cablevision and the Calverton plant being turned into a business/industrial complex.
Former aircraft hangars have become a film and television production center. A portion of the airport property has been used for the Grumman Memorial Park. Northrop Grumman's remaining business at the Bethpage campus is the "Battle Management and Engagement Systems Division", which employs around 2,000 people; the "Cats" Grumman F4F Wildcat Grumman F6F Hellcat Grumman F7F Tigercat Grumman F8F Bearcat Grumman F9F Panther Grumman F9F, F-9 Cougar Grumman XF10F Jaguar Grumman F-11 Tiger Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger Grumman F-14 Tomcat Other fighter aircraft Grumman FF1 Grumman F2F Grumman F3F Grumman XF5F Skyrocket Grumman XP-50 General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B Grumman G-17 project only Grumman G-25 project only Grumman G-29 project only Grumman G-30 project only Grumman G-35 project only Grumman G-49 project only Grumman G-57 project only Grumman G-62 proj
Grumman F-9 Cougar
The Grumman F9F/F-9 Cougar is a carrier-based fighter aircraft for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. Based on Grumman's earlier F9F Panther, the Cougar replaced the Panther's straight wing with a more modern swept wing. Thrust was increased; the Navy considered the Cougar an updated version of the Panther, despite having a different official name, thus Cougars started off from F9F-6. Rumors that the Soviet Union had produced a swept-wing fighter had circulated a year before the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 first appeared at air shows in 1949. Despite the level of activity taking place with swept-wing aircraft, the Navy was not focused on the development of such aircraft; this was because the Navy's focus at the time was defending the battle group against high speed, high altitude bombers with interceptors, as well as escorting medium-range carrier-based bombers in all weather conditions. Nonetheless the Navy appreciated the importance of getting a capable carrier-based swept-wing jet fighter.
Grumman was awarded a contract for the development of a swept-wing fighter jet in 1951. The arrival of the MiG-15, which outclassed straight-wing fighters in the air war over North Korea was a major factor. Prototypes were produced by modifying Panthers, the first flew on 20 September 1951; the aircraft was still subsonic, but the critical Mach number was increased from 0.79 to 0.86 at sea level and to 0.895 at 35,000 ft, improving performance markedly over the Panther. Instead of using conventional ailerons for roll control, the F9F-6 uses spoilers on the upper surfaces of the wing. Wing fences were soon added and the spoilers extended from the fences to the tips of the wing; the rudder pedals controlled the part of the rudder below the horizontal tail surface, while the upper portion of the rudder was controlled by a yaw damper. This allowed the Cougar to fly safely and without the upper portion of the tail. Initial production was the F9F-6, delivered from mid-1952 through July 1954; the F9F-6 first flew on September 20, 1951, seven months after Grumman signed a contract with the Navy for swept-wing fighter.
The first 30 production aircraft used the same J42 P-6 engine used in the F9F-5, but was replaced by the more powerful J42 P-8 with 7,250 pounds of thrust. The J42 was a licensed version of the Rolls-Royce Nene. Armament was four 20 mm AN/M3 cannons in the nose and provisions for two 1,000 lb bombs or 150 US gal drop tanks under the wings. Most were fitted with a UHF homing antenna under the nose, some were fitted with probes for inflight refuelling; the F9F-6 used an Aero 5D-1 weapons sight with an APG-30A gun-ranging radar. The F9F-6 was designated F-9F in 1962. Sixty were built as F9F-6P reconnaissance aircraft with cameras instead of the nose cannon. After withdrawal from active service, many F9F-6s were used as unmanned drones for combat training, designated F9F-6D, or as drone controllers, designated F9F-6K; the F9F-6K and the F9F-6D were redesignated DF-9F, respectively. The F9F-7 referred to the next batch of Cougars that were given the Allison J33 found in the F9F-4, instead of the Pratt & Whitney J48.
A total of 168 were built, but the J33 proved both less powerful and less reliable than the J48. All were converted to the J48 engine, were thus indistinguishable from F9F-6s; these were redesignated F-9H in 1962. The Navy used two modified F9F-7s to conduct experiments landing on British-inspired flexible decks which did not require the use of landing gear; the reasoning was that since an airplane's landing gear comprises some 33% of the total weight, a plane without landing gear would gain a greater range and would be able to carry more ordnance. The aircraft were fitted with a 3-inch-deep false bottom under the center fuselage to help balance the plane during landings on the flex-deck made up of a lubricated rubberized fabric; the deck, built by Goodyear featured several arresting cables. The planes were launched using a handling dolly which served as temporary landing gear; the two F9F-7 aircraft in the test were equipped with the powerful J48-P8 engine instead of the Allison J33 engine used with the F9F-7.
While the landing tests yielded positive results and proved that landing was possible, the project was terminated in 1955 as it would have been difficult to move the aircraft around the carrier deck once they landed. It required a skilled pilot to perform the landings and would have made it impossible to divert to a land base if necessary. Work on the F9F-8 began in April, 1953 with three goals: lower the airplane's stall speed, improve aircraft control at high angles of attack, increase range, it featured an 8 in stretch in the fuselage and modified wings with a greater chord, an increased area and a dogtooth. The airframe changes improved low-speed, high angle of attack flying and gave more room for fuel tanks; the top speed was 704 mph and minimum catapult speed was lowered to 127 knots. It was now capable of breaking the sound barrier in a steep dive. All four ammunition boxes were mounted above the guns, in contrast to the split location of most previous F9Fs including the Panther. Visibility, very good was improved with the F9F-8.
601 aircraft were delivered between April 1954 and March 1957. Late production F9F-8 aircraft were given the ability to carry four AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles under the wings. Most earlier aircraft were modified to carry Sidewinders. A number were given nuclear bombing equipment; the F9F-9 was redesignated F-9J in 1962. The F9F-8B aircraft were F9F-8s converted into
A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft, modified, or used as a light bomber or attack aircraft. It differs from bomber and attack aircraft in its origins, as a fighter, adapted into other roles, whereas bombers and attack aircraft are developed for bombing and attack roles. Although still used, the term fighter-bomber has less significance since the introduction of rockets and guided missiles into aerial warfare. Modern aircraft with similar duties are now called multirole combat aircraft or strike fighters. Prior to World War II, general limitations in available engine and aeronautical technology required that each proposed military aircraft have its design tailored to a specific prescribed role. Engine power grew during the early period of the war doubling between 1939 and 1943; the Bristol Blenheim, a typical light bomber of the opening stages of the war, was designed in 1934 as a fast civil transport to meet a challenge by Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail. It had two Bristol Mercury XV radial engines of 920 hp each, a crew of three, its payload was just 1,200 lbs of bombs.
The Blenheim suffered disastrous losses over France in 1939 when it encountered Messerschmitt Bf 109s, light bombers were withdrawn. In contrast, the Vought F4U Corsair fighter—which entered service in December 1942—had in common with its eventual U. S. Navy stablemate, the Grumman F6F Hellcat and the massive, seven-ton USAAF Republic P-47 Thunderbolt—a single Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial engine of 2,000 hp in a much smaller and less expensive single-seat aircraft, was the first aircraft design to fly with the Double Wasp engine in May 1940. With less airframe and crew to lift, the Corsair's ordnance load was either four High Velocity Aircraft Rockets or 2,000 lbs of bombs; the massive, powerful 18-cylinder Double Wasp engine weighed a ton—half as much again as the V12 Rolls-Royce Merlin and twice as much as the 9-cylinder Bristol Mercury that powered some heavy fighters. Increased engine power meant that many existing fighter designs could carry useful bomb loads, adapt to the fighter-bomber role.
Notable examples include Hawker Typhoon and Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Various bombing tactics and techniques could be used: some designs were intended for high-level bombing, others for low-level semi-horizontal bombing, or for low-level steep dive bombing as exemplified by the Blackburn Skua and North American A-36 Apache. Larger twin-engined aircraft were used in the fighter-bomber role where longer ranges were needed for naval strikes. Examples include the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, the Bristol Beaufighter, de Havilland Mosquito; the Beaufighter MkV had a Boulton-Paul turret with four 0.303 in machine guns mounted aft of the cockpit but only two were built. Bristol's Blenheim was pushed into service as a fighter during the Battle of Britain but it was not fast enough. Equipped with an early Airborne Interception radar set, however, it proved to be an effective night fighter; the first single seat fighters to drop bombs were on the Western Front, when fighter patrols were issued with bombs and ordered to drop them at random if they met no German fighters.
The Sopwith Camel, the most successful Allied aircraft of the First World War with 1,294 enemy aircraft downed, was losing its edge by 1918 over 12,000 ft. During the final German offensive in March 1918, it dropped 25 lb Cooper bombs on advancing columns: whilst puny by standards, the four fragmentation bombs carried by a Camel could cause serious injuries to exposed troops. Pilot casualties were high; the Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5. was used in the same role. The Royal Flying Corps received the first purpose-built fighter-bomber, it was not called a fighter bomber at the time, but a Trench Fighter as, what it was designed to attack. The Sopwith Salamander was based on the Sopwith Snipe fighter but had armour plating in the nose to protect the pilot and fuel system from ground fire, it was intended to have two machine guns jutting through the cockpit floor so as to spray trenches with bullets as it passed low overhead. But this did not work and it was fitted with four Cooper bombs, instead.
It was ordered in large numbers, but most were cancelled after the Armistice. In February and April 1918 the Royal Flying Corps conducted bombing tests at Orfordness, Suffolk dropping dummy bombs at various dive angles at a flag stuck into a shingle beach. Both WW1 fighter bombers were used with novice and experienced pilots. Best results were achieved with a vertical dive into the wind using the Aldis Sight to align the aircraft, but they were not considered good enough to justify the expected casualty rate. When war broke out in Europe, Western Allied Air Forces employed light twin-engined bombers in the tactical role for low level attack; these were found to be vulnerable both to ground fire and to single engine fighters. The German and Japanese Air Forces had chosen dive bombers which were vulnerable; the Ilyushin Il-2 is a armoured two seat single-engine ground attack aircraft. It first flew a month although few had reached the Soviet Air Force in time for Operation Barbarossa. Naval forces chose both dive bombers.
None of these could be considered as fighter bombers. The Bristol Blenheim and Douglas A-20 Havoc were used as night fighters during the Blitz, as they could carry the heavy early airborne radarsThe Hawker