Kirchberg or the Kirchberg is a quarter in north-eastern Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. It consists of a plateau situated to the north-east of the city centre, in 2001, the quarter had a population of 3,534 people distributed over its residential areas. This area comprises a number of buildings belonging to the University of Luxembourg, the eastern part houses offices and many international banks as well as an Auchan-owned shopping centre, the Luxexpo exhibition centre, the Utopolis Kirchberg cinema and Kirchberg Hospital. The Parish Church of Our Lady, Refuge of the Sick, Kirchberg is home to many other institutions of national importance. DCoque arena is the countrys largest sports venue, with seating for 8,300 spectators, the Philharmonie Luxembourg is Luxembourgs national concert hall, the grand auditorium of which can seat over 1,500 people. Mudam, a museum of modern art opened in 2006, was designed by I. M. Pei, on the same site as the Mudam is the reconstructed Fort Thüngen, a part of Luxembourgs once formidable fortifications.
Like Luxembourg City, Kirchberg has a oceanic climate, marked by high precipitation. However, the slope and height of the accounts for occasional lower temperatures, more frequent fog. English/French/German, Link to information about the Tridentine Mass in Luxembourg 5. html
Luxembourg, known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the countrys most populous commune. The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, as of January 2016, the commune had a population of 115,227, which was more than three times the population of the countrys second most populous commune. The citys metropolitan population, including that of surrounding communes of Hesperange, Strassen, in 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living, in the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, in 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption.
At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed, the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century, by the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares. In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, in 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, in the 17th century, the first casemates were built, Spain built 23 km of tunnels, starting in 1644. These were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice, briefly, in 1792–3, later, after a seven-month siege. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City.
Their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands. Despite Luxembourgs best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, on 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, and Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution, on 9 November 1918, communists declared a socialist republic, in 1921, the city limits were greatly expanded. The communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg City, in 1940, Germany occupied Luxembourg again. Under the occupation, the citys streets all received new, German names
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions.
Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily. It can be made with flour from other cereals or grains, pastas may be divided into two broad categories and fresh. Most dried pasta is produced via an extrusion process although it can be produced in most homes. Both dried and fresh pasta come in a number of shapes and varieties, in Italy the names of specific pasta shapes or types often vary with locale. For example, the form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending on region, common forms of pasta include long shapes, short shapes, flat shapes and sheets, miniature soup shapes, filled or stuffed and specialty or decorative shapes. As a category in Italian cuisine, both fresh and dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes, as pasta asciutta cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary sauce or condiment. A second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in brodo in which the pasta is part of a soup-type dish, a third category is pasta al forno in which the pasta incorporated into a dish that is subsequently baked.
Pasta is generally a dish, but comes in many varieties due to its versatility. Some pasta dishes are served as a first course in Italy because the portion sizes are small, Pasta is prepared in light lunches, such as salads or large portion sizes for dinner. It can be prepared by hand or food processor and served hot or cold, Pasta sauces vary in taste and texture. When choosing which type of pasta and sauce to serve together, simple sauces like pesto are ideal for long and thin strands of pasta while tomato sauce combines well with thicker pastas. Thicker and chunkier sauces have the ability to cling onto the holes and cuts of short, tubular. The extra sauce left on the plate after all of the pasta is eaten is often mopped up with a piece of bread. First attested in English in 1874, the word comes from Italian pasta, in turn from Latin pasta dough, pastry cake. In the 1st century AD writings of Horace, lagana were fine sheets of fried dough and were an everyday foodstuff, an early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, a possible ancestor of modern-day lasagna.
The first concrete information concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th century, historians have noted several lexical milestones relevant to pasta, none of which changes these basic characteristics. For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made of flour, the Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium, a kind of boiled dough, was common in Palestine from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD. A dictionary compiled by the 9th century Arab physician and lexicographer Isho bar Ali defines itriyya and its ever-flowing streams propel a number of mills
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg. Worldwide, about 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish. To communicate, all luxembourgees have to learn 4 different languages in the school, german, french. Since the migration of 70% of the luxembourgees to the US, despite the lack of a sharp boundary between Luxembourgish and the neighboring German dialects, this has led several linguists to regard it as a separate, yet closely related language. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, and in Lorraine, Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, and these mostly remain from the French Revolution.
There are several distinct forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be even between small villages. There is no distinct boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other closely related High German dialects, it instead forms a dialect continuum of gradual change. Spoken Luxembourgish is relatively hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand. However, the number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium, erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social Peoples Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourgs borders.
A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, there was no officially recognised system, until the adoption of the OLO on 5 June 1946. The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography, new principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. A more successful standard eventually emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977
Amazon. com, called Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company that was founded on July 5,1994, by Jeff Bezos and is based in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales, the company produces consumer electronics—notably, Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo—and is the worlds largest provider of cloud infrastructure services. Amazon sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its in-house brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Australia, Japan, China and Mexico. Amazon offers international shipping to other countries for some of its products. In 2016, Dutch and Turkish language versions of the German Amazon website were launched. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization, in 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw & Co. a Wall Street firm and moved to Seattle.
He began to work on a plan for what would eventually become Amazon. com. Bezos incorporated the company as Cadabra on July 5,1994, Bezos changed the name to Amazon a year after a lawyer misheard its original name as cadaver. In September 1994, Bezos purchased the URL Relentless. com and briefly considered naming his online store Relentless, the domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects to the retailer. The company went online as Amazon. com in 1995, Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, Theres nothing about our model that cant be copied over time. But you know, McDonalds got copied, and it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name, brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world. Additionally, a beginning with A was preferential due to the probability it would occur at the top of any list that was alphabetized. Since June 19,2000, Amazons logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.
After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual Web commerce growth at 2, 300% and he narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products, which included, compact discs, computer hardware, computer software and books. Amazon was founded in the garage of Bezos home in Bellevue, the company began as an online bookstore, an idea spurred off with discussion with John Ingram of Ingram Book, along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon. Amazon was able to access books at wholesale from Ingram, in the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries
In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure. Cliffs are formed as erosion landforms by the processes of weathering, Cliffs are common on coasts, in mountainous areas and along rivers. Cliffs are usually formed by rock that is resistant to weathering, sedimentary rocks most likely to form cliffs include sandstone, limestone and dolomite. Igneous rocks such as granite and basalt often form cliffs, an escarpment is a type of cliff, formed by the movement of a geologic fault or a landslide. Most cliffs have some form of slope at their base. In arid areas or under high cliffs, they are generally exposed jumbles of fallen rock, in areas of higher moisture, a soil slope may obscure the talus. Many cliffs feature tributary waterfalls or rock shelters, sometimes a cliff peters out at the end of a ridge, with tea tables or other types of rock columns remaining. Coastal erosion may lead to the formation of sea cliffs along a receding coastline, the Ordnance Survey distinguishes between cliffs and outcrops.
Cliff is a Romance loanword that has its origins in the Latin forms clivus / clevus. Given that a cliff need not be vertical, there can be ambiguity about whether a given slope is a cliff or not. For example, given a vertical rock wall above a very steep slope. Listings of cliffs are thus inherently uncertain, some of the largest cliffs on Earth are found underwater. For example, an 8,000 m drop over a 4,250 m span can be found at a ridge sitting inside the Kermadec Trench. One candidate for highest cliff in the world is Nanga Parbats Rupal Face, according to other sources, the highest cliff in the world, about 1,340 m high, is the east face of Great Trango in the Karakoram mountains of northern Pakistan. The location of the worlds highest sea cliffs depends on the definition of cliff that is used, guinness World Records states it is Kalaupapa, Hawaii, at 1,010 m high. Another contender is the face of Mitre Peak, which drops 1,683 m to Milford Sound. These are subject to a less stringent definition, as the slope of these cliffs at Kaulapapa is about 1.7, corresponding to an angle of 60 degrees.
A more vertical drop into the sea can be found at Maujit Qaqarssuasia which is situated in the Torssukátak fjord area at the tip of South Greenland
Mosconi is an Italian restaurant located at 13 rue Munster in the Grund district of Luxembourg City, overlooking the Alzette River. Headed by chef Illario Mosconi, formerly from Lombardy, Italy, it is one of the Relais & Châteaux series of hotels, the menu is an eight-course set menu of pasta dishes prepared with most of the ingredients imported from Italy. Mosconi became the first Italian restaurant to receive a Michelin star in Benelux, for a time, it had two Michelin stars but reverted to just one again in the guide for 2014. Born in Ponte di Legno near Brescia, and now in his mid-50s and his first experience in the restaurant business was as a waiter in Esch-sur-Alzette. When he opened his first restaurant, the Domus, in Esch, he and his wife Simonetta worked in the dining room, but when almost 30, he realized his ambition of creating dishes of his own. He decided to take courses and work as a trainee with Gualtiero Marchesi at the Via Bonvesin de la Riva restaurant in Milan. There, he learned the art of cooking and the importance of selecting the very best produce available and this led to a Michelin star for the Domus in 1997, to a first star at Mosconi in 2000, followed by a second in 2005.
The restaurant is located near an old stone bridge and it offers a south-facing sitting terrace with a view of the Alzette. The restaurant is acclaimed internationally and has a Michelin star in the Bib Gourmand category for 2014. Illario Mosconi was one of the first chefs to gain the distinction for an Italian restaurant outside of Italy, Michelin describes the food as Italian cuisine full of panache, a firework of flavors. Simonetta Mosconi, Illario’s wife, attends to the management of the restaurant, beef from Tuscany, veal from the Piedmont, tomatoes from Sicily, and white truffles from Alba, combined with basil and ricotta, make the pasta dishes a unique experience. List of Italian restaurants Official site
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than a century. The acquisition or loss of a star can have effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of guides to countries. In 1900, fewer than 3,000 cars graced the roads of France, four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. The brothers subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia, the Alps and the Rhine, Germany and Portugal, the British Isles, in 1909, the Michelin Guide for France saw its first English-language version published. During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended, after the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The companys website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tire merchant, based on the principle that man only truly respects what he pays for, the brothers decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1954.
They made changes, listing restaurants by specific categories, the debut of hotel listings. In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, finally, In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published, A very good restaurant in its category, Excellent cooking, worth a detour, Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey. In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956 and it awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published, in November 2005 Michelin produced its first American guide, concentrating on New York, covering 500 restaurants in the citys five boroughs and 50 hotels. In 2007 a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched, in the same year the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008 a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added to the list of Michelin Guides, the Michelin website in 2013 notes that the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries and sold in nearly 90 countries.
In 2008 the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide and she had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position, Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides have done, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each establishment in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialities, short summaries have been added to enhance descriptions of many establishments
Cessange is a quarter in south-western Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. Most of the quarter is covered by open fields to the south-west of Luxembourg City proper, at the centre of the quarter is the Croix de Cessange, a motorway junction between the A4 and the A6. Next to the intersection is Stade Boy Konen, which plays host to Cessange FC, Rugby Club Luxembourg, at the end of 2011,2,546 people lived in Cessange,50, 04% of whom were of Luxembourgish nationality and 49, 96% were foreigners