Louisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad called the L&N, was a Class I railroad that operated freight and passenger services in the southeast United States. Chartered by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1850, the road grew into one of the great success stories of American business. Operating under one name continuously for 132 years, it survived civil war and economic depression and several waves of social and technological change. Under Milton H. Smith, president of the company for thirty years, the L&N grew from a road with less than three hundred miles of track to a 6,000-mile system serving fourteen states; as one of the premier Southern railroads, the L&N extended its reach far beyond its namesake cities, stretching to St. Louis, Memphis and New Orleans; the railroad was economically strong throughout its lifetime, operating both freight and passenger trains in a manner that earned it the nickname, "The Old Reliable." Growth of the railroad continued until its purchase and the tumultuous rail consolidations of the 1980s which led to continual successors.
By the end of 1970, L&N operated 6,063 miles of road on 10,051 miles of track, not including the Carrollton Railroad. In 1971 the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, successor to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, purchased the remainder of the L&N shares it did not own, the company became a subsidiary. By 1982 the railroad industry was consolidating and the Seaboard Coast Line absorbed the Louisville & Nashville Railroad entirely. In 1986, the Seaboard System merged with the C&O and B&O and the new combined system was known as the Chessie System. Soon after the combined company became CSX Transportation, which now owns and operates all of the former Louisville and Nashville lines, its first line extended south of Louisville, it took until 1859 to span the 180-odd miles to its second namesake city of Nashville. There were about 250 miles of track in the system by the outbreak of the Civil War, its strategic location, spanning the Union/Confederate lines, made it of great interest to both governments.
During the Civil War, different parts of the network were pressed into service by both armies at various times, considerable damage from wear and sabotage occurred.. However, the company benefited from being based in the Union state of Kentucky, the fact that Nashville fell to Union forces within the first year of the war and remained in their hands for its duration, it profited from Northern haulage contracts for troops and supplies, paid in sound Federal greenbacks, as opposed to the depreciating Confederate dollars. After the war, other railroads in the South were devastated to the point of collapse, the general economic depression meant that labor and materials to repair its roads could be had cheaply. Buoyed by these fortunate circumstances, the firm began an expansion that never stopped. Within 30 years the network reached from Missouri to Louisiana and Florida. By 1884, the firm had such importance that it was included in the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the first American stock market index.
It was such a large customer of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the country's second largest locomotive maker, that in 1879 the firm presented L&N with a free locomotive as a thank-you bonus. Since all locomotives of the time were steam-powered, many railroads had favored coal as their engines' fuel source after wood-burning models were found unsatisfactory; the L&N guaranteed not only its own fuel sources but a steady revenue stream by pushing its lines into the difficult but coal-rich terrain of eastern Kentucky, well into northern Alabama. There the small town of Birmingham had been founded amidst undeveloped deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone, the basic ingredients of steel production; the arrival of L&N transport and investment capital helped create a great industrial city and the South's first postwar urban success story. The railroad's access to good coal enabled it to claim for a few years starting in 1940 the nation's longest unrefuelled run, about 490 miles from Louisville to Montgomery, Alabama.
In the Gilded Age of the late 19th century there were no such things as anti-trust or fair-competition laws and little financial regulation. Business was a keen and mean affair, the L&N was a formidable competitor, it would exclude upstarts like the Tennessee Central Railway Company from critical infrastructure like urban stations. Where that wasn't possible, as with the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway, it used its financial muscle—in 1880 it acquired a controlling interest in its chief competitor. A public outcry convinced the L&N directors, they discreetly continued the NC&StL as a separate subsidiary, but now working with, instead of in competition with, the L&N. Ironically, in 1902 financial speculations by financier J. P. Morgan delivered control of the L&N to its rival Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, but that company made no attempt to control L&N operations, for many decades there were no consequences of this change; the World Wars brought heavy demand to the L&N. Its widespread and robust network coped well with the demands of war transport and production, the resulting profits harked back to the boost it had received from the Civil War.
In the postwar period, the line shifted to diesel power, the new streamlined engines pulled some of the most elegant passenger trains of the last great age of passenger rail, such as the Dixi
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Beersheba Springs, Tennessee
Beersheba Springs is a town in Grundy County, United States. The population was 477 at the 2010 census. A resort town in the 19th century, Beersheba Springs was the summer home of author Mary Noailles Murfree, it now serves as a major summer meeting center for the Tennessee United Methodist Church. In 1833 Beersheba Porter Cain discovered a chalybeate spring; the spring and surrounding area, located above Collins River Valley, would be incorporated in 1839. Upon its incorporation, Beersheba Springs would serve as a summer resort with a small hotel and log cabins; the resort would be popular with stagecoach traffic that would travel between Chattanooga and McMinnville. It was notable for its mineral waters. Louisiana farmers moved into the area, leaving behind the notoriously hot summers of their home state. Beersheba Springs served as the summer home for Tennessee Mary Noailles Murfree. In 1854 Colonel John Armfield, a slave trader from Louisiana, acquired the property. Upwards of 100 slaves were brought to Beersheba Springs to work on Armfield's changes to the property: a new luxury hotel and grounds that would accommodate 400 guests.
The resort would feature laundry facilities, ice houses, billiard rooms, bowling alleys. French chefs were brought in to serve guests. A wooden observatory was built at the front of the hotel. From the observatory, guests could watch Confederate and Union armies battle during the Civil War; the threat of war and plundering would cause a decline in visitation to Beersheba Springs and the resort was handed over to Northern investors. The resort never returned to its former glory. In 1940, the Methodist Church re-opened it for assembly and summer camps. Architecturally the resort remains unchanged besides, as of parts of the hotel have been "modernized" or restored; the camp now serves as the home to the annual Beersheba Springs Arts and Craft Festival. In 1980 the resort area was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Beersheba Springs is located at 35°28′2″N 85°40′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.9 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 553 people, 232 households, 168 families residing in the town.
The population density was 112.6 people per square mile. There were 304 housing units at an average density of 61.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.82% White, 0.18% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population. There were 232 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.82. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,045, the median income for a family was $26,250.
Males had a median income of $27,083 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,691. About 26.9% of families and 32.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.8% of those under age 18 and 26.4% of those age 65 or over. The former resort serves as a retreat for the Tennessee branch of the United Methodist Church and the Arts and Craft festival; the Old Brown Museum, a former country store, now serves as a community museum documenting the history of Beersheba Springs. The town, with a population of 477, is the home to seven churches
Pelham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Grundy County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 403. Pelham is located at the junction of U. S. Route 41, State Route 2, State Route 50 near the base of the Cumberland Plateau, 5.35 miles north-northwest of Monteagle. Pelham has a post office with ZIP code 37366, which opened on April 4, 1832; the community is believed to have been named for a family of early settlers. There is a school in Pelham, it is Pelham Elementary school
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Coffee County, Tennessee
Coffee County is a county located in the southern part of Tennessee, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 52,796, its county seat is Manchester. Coffee County is part of TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of Middle Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of the state. Coffee County was formed in 1836 from parts of Bedford and Franklin counties, it was named for John Coffee, a prominent planter, land speculator, militia officer. Similar to other counties in this area of the state, planters here cultivated tobacco and hemp, produced by the labor of enslaved African Americans. In the period after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, whites in Coffee County committed eight lynchings of blacks; this was the fifth-highest total of any county in the state, but three other counties had eight lynchings each. Coffee County has twelve Century Farms, the classification for farms that have been operating for more than 100 years; the oldest Century Farm is Shamrock Acres, founded in 1818.
Other Century Farms include: Beckman Farm Brown Dairy Farm Carden Ranch Crouch-Ramsey Farm Freeze Farm The Homestead Farm Jacobs Farm Long Farm Shamrock Acres Sunrise View Farm Thomas Farm, site of the Farrar Distillery According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 435 square miles, of which 429 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Cannon County Warren County Grundy County Franklin County Moore County Bedford County Rutherford County Interstate 24 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 41A Arnold Engineering Development Complex Wildlife Management Area Bark Camp Barrens Wildlife Management Area Hickory Flats Wildlife Management Area Maple Hill Wildlife Management Area May Prairie State Natural Area Normandy Wildlife Management Area Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park Short Springs State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 48,014 people, 18,885 households, 13,597 families residing in the county; the population density was 112 people per square mile.
There were 20,746 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.43% White, 3.59% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,885 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,898, the median income for a family was $40,228. Males had a median income of $32,732 versus $21,014 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,137. About 10.90% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.80% of those under age 18 and 15.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bonnaroo Music Festival has been held annually in the county since 2002. Arnold Engineering Development Center George Dickel Tennessee whiskey distillery Old Stone Fort — part of Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park, just west of Manchester Short Springs State Natural Area Farrar Distillery – on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places Manchester Tullahoma Hillsboro Lakewood Park New Union Beechgrove Belmont Fudgearound Noah Ovoca Pocahontas Shady Grove Summitville National Register of Historic Places listings in Coffee County, Tennessee The Saturday Independent Official site Industrial Board of Coffee County Coffee County Schools Coffee County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Bonnaroo Music Festival site Coffee County at Curlie