MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Andean music is a group of styles of music from the Andes region in South America. Original chants and melodies come from the general area inhabited by Quechuas and other peoples who lived in the area of the Inca Empire prior to European contact; this early music was fused with Spanish music elements. It includes folklore music of parts of Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Andean music is popular to different degrees across Latin America, having its core public in rural areas and among indigenous populations; the Nueva Canción movement of the 1970s revived the genre across Latin America and brought it to places where it was unknown or forgotten. The panpipes group include the antara; these are ancient indigenous instruments that vary in size and style. Instruments in this group are constructed from aquatic reeds found in many lakes in the Andean region of South America; the sikú are tuned in either pentatonic or diatonic scales. Some modern single-row panpipes modeled after the native antara are capable of playing full scales, while traditional sikús are played using two rows of canes wrapped together.
It is still commonplace for two performers to share a melody while playing the larger style of sikú called the toyo. This style of voicing with notes interspersed between two musicians is called playing in hocket and is still in use today in many of the huaynos traditional songs and contemporary Andean music. Quenas remain popular and are traditionally made out of the same aquatic canes as the sikús, although PVC pipe is sometimes used due to its resistance to heat and humidity. Quenas are played only during the dry season, while vertical flutes, either pinkillos or tarkas, are played during the wet season. Tarkas are constructed from local Andean hard wood sources. Marching bands dominated by drums and panpipes are commonplace today and are used to celebrate weddings and other holidays; the twentieth century saw drastic changes in Andean culture. Bolivia, for example, saw a nationalistic revolution in 1952, leading to increased rights and social awareness for natives; the new government established a folklore department in the Bolivian Ministry of Education and radio stations began broadcasting in Aymara and Quechua.
By 1965, an influential group called Los Jairas formed in Bolivia. One member of Los Jairas, Gilbert Favre had been an acquaintance of the Parras in Paris; the Parras began promoting indigenous music in Santiago, Chile. The late 1960s released native groups such as Ruphay, Grupo Aymara, the emblematic quechua singer, Luzmila Carpio. Chilean groups such as Inti-Illimani and Los Curacas took the fusion work of Los Jairas and the Parras to invent nueva canción, which returned to Bolivia in the 1980s in the form of canto nuevo artists such as Emma Junaro and Matilde Casazola; the 1970s was a decade. Different groups sprang out of the different villages throughout the Andes Region. Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina. Many musicians made their way to the big cities forming different groups. One of the most legendary was Los Kjarkas, from Bolivia. Singing and composing songs that became huge hits in Bolivia and would become Andean standards, they would take Andean music to the rest of the world. Carnavalito Diablada - Originated in Oruro, Bolivia as sort of music associated with the diablada dance and its festivals.
Tinku - Originated in Potosi, Bolivia from the ritual of violent sacrifice to the mother earth to ensure the best look, good fortune and the prosperity of the next seasons crops. K'antu - An ancient style of music and circle dance, widespread since incaic or preincaic epoch on the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands. San Juanito - Originated in Ecuador, Northern Peru and Southern Colombia related to solar cult. Huayno - Originated in colonial Peru as a combination of traditional rural folk music and popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including quena, siku, saxophone, lute, violin and mandolin; some elements of huayño originate in the music of the pre-Columbian Andes on the territory of former Inca Empire. Huayno utilizes a distinctive rhythm in which the first beat is stressed and followed by two short beats. Huayno has some subgenres: Hiyawa. Harawi - Ancient traditional musical genre and indigenous lyric poetry. Harawi was widespread in the Inca Empire and now is common in countries that were part of it: Peru, Ecuador Chile and Argentina.
Harawi is a moody, soulful slow and melodic song or tune played on the quena. Afro-Bolivian Saya Chicha - Originated in Peru the late 1980s as a fusion of cumbia and huayno music. From the Caribbean coast of Colombia, cumbia became a hit in Peru and through much of Latin America, it was adapted to a "Peruvian" version called "Chicha" that has become a popular style in the Andean region, specially among the lower socioeconomic strata of the society including Quechua and Aymara populations. Several Andean music genres have borrowed elements introduced by the Peruvian "cumbia" such as electric bass guitars, electronic percussion and little from the original cumbia rhythm. Andean music has served as a major source of inspiration for the neo-folkloric Nueva canción movement
Los Kjarkas is a Bolivian band from the Capinota province in the department of Cochabamba, one of the most popular Andean folk music bands in the country's history. Among the styles they play are Saya, tuntuna and carnavales; the instruments they use include the charango, zampona, ronroco and bombo. The band's leader has always been singer and songwriter Gonzalo Hermosa González, who formed the band with his brothers Élmer Hermosa González and Ulises Hermosa González, as well as Gastón Guardia Bilboa and Ramiro de la Zerda. De la Zerda left group to form Grupo Fortaleza and Ulises Hermosa died of cancer in 1992, being replaced by Eduardo Yáñez Loayza, Rolando Malpartida Porcel and José Luis Morales Rodríguez. By 2002, Lin Angulo, Gonzalo Hermosa Camacho, Japanese-born Makoto Shishido had replaced Yáñez, Rodríguez. Makoto joined the band after seeing them play in Japan. In the 2000s, Élmer Hermosa was diagnosed with diabetes. In 2010, Edwin Castellanos, in the band from 1983 to 1995, became mayor of the city of Cochabamba.
Kjarkas have founded two schools teaching Andean folk music: the Musical School of Kjarkas and La Fundación Kjarkas. They have toured across Japan, Scandinavia, the United States, South America, Australia, have composed over 350 songs. Among their most popular are "Imillitay", "Al Final", "Canto a la mujer de mi pueblo", "Pequeño Amor". An unauthorized translation of their song "Llorando se fue" by French producers Jean Karakos and Olivier Lorsac resulted in Kaoma's hit "Lambada". After a successful lawsuit, Kaoma paid to license the song; the song was sampled on Don Omar's "Taboo" and on Jennifer López's single "On the Floor". "Wayayay" was covered by Tarkan as "Gelip Te Halimi Gördün Mü?" at "Yine Sensiz", whose debut album in 1992. The group's music was used for the Argentine-Dutch film Bolivia; the group's cultural heritage is passed down in the next generation of Hermosa blood with the popular youth group band Chila Jatun, made up by the sons of this influential Bolivian group. Studio albumsBolivia Kutimuy Sueño milenario de los andes Condor Mallku Desde el alma de mi pueblo Canto a la mujer de mi pueblo Sol de los andes Pueblos perdidos Desde el japón El amor y la libertad Chuquiago Marka Génesis Aymara Sin palabras Los andes... descubrió su rostro milenario Techno Kjarkas El arbol de mi destino Hermanos A los 500 años Por siempre El lider de los humildes Lección de vida 35 años 40 años despues Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to the Music of the Andes Official Site Bolivian Music and Web Varieties
Huayno is a genre of popular Andean music and dance from the Peruvian highlands. It is common in Peru and Ecuador, but present in Chile and Argentina, is practiced by a variety of ethnic groups the Quechua people; the history of Huayno dates back to colonial Peru as a combination of traditional rural folk music and popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including quena, siku, saxophone, lute, violin and mandolin; some elements of huayno originate in the music of the pre-Columbian Andes on the territory of the former Inca Empire. Huayno utilizes a distinctive rhythm in which the first beat is stressed and followed by two short beats. Carnaval Ayacuchano, a holiday genre from the Ayacucho Region, Peru Hiyawa or hiyaway, a dry-season ritual song and dance from north of Potosí Department, Bolivia The dance begins with the man offering his right arm to the women as an invitation for her to dance. Alternatively, he puts his handkerchief on the shoulder of the woman.
Next, the partners walk along an enclosure, they dance. The dance consists of an agile and vigorous stamping of the feet during which the man follows the woman, opposite to front, touching her with his shoulders after having turned around, only he touches his right arm to the left hand of his partner while both swing to the rhythm of the music, his movements are roguish. "Valicha" by Miguel Angel Hurtado "Ojos Azules" by Manuel Casazola Huancco "El Cóndor Pasa" by Daniel Alomía Robles "Vírgenes del Sol" by Jorge Bravo de Rueda "Adiós pueblo de Ayacucho" Music from the Andes and Nearby Regions
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree