Remington Model 870
The Remington Model 870 is a pump-action shotgun manufactured by Remington Arms Company, LLC. It is used by the public for sport shooting and self-defense and used by law enforcement and military organizations worldwide; the Remington 870 was the fourth major design in a series of Remington pump shotguns. John Pedersen designed the fragile Remington Model 10. John Browning designed the Remington Model 17, which served as the basis for the Remington 31; the Model 31 was well liked, but struggled for sales in the shadow of the Winchester Model 12. Remington sought to correct that in 1950 by introducing a modern, rugged and inexpensive shotgun – the 870. Sales of the 870 have been steady, they reached two million guns by 1973. As of 1983, the 870 held the record for best-selling shotgun in history with three million sold. By 1996, spurred by sales of the basic "Express" models, which were added as a lower-cost alternative to the original Wingmaster line, sales topped seven million guns. On April 13, 2009, the ten millionth.
The 870 features a side ejecting receiver and a tubular magazine under the barrel. The gun comes with a plug for hunting, it has dual action bars, internal hammer, a bolt which locks into an extension in the barrel. The action, fire control group, safety catch and slide release catch of the Remington Model 870 shotgun are similar to those used on the Remington Model 7600 series pump-action centerfire rifles and carbines; the basic fire control group design was first used in the automatic 11–48. Twelve gauge stocks will interchange on the older 12-gauge-sized 20-gauge receivers, although modification is needed to fit the smaller sized 20-gauge receivers employed since the late 1970s. Several parts of the 870 will interchange with the semi-automatic Remington 1100 and 11–87; the original 870 models were offered with fixed chokes. In 1986 Remington introduced the new Remington "Rem Choke" system of screw-in chokes; the Rem Chokes were offered only in 12 gauge in barrel lengths of 21", 26", 28". The following year the availability included other barrel lengths.
Production 870s for over 30 years had a design whereby a user could fail to press a shell all the way into the magazine when loading such that the shell latch did not engage the shell, such actions could tie up the gun. This was caused by the shell which slipped out of the magazine under the bolt in the receiver to bind the action, requiring rough treatment of the action or disassembly to clear by the uninitiated; the potential issue was resolved with the introduction of the "Flexi Tab" carrier. Guns with this modification can be identified by the "U"-shaped cut-out on the carrier, visible from below the gun; the cut-out, combined with a modified machining on the underside of the slide assembly, allows the action to be opened with a shell on the carrier. There are hundreds of variations of the Remington 870 in 16, 20, 28 gauges and.410 bore. In 1969 Remington introduced 28 gauge and.410 bore models on a new scaled down receiver size, in 1972 a 20 gauge Lightweight version was introduced on the same sized receiver, all of the smaller gauges today are produced on that size receiver.
From the original fifteen models offered, Remington produces dozens of models for civilian, law enforcement, military sales. 870 variants can be grouped into: Express – Matte blue/black bead-blasted with hardwood, laminated hardwood or synthetic stocks and chambered for 2 3/4" and 3" 12 or 20 gauge shotshells. All Expresses have been chambered in 3" in 12 and 20 gauge. Marine – Nickel-plated with synthetic stocks. Mark 1 – adopted by the United States Marine Corps in the late 1960s and saw service into the 21st century; the Model 870 Mark 1 has a 21-inch barrel with an extended magazine increasing total capacity to 8 rounds, was fitted with an adapter allowing use of the standard M7 bayonet for the M16 rifle. MCS – A new modular version of the M870 which can be modified with different barrels, magazine tubes, stocks for different purposes, such as urban combat and door breaching. Police – Chambered in 12 gauge only with a 3" magnum chamber. Blued or Parkerized steel finish; these models feature a stronger sear spring, carrier latch spring, a forged steel extractor.
Receivers are stamped "Remington 870 Police Magnum" as of 2014. They are equipped with Police-specific walnut or synthetic stocks which are fitted with sling mounts. Walnut stocks lack checkering. 870P models come with matching walnut or synthetic forends that are shortened to prevent interference with most vehicle-mounted rack systems. The shortened forend allows quick visual inspection of the magazine regardless of what position the forend is in, whereas the lengthened sport-type forend on other models blocks the loading port when pulled to the rear. Police models are available with 18" or 20" barrels, with or without rifle sights, have a standard capacity of four rounds, they can be ordered with a two or three round extended magazine tube from the factory, bringing total capacity to 6+1 or 7+1. All police barrels come with an Improved Cylinder choke. Super Mag – Chambered for 3½" 12 gauge shotshells. Wingmaster – Blued steel with high gloss or satin walnut
Heckler & Koch USP
The USP is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns. Design work on a new family of pistols commenced in September 1989 focused on the United States commercial and law enforcement markets. USP prototypes participated in rigorous testing alongside H&K's entry in the Offensive Handgun Weapon System program requested by the U. S. Special Operations Command and which would result in the Mk 23 Mod 0; the USP prototypes were refined in 1992, based on input from the OHWS trials, the design was finalized in December of the same year. The USP was formally introduced in January 1993 with the USP40 model chambered for the popular.40 S&W cartridge, followed soon by the USP9, in May 1995—the USP45. In contrast to the ambitious and innovative P7, P9S, VP70Z designs, the USP uses a more conventional Browning-style cam-locked action, similar to that used in the Hi-Power - but with a polymer frame; the USP is a semi-automatic pistol with a mechanically locked breech using the short recoil method of operation.
This rather conventional lock-up system has a large rectangular lug over the barrel’s chamber that rides into and engages the ejection port cut-out in the slide. When a cartridge is fired, pressures generated by the ignited powder drive the cartridge casing back against the breech face on the slide, driving back both the barrel and slide as they remain locked together in the manner described above. After 3 mm of unrestricted rearward travel, the projectile has left the barrel and gas pressures have dropped to a safe level. A shaped lug on the underside of the barrel chamber comes into contact with a hooked locking block at the end of the steel recoil spring guide rod, lowering the rear end of the barrel and stopping the barrel's rearward movement; the recoil spring assembly is held in place by the slide stop lever’s axis pin and a round cut-out at the front of the slide. For enhanced reliability in high-dust environments, the locking surface on the front top of the barrel’s locking lug is tapered with a forward slope.
This tapered surface produces a camming action which assists in positive lock-up in the presence of heavy fouling and debris. In this way, the USP shares many design features with the M1911 pistol, although updated for easier operation. One of the most significant features of the USP is the mechanical recoil reduction system; this system is incorporated into the recoil spring assembly, located below the barrel and consists of a heavy, captive coil spring around the guide rod. Designed to buffer the slide and barrel and reduce recoil effects on the pistol components, the system lowers the recoil forces felt by the shooter up to 30%; the USP recoil reduction system is insensitive to ammunition types and does not require adjustment or maintenance. It functions in all USP models. Using this same recoil reduction system, one of the related H&K Mk 23.45 ACP pistols fired more than 30,000 high pressure +P cartridges and 6,000 proof loads without damage or excessive wear to any major components. Abuse and function-testing of USPs have seen more than 20,000 rounds of.40 S&W fired without a component failure.
Milspec environmental tests were conducted in high and low temperatures, in mud, immersed in water and in salt spray. In one particular test, a bullet was deliberately lodged in the barrel and another bullet was fired to clear the obstruction; the barrel was cleared with only minor structural deformation and continued to produce consistent groups when test fired for accuracy. Major metal components on both the USP and Special Operations Pistol are corrosion-resistant. Outside metal surfaces, such as the steel slide are protected by a proprietary "Hostile Environment" nitride finish. Internal metal parts, such as springs, are coated with a Dow Corning anti-corrosion chemical to reduce friction and wear; the USP is composed of a total of 54 parts and is broken down into 7 major components for maintenance and cleaning: the barrel, recoil spring, recoil spring guide rod, the frame, slide stop and magazine. This is done by retracting the slide back to align the slide stop axis pin with the disassembly notch on the left side of the slide and withdrawing the axis pin.
The USP was built around the.40 S&W cartridge, but a 9×19mm Parabellum was introduced at the same time. In May 1995, Heckler & Koch introduced a.45 ACP variant. The USP Compact series was introduced in 1996 and is available in 9 mm Parabellum.40 S&W.45 ACP, to the Compact model.357 SIG. Other variants of the standard USP include the USP Tactical, USP Expert, USP Match, USP Elite and the standard sidearm of the German Armed Forces —the P8. One of the unique features of the USP is the wide variety of the trigger styles available, which may be swapped. There are nine commercially available modifications. By using a modular approach to the internal components, the control functions of the USP can be switched from the left to the right side of the pistol for left-handed shooters; the USP can be converted from one type of trigger/firing mode to another. This includes combination of double-action only modes. In addition to a wide selection of trigger/firing modes, the USP has an ambidextrous magazine release lever, shielded by the trigger guard from inadvertent actuation.
The rear of the USP grip is stepped, combines well with the tapered magazine to allow for rapid reloading. Finger recesses in the grip frame aid in maga
The Glock is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b. H, it entered Austrian military and police service by 1982 after it was the top performer in reliability and safety tests. Despite initial resistance from the market to accept a perceived "plastic gun" due to both unfounded durability and reliability concerns, as well as fears that its use of a polymer frame might circumvent metal detectors in airports, Glock pistols have become the company's most profitable line of products as well as supplying national armed forces, security agencies, police forces in at least 48 countries. Glocks are popular firearms among civilians for recreational and competition shooting and self-defense, concealed carry or open carry; the company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearms design or manufacture at the time their first pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped. Glock did, have extensive experience in advanced synthetic polymers, knowledge of, instrumental in the company's design of the first commercially successful line of pistols with a polymer frame.
Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the firearms industry as an anticorrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts. In 1980, the Austrian Armed Forces announced that it would seek tenders for a new, modern duty pistol to replace their World War II–era Walther P38 handguns; the Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for the new generation service pistol, including requirements that it would be self loading. After firing 15,000 rounds of standard ammunition, the pistol was to be inspected for wear; the pistol was to be used to fire an overpressure test cartridge generating 5,000 bar. The normal maximum operating pressure for the 9mm NATO is 2,520 bar. Glock became aware of the Austrian Army's planned procurement, in 1982 assembled a team of Europe's leading handgun experts from military and civilian sport-shooting circles to define the most desirable characteristics in a combat pistol. Within three months, Glock developed a working prototype that combined proven mechanisms and traits from previous pistol designs.
In addition the plan was to make extensive use of synthetic materials and modern manufacturing technologies, to make it a cost-effective candidate. Several samples of the 9×19mm Glock 17 were submitted for assessment trials in early 1982, after passing all of the exhaustive endurance and abuse tests, the Glock emerged as the winner; the handgun was adopted into service with the Austrian military and police forces in 1982 as the P80, with an initial order for 25,000 guns. The Glock 17 outperformed eight different pistols from five other established manufacturers; the results of the Austrian trials sparked a wave of interest in Western Europe and overseas in the United States, where a similar effort to select a service-wide replacement for the M1911 had been going on since the late 1970s. In late 1983, the United States Department of Defense inquired about the Glock pistol and received four samples of the Glock 17 for unofficial evaluation. Glock was invited to participate in the XM9 Personal Defense Pistol Trials, but declined because the DOD specifications would require extensive retooling of production equipment and providing 35 test samples in an unrealistic time frame.
Shortly thereafter, the Glock 17 was accepted into service with the Norwegian and Swedish armed forces, surpassing all prior NATO durability standards. As a result, the Glock 17 became a standard NATO-classified sidearm and was granted a NATO stock number. By 1992, some 350,000 pistols had been sold in more than 45 countries, including 250,000 in the United States alone. Starting in 2013 the British Army began replacing the Browning Hi-Power pistol with the Glock 17 Gen 4, due to concerns about weight and the external safety of the Hi-Power. Glock has updated its basic design several times throughout its production history. A mid-life upgrade to the Glock pistols involved the addition of checkering on the front strap and serrations to the back strap; these versions, introduced in 1988, were informally referred to as "second-generation" models. To meet American ATF regulations, a steel plate with a stamped serial number was embedded into the receiver in front of the trigger guard. In 1991, an integrated recoil spring assembly replaced the original two-piece recoil spring and tube design.
The magazine was modified, changing the floorplate and fitting the follower spring with a resistance insert at its base. In 1998, the frame was further modified with an accessory rail to allow the mounting of laser sights, tactical lights, other accessories. Thumb rests on both sides of the finger grooves on the front strap were added. Glock pistols with these upgrades are informally referred to as "third-generation" models. Third-generation models additionally featured a modified extractor that serves as a loaded chamber indicator, the locking block was
A hostage is a person, held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war. In contemporary usage, it means someone, seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, law enforcement, or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a particular way under threat of serious physical harm to the hostage after expiration of an ultimatum. A person who seizes one or more hostages is known as a hostage-taker; the English word "hostage" derives from French ostage, modern otage, from Late Latin obsidaticum, the state of being an obses, "hostage", from Latin obsideō, but an etymological connection was supposed with Latin hostis. This long history of political and military use indicates that political authorities or generals would agree to hand over one or several hostages in the custody of the other side, as guarantee of good faith in the observance of obligations; these obligations would be in the form of signing of a peace treaty, in the hands of the victor, or exchange hostages as mutual assurance in cases such as an armistice.
Major powers, such as Ancient Rome and the British who had colonial vassals, would receive many such political hostages offspring of the elite princes or princesses who were treated according to their rank and put to a subtle long-term use where they would be given an elitist education or even a religious conversion. This would influence them culturally and open the way for an amicable political line if they ascended to power after release; this caused the element gīsl = "hostage" in many old Germanic personal names, thus in placenames derived from personal names, for example Isleworth in west London from Old English Gīslheres wyrð. The practice of taking hostages is ancient, has been used in negotiations with conquered nations, in cases such as surrenders and the like, where the two belligerents depended for its proper carrying out on each other's good faith; the Romans were accustomed to take the sons of tributary princes and educate them at Rome, thus holding a security for the continued loyalty of the conquered nation and instilling a possible future ruler with ideas of Roman civilization.
The practice was commonplace in the Imperial Chinese tributary system between the Han and Tang dynasties. The practice continued through the early Middle Ages; the Irish High King Niall of the Nine Hostages got his epithet Noígiallach because, by taking nine petty kings hostage, he had subjected nine other principalities to his power. This practice was adopted in the early period of the British occupation of India, by France in her relations with the Arab tribes in North Africa; the position of a hostage was that of a prisoner of war, to be retained till the negotiations or treaty obligations were carried out, liable to punishment, to death, in case of treachery or refusal to fulfil the promises made. The practice of taking hostages as security for the carrying out of a treaty between civilized states is now obsolete; the last occasion was at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ending the War of the Austrian Succession, when two British peers, Henry Bowes Howard, 11th Earl of Suffolk, Charles, 9th Baron Cathcart, were sent to France as hostages for the restitution of Cape Breton to France.
In France, after the revolution of Prairial, the so-called law of hostages was passed, to meet the royalist insurrection in La Vendée. Relatives of émigrés were taken from disturbed districts and imprisoned, were liable to execution at any attempt to escape. Sequestration of their property and deportation from France followed on the murder of a republican, four to every such murder, with heavy fines on the whole body of hostages; the law only resulted in an increase in the insurrection. Napoleon in 1796 had used similar measures to deal with the insurrection in Lombardy. In times the practice of official war hostages may be said to be confined to either securing the payment of enforced contributions or requisitions in an occupied territory and the obedience to regulations the occupying army may think fit to issue. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the Germans took as hostages the prominent people or officials from towns or districts when making requisitions and when foraging, it was a general practice for the mayor and adjoint of a town which failed to pay a fine imposed upon it to be seized as hostages and retained till the money was paid.
Another case where hostages have been taken in modern warfare has been the subject of much discussion. In 1870 the Germans found it necessary to take special measures to put a stop to train-wrecking by parties in occupied territory not belonging to the recognized armed forces of the enemy, an illegitimate act of war. Prominent citizens were placed on the engine of the train so that it might be understood that in every accident caused by the hostility of the inhabitants their compatriots will be the first to suffer; the measure seems to have been effective. In 1900 during the Second Boer War, by a proclamation issued at Pretoria, Lord Roberts adopted the plan for a similar reason, but shortly afterwards it was abandoned; the Germans between the su
Heckler & Koch MP5
The MP5 is a 9x19mm Parabellum submachine gun, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar. There are over 100 variants including some semi-automatic versions; the MP5 is one of the most used submachine guns in the world, having been adopted by 40 nations and numerous military, law enforcement and security organizations. It was used by SWAT teams in North America, but has been supplanted by AR-15 variants in the 21st century. In 1999, Heckler & Koch developed the the MP5's successor. Heckler & Koch, encouraged by the success of the G3 automatic rifle, developed a family of small arms consisting of four types of firearms all based on a common G3 design layout and operating principle; the first type was chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO, the second for the 7.62×39mm M43 round, the third for the intermediate 5.56×45mm NATO caliber, the fourth type for the 9×19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. The MP5 was created within the fourth group of firearms and was known as the HK54.
Work on the MP5 began in 1964 and two years it was adopted by the German Federal Police, border guard and army special forces. In 1980, the MP5 achieved iconic status as a result of its use on live television by SAS commandos in Operation Nimrod, where they stormed the Iranian Embassy in London, rescuing hostages and killing five terrorists; the MP5 has become a mainstay of SWAT units of law enforcement agencies in the United States since then. However, in the late 1990s, as a result of the North Hollywood shootout, police special response teams have supplanted most MP5s with AR-15-based rifles; the MP5 is manufactured under license in several nations including Greece, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and the United Kingdom. The primary version of the MP5 family is the MP5A2, a lightweight, air-cooled, selective fire delayed blowback operated 9×19mm Parabellum weapon with a roller-delayed bolt, it fires from a closed bolt position. The fixed, free floating, cold hammer-forged barrel has 6 right-hand grooves with a 1 in 250 mm rifling twist rate and is pressed and pinned into the receiver.
The first MP5 models used a double-column straight box magazine, but since 1977 curved, steel magazines are used with a 15-round capacity or a 30-round capacity. The adjustable iron sights consist of a rotating rear diopter drum and a front post installed in a hooded ring; the rear sight is mechanically adjustable for both windage and elevation with the use of a special tool, being adjusted at the factory for firing at 25 metres with standard 8 grams FMJ 9×19mm NATO ammunition. The rear sight drum provides four apertures of varying diameters used to adjust the diopter system, according to the user's preference and tactical situation. Changing between apertures does not change the point of impact down range. For accurate shooting the user should select the smallest aperture that still allows an equal circle of light between the rear sight aperture and the outside of the front sight hood ring; the MP5 has a hammer firing mechanism. The trigger group is housed inside an interchangeable polymer trigger module and equipped with a three-position fire mode selector that serves as the manual safety toggle.
The "S" or Sicher position in white denotes weapon safe, "E" or Einzelfeuer in red represents single fire, "F" or Feuerstoß designates continuous fire. The SEF symbols appear on both sides of the plastic trigger group; the selector lever is actuated with the thumb of the shooting hand and is located only on the left side of the original SEF trigger group or on both sides of the ambidextrous trigger groups. The safety/selector is rotated into the various firing settings or safety position by depressing the tail end of the lever. Tactile clicks are present at each position to provide a positive stop and prevent inadvertent rotation; the "safe" setting disables the trigger by blocking the hammer release with a solid section of the safety axle located inside the trigger housing. The non-reciprocating cocking handle is located above the handguard and protrudes from the cocking handle tube at a 45° angle; this rigid control is attached to a tubular piece within the cocking lever housing called the cocking lever support, which in turn makes contact with the forward extension of the bolt group.
It is not however connected to the bolt carrier and therefore cannot be used as a forward assist to seat the bolt group. The cocking handle is held in a forward position by a spring detent located in the front end of the cocking lever support which engages in the cocking lever housing; the lever is locked back by pulling it to the rear and rotating it clockwise where it can be hooked into an indent in the cocking lever tube. The bolt rigidly engages the barrel extension—a cylindrical component welded to the receiver into which the barrel is pinned; the delay mechanism is of the same design as that used in the G3 rifle. The two-part bolt consists of a bolt head with a bolt carrier; the heavier bolt carrier lies up against the bolt head when the weapon is ready to fire and inclined planes on the front locking piece lie between the rollers and force them out into recesses in the barrel extension. When fired, expanding propellant
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Counter-terrorism incorporates the practice, military tactics and strategy that government, law enforcement and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures; the United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. In response to the escalating terror campaign in Britain carried out by the militant Irish Fenians in the 1880s, the Home Secretary, Sir William Harcourt, established the first counter-terrorism unit ever; the Special Irish Branch was formed as a section of the Criminal Investigation Department of the London Metropolitan Police in 1883, to combat Irish republican terrorism through infiltration and subversion.
Harcourt envisioned a permanent unit dedicated to the prevention of politically motivated violence through the use of modern techniques such as undercover infiltration. This pioneering branch was the first to be trained in counter-terrorism techniques, its name was changed to Special Branch as it had its remit expanded to incorporate a general role in counterterrorism, combating foreign subversion and infiltrating organized crime. Law enforcement agencies, in Britain and elsewhere, established similar units. Counterterrorism forces expanded with the perceived growing threat of terrorism in the late 20th century. After the September 11 attacks, Western governments made counter-terrorism efforts a priority, including more foreign cooperation, shifting tactics involving red teams and preventive measures. Although sensational attacks in the developed world receive a great deal of media attention, most terrorism occurs in less developed countries. Government responses to terrorism in some cases generate substantial unintended consequences.
Most counter-terrorism strategies involve an increase in domestic intelligence. The central activities are traditional: interception of communications, the tracing of persons. New technology has, expanded the range of military and law enforcement operations. Domestic intelligence is directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion, a source of political controversy. Mass surveillance of an entire population raises objections on civil liberties grounds. Homegrown terrorists lone wolves are harder to detect because of their citizenship or legal status and ability to stay under the radar. To select the effective action when terrorism appears to be more of an isolated event, the appropriate government organizations need to understand the source, methods of preparation, tactics of terrorist groups. Good intelligence is at the heart of such preparation, as well as political and social understanding of any grievances that might be solved. Ideally, one gets information from inside the group, a difficult challenge for HUMINT because operational terrorist cells are small, with all members known to one another even related.
Counterintelligence is a great challenge with the security of cell-based systems, since the ideal, but nearly impossible, goal is to obtain a clandestine source within the cell. Financial tracking can play a role, as can communications intercept, but both of these approaches need to be balanced against legitimate expectations of privacy. In response to the growing legislation. United KingdomThe United Kingdom has had anti-terrorism legislation in place for more than thirty years; the Prevention of Violence Act 1939 was brought in response to an Irish Republican Army campaign of violence under the S-Plan. This act had been allowed to expire in 1953 and was repealed in 1973 to be replaced by the Prevention of Terrorism Acts a response to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. From 1974 to 1989 the temporary provisions of the act were renewed annually. In 2000 the Acts were replaced with the more permanent Terrorism Act 2000, which contained many of their powers, the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005.
The Anti-terrorism and Security Act 2001 was formally introduced into the Parliament November 19, 2001 two months after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. It received royal assent and went into force on December 13, 2001. On December 16, 2004 the Law Lords ruled that Part 4 was incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights, but under the terms of the Human Rights Act 1998 it remained in force; the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 was drafted to answer the Law Lords ruling and the Terrorism Act 2006 creates new offences related to terrorism, amends existing ones. The Act was drafted in the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, like its predecessors some of its terms have proven to be controversial. Since 1978 the UK's terrorism laws have been reviewed by a security-cleared Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, whose influential reports are submitted to Parliament and published in full. United StatesU. S. Legal issues surrounding this issue include rulings on the domestic employment of deadly force by law enforcement organizations.
Search and seizure is governed by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The U. S. passed the USA PATRIOT Act after the September 11 attacks, as well as a range of other legislation and executive orders relating to national security. The Department of Homeland Security was established to consolidate domestic security agencies to coordinate anti-terrorism, as well as national response to major natural d