Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders: centre-back, full-back, wing-back; the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations. A centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, tries to prevent opposing players centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them. With the ball, centre-backs are expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal. Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender, quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back.
During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions; some centre-backs have been known for their direct free kicks and powerful shots from distance. Brazilian defenders David Luiz and Naldo have been known for using the cannonball free kick method, which relies more on power than placement. In the modern game, most teams employ three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper; the 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs. There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch; the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who "sweeps up" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents.
Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero. Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who only "roamed" around the back line; the more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become more popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack; this variation on the position requires great fitness. While seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack; some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles.
If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position. In modern football, its usage has been restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position; the position is most believed to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea, Elías Figueroa, although they were not the first players to play this position. Earlier proponents included Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović, Ján Popluhár. Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, Aldair, due to their ball skills and long passing ability. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a respected and demanding position. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece became European champions.
Although this position has become obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain players such as Daniele De Rossi:, Leonardo Bonucci, Javi Martínez and David Luiz have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation. Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, who participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, Edwin van der Sar, Fabien Barthez, Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweep
Legia Warszawa, known in English as Legia Warsaw, is a professional football club based in Warsaw, Poland. The current Polish champions, Legia is one of the most successful Polish football clubs in history winning 13* Ekstraklasa Champions titles, a record 19 Polish Cup trophies and four Polish SuperCup matches; the club's home venue is the Polish Army Stadium. Legia was formed between 5 and 15 March 1916 during military operations in World War I on the Eastern Front in the neighborhood of Maniewicze in Volhynia, as the main football club of the Polish Legions. After the war, the club was reactivated 14 March 1920 in an officer casino in Warsaw as Wojskowy Klub Sportowy Warszawa, renamed Legia in 1923 after merger with another local club, Korona, it became the main official football club of the Polish Army – Wojskowy Klub Sportowy Legia Warszawa. From 1949 to 1957, Legia was known as CWKS Warszawa. Before 8 April 2004 it was owned by Pol-Mot and from 8 April 2004 until 9 January 2014, it was owned by media conglomerate ITI Group Currently the club is owned by Dariusz Mioduski, Bogusław Leśnodorski and Maciej Wandzel – who serves as the club's chairman.
The first two acquired the club for an undisclosed sum, which included paying off debts made by previous ownership, Wandzel joined them in September 2014. Legia was formed between 5 and 15 March 1916 during military operations in World War I on the Eastern Front in the neighborhood of Maniewicze in Wołyń, as the main football club of the Polish Legions; the formation of the club in 1916 was influenced by the outbreak of the First World War, because many Polish soldiers were involved in the formation of the Polish Legions before the war. Soldiers young men from the south of Poland played football before the war, therefore, after the formation of the team, they soon became successful. Football was a good way of spending free time, in the calm moments at the front, football matches were organized, which required the ball, making provisional goals, finding a dozen or so players; the first team training began in the spring of 1915 in Piotrków, between 5 and 15 March 1916 – at the request of Master Sergeant Zygmunt Wasserab –, a part of the Polish Legion's Commanding Staff in Kostiukhnivka to create a football club.
The president of the organization was Władysław Groele, corporal Stanislaw Mielech proposed the name "Sporting Team Legia", adopted. Other names were: "Legion Command Squad" and "Styr". White-black colors and arms were shown, showing the white letter "L" on the black dial; the players were dressed in white clothes with sloping black belts, a reference to Czarni Lwów. In the spring of 1916, the team played a number of matches with other teams, most of which ended with Legia victorious; the oldest recorded matches are: 7–0 with the Divisional Sanitary Division, 3–3 with the 6th Infantry Regiment and two victories with the 4th Infantry Regiment. In July 1916 – because of the Brusilov Offensive – the Legions began to retreat west and the club moved to Warsaw; the first match in which Polonia Warsaw was the rival was held on 29 April 1917 at Agrykola Park and ended with a 1–1 draw. Of the nine games played in Warsaw, Legia drew three. At the first away game the team won a 2–1 victory over the Polish champion KS Cracovia in Kraków, so Legia became an unofficial champion of the country.
In 1918 the war ended. The club was reactivated on 14 March 1920. In the officers' casinos in the Royal Castle, a group of former officers formed the Military Sports Club -Wojskowy Klub Sportowy- Warsaw, establishing the white and red colors of the statute. Among them was Zygmunt Wasserab, one of the founders of the club. Due to the Polish-Bolshevik war and the participation of many Warsaw players, WKS was not nominated for the premiership of the Polish championship league in 1920. In the 1921–1926 seasons, the team was not promoted beyond the A-class of the Warsaw district, but it was a important period for the club. In 1922, a statute was passed allowing the team to play in civilian teams. Zygmunt Wassarab and Jerzy Misiński worked together and the clubs name was changed to the Military Sports Club "Legia" Warsaw, it was modeled on the document of LKS Pogoń Lwów. At that time, a merger with the oldest Warsaw sports club, was created, which resulted in the acquisition of new, white-green club colors.
In the first international match played on 18 May 1922, Legia lost 2–9 at their own stadium with Czechoslovakian club Viktor Zichkov Prague. A year in the championship of Warsaw, the Army took 3rd place. After the first-ever promotion beyond Class A in 1927, Legia qualified for the newly formed Polish Football League. Roman Górecki, the president of the Warsaw team, became the first president of the Polish League, their debut was on 8 May in Łódź – Klub Turystów Łódź was the opponent and the match ended in a 6–1 result. At the same time, Legia player Marian Łańko scored his first league goal free kick and recorded his first hat-trick in club history. In the same year, in a match against Pogonia Lwów, the club suffered the highest league loss, losing 2–11. At the end of the season, Legia finished fifth, despite five defeats at the start of the season. Legia striker Marian Łańko finished second scoring 31 goals; the Warsaw club made their debut in the Polish Cup, winning the match with Pogoń Warsaw 7–0
Motor Lublin is a Polish professional football team based in Lublin. The club was founded in December 1950 with their nickname The Yellow and Blues reflecting their official colours, they play in the Polish Third League. Metalowiec Stal FSC Lublin Robotniczy Klub Sportowy Motor Lublin Lubelski Klub Piłkarski LKP Motor Lublin The history of Motor Lublin dates back to December 1950, when a group of sports enthusiasts decided to form a football team, supported by FSC Lublin Automotive Factory. Motor was at first called Stal Lublin, its team began playing in the lower level of Polish football tier. After one year, the team won promotion to Class A, the equivalent of the 4th Division. In the spring of 1953, Stal FSC Lublin debuted in the third level, the so-called Lublin-Rzeszów Inter-Voivodeship Class, but was relegated after one year. Stal FSC returned to the third level in 1955, in 1957, the club changed its name into Robotniczy Klub Sportowy Motor. In 1960, Polish leagues switched to the autumn-spring system, in August 1961, Motor lost playoffs against Start Łódź, failing to qualify to the Second Division.
In 1964, Motor became the champion of the Lublin region, in the playoffs, it beat Włókniarz Łódz, Warszawianka Warszawa, Mazur Ełk and Warmia Olsztyn. The team did not qualify, as two of its games were voided, because one of Motor’s players was not registered. In the 1964/65 season, Motor once again won local championships. Since both Motor and CKS Czeladź finished in the first position in the playoff round, an additional game was necessary between the two teams; this game took place on August 5, 1965 in Łódź. Supported by 7,000 fans, Motor won winning promotion to the second level of Polish football. Motor was relegated after one season, but in the early summer of 1968, it returned to the Second Division, to remain there until 1972. In 1973, Polish Football Association decided to form two groups of the Second Division, with 16 teams in each; this decision helped Motor, as it won promotion, in the 1973/74 season, the team from Lublin was a success winning promotion to the Ekstraklasa. For the remaining part of the 1970s, Motor remained one of the top teams of the Second Division.
In the 1979/80 season, with manager Bronisław Waligóra, won promotion to the top level of Polish football system. The team from Lublin finished the 1980–81 Ekstraklasa in the 10th position, in the 1981–82 Ekstraklasa, it was the last. After relegation, most of the players remained in Lublin. Motor played in the 1982 Intertoto Cup, against Lyngby Boldklub, MSV Duisburg and FC Lucerne. In the 1982/83 season of the Second Division, Motor under manager Lesław Ćmikiewicz had its biggest rival in the team of Resovia Rzeszów. After 28 games, Resovia was ahead with just one point. On June 19, 1983, in Lublin, with 30,000 people in the stands, Motor routed Resovia 4–0, once again won promotion to the Ekstraklasa to remain there until June 1987. Motor returned to the Ekstraklasa in August 1989, after winning the play-offs against Pogoń Szczecin, it remained in Polish top division for three years. In June 1996, Motor was relegated to the Third Division, two years to the fourth level. In the meantime, to escape debts, it changed the name into Lublin Football Club.
This name remained in use until 2001. Motor Lublin plays at Arena Lublin with a capacity of 15,500 spectators. Motor supporters have friendly relations with fans of Śląsk Wrocław, Górnik Łęczna and Hetman Zamość, their traditional rivals were city rivals KS Lublinianka. They have local rivalries with Avia Świdnik, Stal Stalowa Wola, Radomiak Radom. Motor fans have rivalries with fans of many higher division teams too such as Widzew Łódź, Lechia Gdańsk and both the Kraków teams, Wisła, Cracovia; as of 10 March 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official website Unofficial website
Poland national football team
The Poland national football team represents Poland in association football and is controlled by the Polish Football Association, the governing body for football in Poland. At the FIFA World Cup, the current best result for Poland are two bronze medals won in 1974 and 1982, with this era being regarded as the golden era of Polish international association football. At the Euros, Poland's best result is reaching the quarter-finals in 2016, in Poland's third consecutive appearance at the competition. Poland's debut at the Euros was in 2008, they were co-hosts of the 2012 edition, along with Ukraine. Overall, Poland's best result in international football tournaments as a whole was the gold medal won at the 1972 Munich Olympics, along with winning the silver medal on two occasions; the first football federation was established on 25 June 1911 in Lwów as the Polish Football Union. After I World War members of PFU established on 20 December 1919 in Warsaw the Polish Football Federation. Poland would play its first official international match on 18 December 1921 in Budapest, where the side lost to Hungary 1–0.
Their first international win would come on 28 May 1922 where they took on Sweden in Stockholm and beat them 2–1. Poland qualified for their first World Cup in 1937 when they beat Yugoslavia 4–0 and lost 1–0 in the two qualifying matches and ensured their place in the 1938 World Cup in France. During their debut in the World Cup, Poland would play Brazil in a match which would become one of the most memorable matches in World Cup history. Despite Brazil not being regarded as the world's top team in the 1930s, it was still believed to be a hard-to-beat side, having participated in two first World Cups. Under these circumstances, the Polish team – which had never before participated on such a level – was expected to lose the game against the South Americans. Thus, the defeat was not a sensation. However, all fans were surprised at the style with which the Poles played their lone game of the tournament; the white and reds got to the extra time, only losing 5–6. Ernest Wilimowski, who played for Ruch Chorzów at the time, scored four of Poland's five goals, which to date is one of the most impressive individual performances in the history of the World Cup.
Poland played what would be their last international match before the outbreak of World War II against Hungary, the runners-up in the 1938 World Cup. The match stands out as an achievement as Poland defeated the favored Hungarian side 4–2. On 11 June 1946, following the aftermath of World War II, Poland played their first international friendly match, against Norway in Oslo, a 3–1 defeat; the biggest success in the early years after the war was the victory against one of Europe's best at the time, Czechoslovakia. Poland defeated their southern neighbors 3–1. Poland suffered the worst defeat in the team's history on 26 April 1948 with a 0–8 loss to the Danish side. Poland would erase that memory as they posted their second highest victory in Szczecin when they took down Norway 9–0 on 4 September 1963; the game marked the debut for Włodzimierz Lubański. He scored one of the goals in the game. Lubański became the all-time top scorer for Poland while playing from 1963 to 1980 scoring 48 goals in 75 appearances.
This victory was surpassed on 1 April 2009 in Kielce when Poland defeated San Marino 10–0. On 1 December 1970, Polish football history would change forever all due to one man. Kazimierz Górski was named head coach of the national team, his success with the team was evident from the start with a gold medal at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Górski would lead the team to another medal at the 1976 Olympics where they captured silver. However, nothing matched the two bronze medals at the 1982 World Cups. Poland being unknown on the international football scene before 1974 shook up the football world during the World Cup in Germany. However, this was no huge surprise as the core of the team achieved a gold medal place in the Munich Olympics in 1972; the Olympics were not considered a major tournament by most Western nations, but Eastern European countries bypassed the amateur rules by fielding their full national teams, as most players had employment with national industries or within the army. With their lightning speed and incredible team chemistry they were unstoppable.
In qualifying they surprised everyone by eliminating England, quarter-finalists in 1970 and Champions in 1966. In their opening match of Germany'74 Poland met Argentina, a team, appearing in their 6th World Cup. Within eight minutes Poland were up 2–0, Grzegorz Lato opened the scoring in the seventh minute and just a minute Andrzej Szarmach doubled the lead. In the 60th minute, Argentina cut the lead in half. Two minutes however, Lato scored his second, which turned out to be the winning goal as Carlos Babington gave Argentina their second in the 66th; the match finished 3–2 for Poland. Poland thrashed Haiti 7–0 in their second game; the goals included a hat-trick from two from Lato. In their final match of the first stage, Poland met Italy, who finished second at the previous World Cup in 1970. Poland were through to the Second Round but needed at least a draw to win the group. At half-time, Poland was leading 2 -- 0 on goals from Kazimierz Deyna, it was not until the 86th minute. This gave Poland their third consecutive win.
In the second round, Poland first won 1–0 against a Swedish side, which had not conceded any goals in their first three matches
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Serbian SuperLiga is a Serbian professional league for football clubs. At the top of the Serbian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition, it is contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the Serbian First League. The SuperLiga was formed during the summer of 2005 as the country's top football league competition in Serbia and Montenegro. Since summer 2006 after the secession of Montenegro from Serbia, the league only has had Serbian clubs. Serbian clubs used to compete in the Yugoslav First League; this competition was formed in 1923 and lasted until 2003. After the downfall of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991 a new Yugoslavia would be formed that would be named FR Yugoslavia with Montenegro and Serbia, they kept the name Yugoslavia until 2003 when the country changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro: this union lasted until 2006 when Montenegro gained independence and formed its own league, the Montenegrin First League. The current SuperLiga champions are Red Star Belgrade.
UEFA ranks the league 19th in Europe of 55 leagues. The league was known as Meridian Prva liga/Super liga from 2004 until 2008; the league's official sponsor until 2015 was beer brand Jelen pivo, thus resulted in the league's official name to be Jelen Super liga. The SuperLiga began as a league with a playoff system in an attempt to boost ratings and improve competition. After the first season however, the SuperLiga changed its format; the 2007–08 season was the first to be played in a more traditional format. The league no longer divided into a play-out group midway through the campaign. Instead, the 12 teams began playing each other three times in a more conventional league format. After two seasons with that format the Football Association of Serbia decided to add 4 teams to the SuperLiga; the 2009–10 season will be the first with a 16 team league played in a conventional league format of one home and one away match rather than the previous 3 match encounters. This drops the match schedule from 33 rounds to 30.
As of the 2015-16 season, the league reverted to its previous playoff system, whereby the top 8 placed teams compete in the championship round at the end of the season and the 8 lowest placed teams play in the relegation playoff round. The two bottom placed teams are relegated to the Serbian Prva Liga; the third lowest-placed team is sent to a relegation playoff against the third-placed team in the second division. Whichever team wins will play in the SuperLiga the following season; the champions of the SuperLiga are drawn into the primary qualifying rounds for the UEFA Champions League, while the second and third placed teams are drawn into the primary qualifying rounds for the UEFA Europa League. The Yugoslav First League started being played in 1923, gathered the best clubs from the former Yugoslavia. In 1991, clubs from Slovenia and Croatia left and formed their own league systems, in 1992 so did the clubs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia; the Yugoslav First League was played since 1992 with clubs from Serbia and Montenegro, until 2006, when Montenegro declared independence and subsequently formed its own league system.
Since 2006 the league is formed by clubs from Serbia and got renamed into Serbian SuperLiga. In 1992 the Yugoslav First League became the First League of FR Yugoslavia and was played since with the clubs from Serbia and Montenegro; the league winner had access to the UEFA Champions League qualifications rounds, the 2nd, 3rd and the Cup winner had played in the UEFA Cup. The bottom clubs would be relegated to the two Second Leagues depending on the republic they were based in, the Second League of Serbia and the Second League of Montenegro. In 2002, FR Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro, the league was named First League of Serbia and Montenegro between 2002 and its dissolution, in 2006. In 2006 Serbia and Montenegro formed their own top leagues. Serbian SuperLiga was declared the successor of the First Leagues of FR Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro. A total of 41 clubs participated between 1992 and 2006, being 34 from Serbia, 6 from Montenegro and one from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A total of 3 clubs were champions, all from Serbia, Red Star and Obilić. A total of 28 clubs participated between 2013 in the Serbian Superliga. After 8 seasons, Partizan has won 7 championship titles and Red Star has won 1 championship title. Partizan is a record holder of winning 6 consecutive champion titles; the following is a list of clubs who have played in the Serbian SuperLiga at any time since its formation in 2006 to the current season. Teams playing in the 2018–19 Serbian SuperLiga season are indicated in bold. A total of 33 teams have played in the Serbian SuperLiga; the table is accurate as of the start of the 2018–19 season. League or status at 2018–19: The following 16 clubs compete in the Jelen SuperLiga during the 2018–19 season. Serbian top level football has been played in 27 stadiums since its formation in 2006; the top-three stadiums in SuperLiga by seating capacity are Belgrade-based Red Star Stadium, Partizan Stadium and Omladinski stadion. As of April 7, 2019 As of December 17, 2018 As of October 4, 2014 See List of all former and current foreign football players in Serbia Attendance Highest single game attendance: 48,347, Red Star vs. OFK Beograd during 2013–14 season Highest average home attendance: 19,819, Red S