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Grzybowski Square

Grzybowski Square is a triangular square in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, between Twarda, Grzybowska and Królewska streets. The square's history goes back to the early 17th century, when it was an undeveloped space at a crossroads leading to the Ujazdów Castle, the village of Służewiec and the Old Town. From the mid-17th century it became the market square assumed Jurydyka status named Grzybów after the owner, Jan Grzybowski. From 1786–87, a town hall designed by Karol Schütz was built on the site. In 1791 it became part of the Warsaw area; the town hall building housed a prison from 1809 to 1830. After the demolition of the town hall, a grain market was created at the site, which ran until the end of the 19th century. From 1815, the square was built up in neoclassical style, with some of its buildings designed by famous architects such as Antonio Corazzi and Fryderyk Albert Lessel. Overlooking the square, the streets took on a uniform, neoclassical appearance, from 1830 the market was called Grzybowski.

On 29 October 1863, during the January uprising, the Russians executed several insurgents in the square: Franciszek Trzaska, Górski and Chojnacki. During this period, Jewish people lived in the area, it was famous for its many small shops offering articles of ironwork. From 1866, there was a loop line running through the square to Warsaw, which were replaced by double decker buses in 1880 horse trams, after 1908, electric trams. Earlier, in 1855, the new Warsaw aqueduct and designed by Henryk Marconi, went through the square. Electric lighting came to the square in 1907. In 1897 the market was moved out to Witkowski Square, the square was paved in cobblestones; the interwar period brought no significant changes. During the Siege of Warsaw in 1939, bombs and missiles fell on the surrounding area; some houses were destroyed and had to be demolished in 1940. In November, 1940, Grzybowski Square was part of the Warsaw Ghetto, a wall separated the area from the non-Jewish side. In March, 1941, the area of the Ghetto was reduced by setting its border along the eastern side of the square.

After the liquidation of the Ghetto, in August, 1942, the "small ghetto" was closed and the area became available to the rest of Warsaw's population. During heavy fighting in the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, two houses and a church were damaged, after the collapse of the uprising, the Germans burned the western side of the square and destroyed the Arona Serdynera Synagogue. Despite post-war reconstruction plans for only a partial reconstruction of the church and for a great realist market, many houses and buildings were demolished and only Próżna Street exists from the old ghetto; the church was from 1966 to 1967 a new post-modern Jewish Theatre building. Designed by Bohdan Pniewski, was built; the synagogue wasn't rebuilt, in its place is the 44-storey Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4 apartment building. There is a monument to the Polish underground in the center of the square; the tram lines no longer exist but in a restoration Grzybowski Square from 2009-2011, a reminder of their tracks still shows. A monument commemorating Poles who saved Jews during World War II is expected to be built by 2015.

The monument, designed by Piotr Musialowski, Paulina Pankiewicz and Michał Adamczyk will be funded by the state and the city

Miriam Daly

Miriam Daly was an Irish republican activist and university lecturer, assassinated by the loyalist Ulster Defence Association. She was born in County Kildare, Ireland, she grew up in Hatch Street, attending Loreto College on St Stephen's Green and University College, graduating in history. The economic historian George O'Brien supervised her MPhil in economic history, on Irish emigration to England, she went on to teach economic history in UCD for some years before moving to Southampton University with her husband, Joseph Lee. Two years after her first husband died, she remarried, to James Daly, returning to Ireland with him in 1968, they both were appointed lecturers in Queen's Belfast. She soon became an activist in the civil rights movement following the introduction of internment without trial by the Stormont government, she was active in the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association and the Northern Resistance Movement. She was a militant member of the Prisoners' Relatives Action Committee, the national Hunger Strike Committee.

In that campaign, she worked with Seamus Costello, soon joined him in the Irish Republican Socialist Party and the Irish National Liberation Army. After Costello was assassinated, she became chairperson. During this time she and her husband James were instrumental in opposing Sinn Féin's drift towards federalism. On 26 June 1980 Daly was shot dead in the Andersonstown area of west Belfast. At the time of her assassination, she was in charge of the IRSP prisoners' welfare. According to reports in The Irish Times, members of the Ulster Defence Association had gained entry to her home with the intention of killing her husband, a republican activist. Daly was tied up whilst they waited for him to return home. However, he was in Dublin at the time and so did not arrive. After a considerable time, the UDA men decided to kill Daly instead. Muffling the sound of the gun with a cushion, they shot her in the head and cut the phone lines before fleeing, her body was discovered. Daly was buried in County Dublin.

Mourners at her funeral, which featured the firing of a volley of shots over her coffin, included Seán Mac Stíofáin and Ruairí Ó Brádaigh. She is included as a volunteer on the INLA monument in Milltown Cemetery and is one of several commemorated by an IRSP mural on the Springfield Road, Belfast. Straight from the Heart - an interview with Miriam Daly's widower, Jim Daly accessed 24 April 2008 IRSP: Miriam Daly Commemoration Speech 25 June 2005 accessed 24 April 2008 Unveiling of Daly/McNamee Plaque 22 June 2003 accessed 24 April 2008

Willem Bloys van Treslong

Willem Bloys van Treslong was a nobleman from the Southern Netherlands and military leader during the Dutch war of Independence. He was best known as one of the leaders of the Sea Beggars who captured Den Briel on 1 April 1572; the family Bloys van Treslong had lands in Flanders and Holland. His was the bailiff of Voorne. Bloys van Treslong left Spanish service in 1558, in 1567, joined other high nobles of the Netherlands in refusing to pledge allegiance to Margaret of Parma, the governor of the Netherlands, was part of the Compromise of Nobles, he fought in the battle of Heiligerlee in 1568. In 1571, William the Silent provided him with letters of marque and equipped two ships to join the Sea Beggars. In March 1572, Bloys van Treslong's ships were trapped by ice at Wieringen and are attacked by four Spanish companies of infantry. Bloys escaped from the Spaniards but lost his sword which at present hangs in the Michaëlskerk church in Oosterland. In April 1572, the Sea Beggars captured Briel. In 1572, the rebels captured Flushing.

Bloys van Treslong was appointed Admiral of Holland in 1573, followed by the appointment as Admiral of Zealand in 1576. After a dispute over the strategy for the relief of Antwerp in 1585, he went out of favour and ended up in jail, believed to have been under the custody of Count Steijn. In his last years he became bailiff of Voorne and grand-falconer of Holland and lived in relative peace. Bloys van Treslong was married to Adriana van Wilhelmina Kaarl. By Adriana van Egmond, he had Jasper; the Dutch warship HNLMS Bloys van Treslong was named after him