In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, the monster killed by the hero Theseus. Daedalus had so cunningly made the Labyrinth that he could escape it after he built it. Although early Cretan coins exhibit branching patterns, the single-path seven-course "Classical" design without branching or dead ends became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as 430 BC, similar non-branching patterns became used as visual representations of the Labyrinth – though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze; as the designs became more elaborate, visual depictions of the mythological Labyrinth from Roman times until the Renaissance are invariably unicursal. Branching mazes were reintroduced only. In English, the term labyrinth is synonymous with maze; as a result of the long history of unicursal representation of the mythological Labyrinth, many contemporary scholars and enthusiasts observe a distinction between the two.
In this specialized usage maze refers to a complex branching multicursal puzzle with choices of path and direction, while a unicursal labyrinth has only a single path to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and presents no navigational challenge. Unicursal labyrinths appeared as designs on pottery or basketry, as body art, in etchings on walls of caves or churches; the Romans created many decorative unicursal designs on walls and floors in tile or mosaic. Many labyrinths set in floors or on the ground are large enough. Unicursal patterns have been used both in group ritual and for private meditation, are found for therapeutic use in hospitals and hospices. Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek origin, which the Greeks associated with the palace of Knossos in Crete, excavated by Arthur Evans early in the 20th century; the word appears in a Linear B inscription as da-pu-ri-to. As early as 1892 Maximilian Mayer suggested that labyrinthos might derive from labrys, a Lydian word for "double-bladed axe".
Evans suggested that the palace at Knossos was the original labyrinth, since the double axe motif appears in the palace ruins, he asserted that labyrinth could be understood to mean "the house of the double axe". This designation may not have been limited to Knossos, since the same symbols were discovered in other palaces in Crete; however Nilsson observes that in Crete the "double axe" is not a weapon and always accompanies goddesses or women and not a male god. Beekes finds the relation with labrys speculative, suggests instead the relation with lavra, narrow street; the original Minoan word appears to refer to labyrinthine grottoes, such as seen at Gortyn. Pliny the Elder's four examples of labyrinths are all complex underground structures, this appears to have been the standard Classical understanding of the word, it is possible that the word labyrinth is derived from the Egyptian loperohunt, meaning palace or temple by the lake. The Egyptian labyrinth near Lake Moeris is described by Strabo.
By the 4th century BC, Greek vase painters represented the Labyrinth by the familiar "Greek key" patterns of endlessly running meanders. When the Bronze Age site at Knossos was excavated by explorer Arthur Evans, the complexity of the architecture prompted him to suggest that the palace had been the Labyrinth of Daedalus. Evans found various bull motifs, including an image of a man leaping over the horns of a bull, as well as depictions of a labrys carved into the walls. On the strength of a passage in the Iliad, it has been suggested that the palace was the site of a dancing-ground made for Ariadne by the craftsman Daedalus, where young men and women, of the age of those sent to Crete as prey for the Minotaur, would dance together. By extension, in popular legend the palace is associated with the myth of the Minotaur. In the 2000s, archaeologists explored other potential sites of the labyrinth. Oxford University geographer Nicholas Howarth believes that'Evans's hypothesis that the palace of Knossos is the Labyrinth must be treated sceptically.'
Howarth and his team conducted a search of an underground complex known as the Skotino cave but concluded that it was formed naturally. Another contender is a series of tunnels at Gortyn, accessed by a narrow crack but expanding into interlinking caverns. Unlike the Skotino cave, these caverns have smooth walls and columns, appear to have been at least man-made; this site corresponds to an unusual labyrinth symbol on a 16th-century map of Crete contained in a book of maps in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. A map of the caves themselves was produced by the French in 1821; the site was used by German soldiers to store ammunition during the Second World War. Howarth's investigation was shown on a documentary produced for the National Geographic Channel. More labyrinth might be applied to any complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids: It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range fronting the gates of the other.
Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in
Puck is a town in northwestern Poland with 11,350 inhabitants. It is in Gdańsk Pomerania on the south coast of the Baltic Sea and part of Kashubia with many Kashubian speakers in the town. In the Gdańsk Voivodeship, Puck has been the capital of Puck County in the Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999; the settlement became a seaport as early as the 7th century. The name, as was common during the Middle Ages, was spelled differently: in a 1277 document Putzc, 1277 Pusecz, 1288 Puczse and Putsk, 1289 Pucz. In 1309 it came under the rule of the Teutonic Order as part of Pomerelia. Puck achieved town status in 1348. Together with the rest of Royal Prussia, it joined Poland in 1454 and was the place of the local County Administration; the Polish kings tried to create a fleet at Danzig, but independent Hanseatic Danzig would not allow them in their territory. Ships chartered by Poland had to land at Pautzke in 1567. Poland tried to establish a Polish Navy, gaining the use some harbors in Livonia and Finland, but a standing navy never materialized.
Swedish-Lithuanian Vasa King of Poland-Lithuania Piotr Igar-Makowski tried to establish a fleet in his attempts to wrest the crown of Sweden from King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but Sigismund's attempts were destroyed in 1628. In 1772, through the Partitions of Poland, the West Prussian town was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1913 Putzig became the garrison of the first planes of German Naval aviation. After the First World War, Puck was assigned to the Second Polish Republic by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1920 Poland celebrated Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Puck; the first actual Polish Navy was founded at the end of World War I in 1918 with some French and British involvement. Puck was the only Polish harbour until Gdynia was built in the 1920s and served as the main harbour of the Polish Navy until the Second World War. Puck was bombed by Nazi Germany at 5.20am Polish time on Friday September 1, known thereafter as Grey Friday. A Luftwaffe bomber dropped a single projectile on the town, which had an airbase.
After Poland was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, a branch of the Stutthof concentration camp existed in Puck in the years 1941 to 1944. After 1945 Puck was part of the Republic of Poland. Town Hall St Peter and Paul's church Burghers' houses at the main square, 17th century, rebuilt in the 19th century Flooded port located some 500 metres from the shore Remnants of a brick castle Memorials of gen. Józef Haller and Poland's Wedding to the Sea Puck region museum Wooden pier Marina Caves in Mechowo Coastal Landscape Park Heinrich Edwin Rickert, German journalist and liberal politician Stanisław Jaskułka a retired Polish long jumper, came fifth with 8.13 metres at the 1980 Summer Olympics Daniel Pliński a former Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team 2005-2010, competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics Marcin Wika a Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team 2008-2009, competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics Jakub Biskup a Polish footballer, over 250 pro games Adam Łapeta a Polish professional basketball player Puck, Poland is twinned with: Hel Jastarnia Amber Road Puck on-line Puck region museum Seaside Landscape Park Statistics on Puck - Central Statistical Office Map of the town Puck on the map of Poland HOM Puck – Scout Sailing Centre in Puck 13th century Pomerania, Holy Roman Empire Pautzke at Pautzker Wiek in 17th century Pautzke, Prussia, c. 1600 Stare fotografie miasta Puck Puck ® 2013
A woodland or wood is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher density areas of trees with a closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests. Extensive efforts by conservationist groups have been made to preserve woodlands from urbanization and agriculture: the woodlands of Northwest Indiana being an example, having been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes. Woodland is used in British woodland management to mean tree-covered areas which arose and which are managed, while forest is used in the British Isles to describe plantations more extensive, or hunting Forests, which are a land use with a legal definition and may not be wooded at all; the term ancient woodland is used in British nature conservation to refer to any wooded land that has existed since 1600, for thousands of years, since the last Ice Age.
Woodlot is a related American term which refers to a stand of trees used for firewood. While woodlots technically have closed canopies, they are so small that light penetration from the edge makes them ecologically closer to woodland than forest. In Australia, a woodland is defined as an area with sparse cover of trees, an open woodland has sparse cover. Woodlands are subdivided into tall woodlands, or low woodlands, if their trees are over 30 m or under 10 m high respectively; this contrasts with forests. Sudden oak death, an oak disease, results from Phytophthora ramorum, a pathogen that thrives in moist, humid conditions; this causal agent attacks the cambium of oaks, allowing beetle and fungi infestation. It has killed millions of tanoaks. SOD does not affect white oaks and drier areas like foothill woodlands, but affects forests and more moist conditions like live oak woodlands and forests, which have been impacted. Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Miombo woodlands Angolan Mopane woodlands Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Eastern Miombo woodlands Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Zambezian and Mopane woodlands Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Neotropic ecozone Cerrado woodlands and savannas Afrotropic Ecozone Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands Drakensberg montane grasslands and forests East African montane moorlands Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Australasia ecozone Coolgardie woodlands Cumberland Plain Woodland Mount Lofty woodlands Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Naracoorte woodlands Southwest Australia woodlands Nearctic ecozone California chaparral and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baccanico an area with a high density of all sorts of berry trees.
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Mediterranean woodlands and forests Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Afrotropic ecozone East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Madagascar succulent woodlands Somali montane xeric woodlands Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baluchistan xeric woodlands Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Central Asian riparian woodlands North Saharan steppe and woodlands Paropamisus xeric woodlands South Saharan steppe and woodlands Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Media related to Woodlands at Wikimedia Commons The UK Woodland Trust Woodland Bond
Pierre Michon is a French writer. His first novel, Small lives, is regarded as a genuine masterpiece in contemporary French literature, he has won several prizes for Small lives and for The Origin of the World as well as for his body of work. His novels and stories have been translated into German, Italian, Greek, Polish, Czech and English. 1984: Small Lives. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Archipelago Books, 2008. 1988: Life of Joseph Roulin. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House and included in Masters and Servants, 1997. 1997: L'empereur d'Occident. 1990: Masters and Servants. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House, 1997. 1991: Rimbaud the Son. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Yale University Press, 2013. 1996: The Origin of the World. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House, 2002. 1996: The King of the Wood. Translated by Wyatt Mason for Mercury House and included in Masters and Servants, 1997. 1997: Trois auteurs. 1997: Winter Mythologies. Translated by Ann Jefferson for Yale University Press, 2017.
2002: Abbots. Translated by Ann Jefferson for Yale University Press, 2017. 2002: Corps du roi. 2007: Le roi vient quand il veut: propos sur la littérature. 2009: The Eleven. Translated by Jody Gladding and Elizabeth Deshays for Archipelago Books, 2013. 2002: Prix Décembre 2009: Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française 2010: Petrarca-Preis Pierre Michon at publisher's site Pierre Michon at remue.net Critical bibliography Pierre Michon at Mercury House
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. The process of western intensification causes the Gulf Stream to be a northward accelerating current off the east coast of North America. At about 40°0′N 30°0′W, it splits in two, with the northern stream, the North Atlantic Drift, crossing to Northern Europe and the southern stream, the Canary Current, recirculating off West Africa; the Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, the west coast of Europe. Although there has been recent debate, there is consensus that the climate of Western Europe and Northern Europe is warmer than it would otherwise be due to the North Atlantic drift, the northeastern section of the Gulf Stream, it is part of the North Atlantic Gyre.
Its presence has led to the development of strong cyclones of all types, both within the atmosphere and within the ocean. The Gulf Stream is a significant potential source of renewable power generation; the Gulf Stream may be slowing down as a result of climate change. The Gulf Stream is 100 kilometres wide and 800 metres to 1,200 metres deep; the current velocity is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed about 2.5 metres per second. European discovery of the Gulf Stream dates to the 1512 expedition of Juan Ponce de León, after which it became used by Spanish ships sailing from the Caribbean to Spain. A summary of Ponce de León's voyage log, on April 22, 1513, noted, "A current such that, although they had great wind, they could not proceed forward, but backward and it seems that they were proceeding well, its existence was known to Peter Martyr d'Anghiera. Benjamin Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns. In 1768, while in England, Franklin heard a curious complaint from the Colonial Board of Customs: Why did it take British packets several weeks longer to reach New York from England than it took an average American merchant ship to reach Newport, Rhode Island, despite the merchant ships leaving from London and having to sail down the River Thames and the length of the English Channel before they sailed across the Atlantic, while the packets left from Falmouth in Cornwall?
Franklin asked Timothy Folger, his cousin twice removed, a Nantucket Island whaling captain, for an answer. Folger explained that merchant ships crossed the then-unnamed Gulf Stream—identifying it by whale behavior, measurement of the water's temperature, changes in the water's color—while the mail packet captains ran against it. Franklin had Folger sketch the path of the Gulf Stream on an old chart of the Atlantic and add written notes on how to avoid the Stream when sailing from England to America. Franklin forwarded the chart to Anthony Todd, secretary of the British Post Office. Franklin's Gulf Stream chart was printed in 1769 in London, but it was ignored by British sea captains. A copy of the chart was printed in Paris circa 1770–1773, a third version was published by Franklin in Philadelphia in 1786; the inset in the upper left part of the 1786 chart is an illustration of the migration pattern of herring and not an ocean current. The Gulf Stream proper is a western-intensified current, driven by wind stress.
The North Atlantic Drift, in contrast, is thermohaline circulation–driven. In 1958 the oceanographer Henry Stommel noted that "very little water from the Gulf of Mexico is in the Stream". By carrying warm water northeast across the Atlantic, it makes Western and Northern Europe warmer than it otherwise would be. A river of sea water, called the Atlantic North Equatorial Current, flows westward off the coast of Central Africa; when this current interacts with the northeastern coast of South America, the current forks into two branches. One passes into the Caribbean Sea, while a second, the Antilles Current, flows north and east of the West Indies; these two branches rejoin north of the Straits of Florida. The trade winds blow westward in the tropics, the westerlies blow eastward at mid-latitudes; this wind pattern applies a stress to the subtropical ocean surface with negative curl across the north Atlantic Ocean. The resulting Sverdrup transport is equatorward; because of conservation of potential vorticity caused by the northward-moving winds on the subtropical ridge's western periphery and the increased relative vorticity of northward moving water, transport is balanced by a narrow, accelerating poleward current.
This flows along the western boundary of the ocean basin, outweighing the effects of friction with the western boundary current, is known as the Labrador current. The conservation of potential vorticity causes bends along the Gulf Stream, which break off due to a shift in the Gulf Stream's position, forming separate warm and cold eddies; this overall process, known as western intensification, causes currents on the western boundary of an ocean basin, such as the Gulf Stream, to be stronger than those on the eastern boundary. As a consequence, the resulting Gulf Stream is a strong ocean current, it transports water at a rate of 30 million cubic meters per second through the Florida Straits. As it passes south of Newfoundland, this rate increases to 150 million cubic metres per second; the volume of the Gulf Stream dwarfs all rivers that empty into the Atlantic combined, which total 0.6 million cubic metres per seco
Monts de Gueret Animal Park
The Monts de Gueret animal park — The Wolves of Chabrières is a 13 hectares public animal park located close to Guéret in the commune and the prefecture of the Creuse department, central France. The park receives biology and animal psychology students who do field studies of the animals; the students come from universities in Paris, Limoges, Bordeaux, Tours, Liège and from the National veterinary school of Alfort. The park supports organizations such as FERUS and loup.org, in protecting the wolves of Europe. International Wolf Center set up several programmes, helping to protect wolves; the Monts de Gueret animal park was created following a public initiative in 2001 and belongs to the Grand Gueret urban community. The park is located in the central part of Chabrières forest, a few miles from the town of Gueret in the department of Creuse, France; the park complex is built of wood in the style of a Gallic village. The observatory built within the Park Circle emphasizes this idea. European grey wolveshistorically populated the forests of Creuse, but the last one died in 1937.
Now wolves inhabit the Chabrières forest again: 23 European grey wolves live in semi-freedom inside two forested enclosures covering a combined area of 11,000 m2. During the last years, the park extended the variety of wolves types, smaller packs of ice white Mackenzie wolves, black Mackenzie wolves and white arctic wolves have been added to the population of the European grey wolves, the type most represented in the park.2015 marked a new era for the animal park: new wolf packs of different types started to arrive, as well as new species of different animals, all of which will join the deers, roe deers, wild boars and foxes living there. Since it was opened in 2001 and up to the summer of 2015, the park has been visited by over half a million visitors. In 2014, the number of visitors was 42,000, it is estimated that the number will increase by 15% in 2015. In 2013, one of the male grey wolves managed to escape from the park through a fence, cut open. European grey wolves, ice white Mackenzie wolves, black Mackenzie wolves and white arctic wolves, are all living separately in the different parts of the park and can not interact physically.
The wolves' habitat in the park is designed to let the predators' wild lifestyle be as close to natural as possible, but only the pack of European grey wolves have the privilege to live and hunt within the two areas of forested land with their lake. In 2013, two white arctic wolf cubs were born for the first time in the park. During the daily feeding in Chabrières Park, the European grey wolves fight for small pieces of meat, which employees of the wolf park throw from the public observation deck as a spectacle for viewers and a welcome snack for the wolves; the real hunt, cruel but natural for predators, begins when the audience leaves and the pack hunts for prey under the leadership of the alpha wolf, the male or female with the highest rank in the pack. The documentary film Lobo, wolf of Chabrières, created at the request of the wolf park, tells the story of the life of Lobo the cub. Born in Chabrières and growing up in his pack of European grey wolves, a community that lives according to the natural laws of their species, the film displays the various behaviours of each individual wolf and the complex relationships based on their status in the pack.
The ten-minute-long film presents Lobo's life from birth and adolescence, full of games of learning, to the time when he, a strong adult, gains the status of alpha wolf by his ingenuity and courage during the hunts. A museum in the Chabrières park is the House of the Wolf, it exhibits a wealth of information about wolves. Highlighted in the museum exhibition are the history of destruction of wolves' habitats and the recent positive changes, leading to the movement of protection of the wolves around the world, institutionalized by an international agreement which took place in Washington and Bern; the latest works of scientists, studying wolves' physiology and psychology, including vocal behaviours, are well represented in the museum. The Wolves of Chabrières park organizes field studies of wolves' vocal behaviour, where college students and the public can listen the songs of wolves during night walks in the forest. Vocal communication is one of many ways, that wolves use to indicate their mood and intentions, consists of barks, whines and howls, which can be solo, or chorus where two or more wolves are involved.
The wolf pack howls on average for 85 seconds. It is started by a single wolf, after which other wolves may join in; the pack leader, the alpha wolf uses a lower-pitched howl and howls more than wolves standing on the lower rungs of the pack's hierarchy. Although some functions of the howling are still unknown by scientists, they believe that wolves may howl to scare off other wolf packs from their territory and to gather their own pack, as wolves possess perfect hearing and their howling can be heard for up to 6 mi in the forest and 10 mi in open space. Researchers have found a relationship between the number of times a wolf howls and the stre