Hervor is the name of two female characters in the cycle of the magic sword Tyrfing, presented in Hervarar saga with parts found in the Poetic Edda. One, the viking Hervör, challenged her father Angantýr's ghost in his gravemound for his cursed sword Tyrfing, bore Heithrek, father of the other Hervör, a commander killed in battle with her brother; the two are thought by some academics to be the same character, duplicated. Additionally, Hervor is the name of a valkyrie married by Völund in the Poetic Edda poem Völundarkviða, see Hervör alvitr. Hervor was born after her father Angantyr's death to his wife Svafa, daughter of a Jarl Bjarmar. Rather than take on sewing or be raised as a bond-maid like other girls, Hervor proved to be as strong as the boys and learned archery and horse riding, she dressed like a man, fought and pillaged under her male surname Hjörvard. When she learned of her father's identity she decided to live as her father and to find Tyrfing, the magic sword. One day, she arrived with her fleet to Munarvágr on Samsø, but she was the only one who dared to embark on the haunted island.
The remainder of her crew feared the nightly activities around the barrows on the island. As she approached the barrows she saw a fire shining above them, she approached the largest one, she talked with a loud voice summoning her father Angantyr to reveal himself. She said that as his daughter she was entitled to Tyrfing, she summoned her eleven uncles and she did so with such a loud voice and such harsh words that her father's voice was heard and he asked not to pursue her quest. She continued to ask for her rightful inheritance; the grave opened and in its centre a fire was shining. There she saw her father, he warned her not to ask for the sword, it would bring death to their whole clan. Still, she persisted; the sword was cast out of the grave, she eagerly gripped it, bid farewell to her dead kinsmen and walked to the shore. However, when she arrived at the shore, the ships were gone, her crew had been scared away by the thunder from the barrows. She managed to leave the island and arrived at the court of Gudmund of Glæsisvellir.
She still called herself Hervarðr. Cunningly, she helped the king to win playing tafl. However, she slew a courtier who tried to unsheathe Tyrfing after she had left it on a chair, she resumed her Viking activities, travelled far and wide. After a while she returned to her foster-father Bjartmar. At Bjartmar's residence, she betook herself to sewing and embroidering like other girls, was considered to be a beautiful and good-mannered girl. King Gudmund's son Höfund arrived to ask for her hand, she said yes; the old king Gudmund arranged a grand wedding, entrusted the kingdom in the hands of the young couple. They lived and had two sons who were given the names Angantyr and Heidrek; the sword Tyrfing would continue its ill work, Heidrek slew his brother Angantyr with the sword. For the continued adventures of Tyrfing, see Heidrek. Heidrek had a daughter, she was a shieldmaiden and was the commander of a Gothic fort facing Myrkviðr, she would fall in battle against the Huns. When her foster-father Ormar reported Hervor's death to king Angantyr, he said: When King Angantyr heard this, he grinned and was slow to speak, but at last he said: Óbróðurliga vartu leikin, in ágæta systir.
"Unbrotherly the bloody game they played with you, excellent sister." Herikson, Alf. Stora mytologiska uppslagsboken; this article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain. N. Kershaw's English translation of the Hervarar saga with facing Old Norse text
Saxo Grammaticus known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian and author. He is thought to have been a clerk or secretary to Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, the main advisor to Valdemar I of Denmark, he is the author of the Gesta Danorum, the first full history of Denmark, from which the legend of Amleth would come to inspire the story of Hamlet by Shakespeare. The Jutland Chronicle gives evidence, it is unlikely he was born before 1150 and it is supposed that his death could have occurred around 1220. His name Saxo was a common name in medieval Denmark; the name Grammaticus was first given to him in the Jutland Chronicle and the Sjælland Chronicle makes reference to Saxo cognomine Longus. He lived in a period of warfare and Danish expansion, led by the Valdemars; the Danes were being threatened by the Wends who were making raids across the border and by sea. Valdemar I had just won a civil war and Valdemar II led an expedition across the Elbe to invade Holstein. Sven Aggesen, a Danish nobleman and author of a earlier history of Denmark than Saxo's, describes his contemporary, Saxo, as his contubernalis meaning tent-comrade.
This gives evidence that Saxo and Sven might have soldiered in the Hird or royal guard since Sven used the word contubernium in reference to them. There is a Saxo to be found on a list of clergy at Lund, where there was a Sven recorded as Archdeacon. There is Dean Saxo who died in 1190. Both arguments, for a secular or religious Saxo, would confirm that he was well educated, as clergy he would have received training in Latin and sons of great men were sent to Paris. Saxo writes that he is himself committed to being a soldier, he tells us that he follows "the ancient right of hereditary service," and that his father and grandfather "were recognized frequenters of your renowned sire's war camp."Saxo's education and ability support the idea that he was educated outside Denmark. Some suggest the title "Grammaticus" refers not to his education but rather his elaborate Latin style. We know from his writing that he was in the retinue and received the patronage of Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, the foremost adviser to King Valdemar I.
In his will Absalon forgives his clerk Saxo a small debt of two and a half marks of silver and tells him to return two borrowed books to the monastery of Sorø. The legacy of Saxo Grammaticus is the sixteen book. In the preface to the work, Saxo writes that his patron Absalon, Archbishop of Lund had encouraged him to write a heroic history of the Danes; the history is thought to have been started about 1185. The goal of Gesta Danorum was as Saxo writes "to glorify our fatherland," which he accomplishes on the model of the Aeneid by Vergil. Saxo may have owed much to Plato, Cicero and to more contemporary writers like Geoffrey of Monmouth. Saxo's history of the Danes was compiled from sources that are of questionable historical value but were to him the only ones extant, he drew on oral tales of the Icelanders, ancient volumes, letters carved on rocks and stone, the statements of his patron Absalon concerning the history of which the Archbishop had been a part. Saxo's work was not a history or a simple record of old tales, rather it was, in the parlance of Friis-Jensen, "a product of Saxo's own mind and times,".
The history is composed of sixteen books and extends from the time of the founders of the Danish people, Dan I of Denmark and Angul into about the year 1187. The first four are concerned with the history of the Danes before Christ, the next four with the history after Christ, books 9-12 Christian Denmark and 13-16 promote Lund and the exploits early before and during Saxo's own lifetime, it is assumed that the last eight books were written first, as Saxo drew on the work of Absalon for evidence of the age of Saint Canute and Valdemar I. The first eight volumes share a likeness with the works of Saxo's contemporary Snorri Sturluson, they deal with mythical elements such as the Scandinavian pantheon of gods. Saxo tells of Dan the first king of Denmark who had a brother named Angul who gave his name to the Angles, he tells the stories of various other Danish heroes, many who interact with the Scandinavian gods. Saxo's "heathen" gods however were not always good characters, they were sometimes treacherous such as in the story of Harald, legendary king of the Danes, taught the ways of warfare by Odinn and was betrayed and killed by the god who brought him to Valhalla.
Saxo's world is seen to have had warlike values. He glorifies the heroes, his view of the period of peace under King Frode was low and was only satisfied when King Knut brought back the ancestral customs. Saxo's chronology of kings extends up to Saint Canute and his son Valdemar I. Saxo finished the history with the Preface, which he wrote last, about 1216 under the patronage of Anders Sunesen who replaced Absalon as Archbishop of Lund. Saxo included in the preface warm appreciation of both Archbishops and of the reigning King Valdemar II. Of particular interest for Shakespeare scholars is the story of Amleth, the first instance of the playwright's Hamlet. Saxo based the story on an oral tale of a son taking revenge for his murdered father. Christiern P
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor
Nornagests þáttr or the Story of Norna-Gest is a legendary saga about the Norse hero Nornagestr, sometimes called Gestr, here anglicized as Norna-Gest. Norna-Gest was the son of a Danish man named Thord of Thinghusbit, who once dwelt on the estate of Grøning in Denmark; when he was born, three Norns foretold the child's destiny. Two of them gave him good gifts; however Skuld, the youngest of the Norns, deeming that the two others made rather light of her, determined to render void their promises of good fortune for the child. So she prophesied that his life was to last no longer than that of a candle standing lit beside the cradle; the eldest Norn extinguished the flame and asked his mother to hide it well. When Norna-Gest had grown up he became the care-taker of the candle and he is said to have lived for 300 years, he took part in the battles of Sigurd the Völsung, spent time with Ragnar Lodbrok's son Björn Ironside and his brothers, with Starkad, with the Swedish king Sigurd Hring, with King Erik at Uppsala1, with King Harald Fairhair and with King Hlodver2 in Germany.
According to legend, when King Olaf Tryggvason tried to convert the Norse to Christianity, he brought Norna-Gest to his court. In the third year of the reign of King Olaf, Norna-Gest came into the presence of the king and asked to be admitted to his bodyguard, he was somewhat stricken in years. Norna-Gest afterward permitted himself to be baptized at the king's desire and lit the candle that the norn Skuld had prophesied about. In accordance with the prophecy, when the candle failed, Norna-Gest died; the story of Norna-Gest is narrated in Nornagests þáttr, written about the year 1300. The story was incorporated as an episode of the Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason in the medieval Icelandic manuscript Flateyjarbók which contains several poems from the Poetic Edda; the story of Nornagest and his candle has a counterpart in Greek mythology: the story of Meleager, prophesied to live only as long as a certain log was unburnt. The story is included in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Science fiction writer Poul Anderson incorporated the story of Nornagest in The Boat of a Million Years, a collection of short stories about immortals.
^1 Eiríkr at Uppsölum is a default name for the Swedish king. It could refer to Erik Björnsson, Erik Anundsson or Eric the Victorious. ^2 Hlodver of Germany refers either to Louis the German or Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Norna-Gests þáttr in Old Norse Nora Kershaw's 1921 Translation Norna-Gest's Thattr in English Translation with Facing Old Norse Text Entry in the Stories for All Time database, with a full list of manuscripts, editions and secondary literature
In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is an eight-legged horse ridden by Odin. Sleipnir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Sleipnir is Odin's steed, is the child of Loki and Svaðilfari, is described as the best of all horses, is sometimes ridden to the location of Hel; the Prose Edda contains extended information regarding the circumstances of Sleipnir's birth, details that he is grey in color. Sleipnir is mentioned in a riddle found in the 13th century legendary saga Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks, in the 13th-century legendary saga Völsunga saga as the ancestor of the horse Grani, book I of Gesta Danorum, written in the 12th century by Saxo Grammaticus, contains an episode considered by many scholars to involve Sleipnir. Sleipnir is accepted as depicted on two 8th century Gotlandic image stones: the Tjängvide image stone and the Ardre VIII image stone. Scholarly theories have been proposed regarding Sleipnir's potential connection to shamanic practices among the Norse pagans.
In modern times, Sleipnir appears in Icelandic folklore as the creator of Ásbyrgi, in works of art, software, in the names of ships. In the Poetic Edda, Sleipnir appears or is mentioned in the poems Grímnismál, Sigrdrífumál, Baldrs draumar, Hyndluljóð. In Grímnismál, Grimnir tells the boy Agnar in verse. In Sigrdrífumál, the valkyrie Sigrdrífa tells the hero Sigurðr that runes should be cut "on Sleipnir's teeth and on the sledge's strap-bands." In Baldrs draumar, after the Æsir convene about the god Baldr's bad dreams, Odin places a saddle on Sleipnir and the two ride to the location of Hel. The Völuspá hin skamma section of Hyndluljóð says that Loki produced "the wolf" with Angrboða, produced Sleipnir with Svaðilfari, thirdly "one monster, thought the most baleful, descended from Býleistr's brother." In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Sleipnir is first mentioned in chapter 15 where the enthroned figure of High says that every day the Æsir ride across the bridge Bifröst, provides a list of the Æsir's horses.
The list begins with Sleipnir: "best is Sleipnir, he is Odin's, he has eight legs." In chapter 41, High quotes the Grímnismál stanza. In chapter 43, Sleipnir's origins are described. Gangleri asks High what there is to tell about it. High expresses surprise in Gangleri's lack of knowledge about its origin. High tells a story set "right at the beginning of the gods' settlement, when the gods established Midgard and built Val-Hall" about an unnamed builder who has offered to build a fortification for the gods in three seasons that will keep out invaders in exchange for the goddess Freyja, the sun, the moon. After some debate, the gods agree to this, but place a number of restrictions on the builder, including that he must complete the work within three seasons with the help of no man; the builder makes a single request. The stallion Svaðilfari performs twice the deeds of strength as the builder, hauls enormous rocks to the surprise of the gods; the builder, with Svaðilfari, makes fast progress on the wall, three days before the deadline of summer, the builder was nearly at the entrance to the fortification.
The gods convene, figured out, responsible, resulting in a unanimous agreement that, along with most trouble, Loki was to blame. The gods declare that Loki would deserve a horrible death if he could not find a scheme that would cause the builder to forfeit his payment, threatened to attack him. Loki, swore oaths that he would devise a scheme to cause the builder to forfeit the payment, whatever it would cost himself; that night, the builder drove out to fetch stone with his stallion Svaðilfari, out from a wood ran a mare. The mare neighed at Svaðilfari, "realizing what kind of horse it was," Svaðilfari became frantic, tore apart his tackle, ran towards the mare; the mare ran to the wood, Svaðilfari followed, the builder chased after. The two horses ran around all night, causing the building work to be held up for the night, the previous momentum of building work that the builder had been able to maintain was not continued; when the Æsir realize that the builder is a hrimthurs, they disregard their previous oaths with the builder, call for Thor.
Thor arrives, kills the builder by smashing the builder's skull into shards with the hammer Mjöllnir. However, Loki had "such dealings" with Svaðilfari that "somewhat later" Loki gave birth to a grey foal with eight legs. Hermóðr agrees to ride to Hel to offer a ransom for Baldr's return, so "then Odin's horse Sleipnir was fetched and led forward." Hermóðr mounts rides away. Hermóðr rides for nine nights in deep, dark valleys where Hermóðr can see nothing; the two arrive at the river Gjöll and continue to Gjöll bridge, encountering a maiden guarding the bridge named Móðguðr. Some dialogue occurs between Hermóðr and Móðguðr, including that Móðguðr notes that there had ridden five battalions of dead men across the bridge that made less sound than he. Sleipnir and Hermóðr continue "downwards and northwards" on the road to Hel, until the two arrive at Hel's gates. Hermóðr dismounts from Sleipnir, tightens Sleipnir's girth, mounts him, spurs Sleipnir
The word zoomorphism derives from the Greek ζωον, meaning "animal", μορφη, meaning "shape" or "form". It can mean: Art that imagines humans as non-human animals Art that portrays one species of animal like another species of animal Art that creates patterns using animal imagery, or animal style Deities depicted in animal form, such as exist in ancient Egyptian religion Therianthropy: the ability to shapeshift into animal form Attributing animal form or other animal characteristics to anything other than an animal. Mark the Evangelist as a lion in Christian iconography; the Egyptian gods were depicted as zoomorphic or as hybrid The names of the two most prominent Hebrew Bible female prophets - Deborah and Huldah - were in the Babylonian Talmud interpreted in zoomorphic terms as "wasp" and "weasel." A literary phrase such as "The roar of the ocean". Sin lurking like a beast waiting to devour Cain in Genesis. Desmond Morris in The Naked Ape and The Human Zoo, Robert Ardrey in African Genesis and Konrad Lorenz in On Aggression all wrote from a sociobiological perspective.
They viewed the human species as an animal, subject to the evolutionary law of Survival of the fittest through adaptation to the biophysical environment. Fenrisulfr, a wolf in Norse mythology Airavata, the king god of elephants in Indian mythology. Paw feet bathtub, with feet in the shape of a lion's paws The sphinx from the "Oedipus Rex" by Sophocles Elephantine Colossus, a hotel In The Flintstones and Night at the Museum, the dinosaurs Dino and "Rexy" behave and vocalize like dogs. Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a lion, the king of Narnia Robotic pets, like AIBO, modeled on dogs or other animals In 2010 city planners from Southern Sudan, which would become independent a year unveiled plans for the city center of its capital, Juba, to be built in the shape of a rhinoceros; the city of Wau was to be transformed in the shape of a giraffe. Amity-enmity complex