Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
Italian resistance movement
The Italian resistance movement is an umbrella term for Italian resistance groups during World War II. It was opposed to the forces of Nazi Germany as well as their puppet state local regime, the Italian Social Republic following the German military occupation of Italy between September 1943 and April 1945, though the resistance to the Fascist Italian government began prior to World War II; the movement that rose among Italians of various social classes is known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans, the brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War or as the Italian Civil War. The modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the Resistance. Armed resistance to the German occupation following the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces of 3 September 1943 began with Italian regular forces: the Italian Armed Forces and the Carabinieri military police; the period's best-known battle broke out in Rome the day the armistice was announced.
Regio Esercito units such as the Sassari Division, the Granatieri di Sardegna, the Piave Division, the Ariete II Division, the Centauro Division, the Piacenza Division and the "Lupi di Toscana" Division were deployed around the city and along surrounding roads. Outnumbered German Fallschirmjäger and Panzergrenadiere were repelled and endured losses, but gained the upper hand, aided by their experience and superior Panzer component; the defenders were hampered by the escape of King Victor Emmanuel III, Marshal Pietro Badoglio and their staff to Brindisi, which left the generals in charge of the city without a coordinated defence plan. This caused Allied support to be canceled at the last minute, since the Fallschirmjäger took the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division drop zones. The Italian Centauro II Division's absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat given its German-made tanks, it was composed of ex-Blackshirts and was not trusted. By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown Rome and the Granatieri made their last stand at Porta San Paolo.
At 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the order of surrender. Although some officers participating in the battle joined the resistance, the clash was not motivated by anti-German sentiment but by the necessity to defend the Italian capital and resist the Italian soldiers' disarmament. Generals Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. and Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo joined the underground. One of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. On 10 September 1943, during Operation Achse, a small German flotilla, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Wolf Albrand, tried to enter the harbour of Piombino but was denied access by the port authorities. General Cesare Maria De Vecchi, in command of the Italian coastal forces, commanded the port authorities to allow the German flotilla to enter, against the advice of Commander Amedeo Capuano, the Naval commander of the harbour. Once they entered and landed, the German forces showed a hostile behaviour, it became clear that their intent was to occupy the town.
This however did not stop the protests. Battle broke out at 21:15 on 10 September, between the German landing forces and the Italian coastal batteries and civilian population. Italian tanks sank the German torpedo boat TA11. Sauro and Carbet were scuttled; the German attack was repelled. Italian casualties had been a dozen wounded. In the morning, however, De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, had their weapons given back to them. New popular protests broke out, as the Italian units were disbanded and the senior commanders fled from the city. Many of the sailors and citizens who had fough
Monica Vitti is an Italian actress best known for her starring roles in films directed by Michelangelo Antonioni during the early 1960s. After working with Antonioni, Vitti changed focus and began making comedies, working with director Mario Monicelli on many films, she has appeared opposite Marcello Mastroianni, Richard Harris, Terence Stamp, Michael Caine, Dirk Bogarde. Vitti won five David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress, seven Italian Golden Globes for Best Actress, the Career Golden Globe, the Venice Film Festival Career Golden Lion Award. Born Maria Luisa Ceciarelli in Rome, she acted in amateur productions as a teenager trained as an actor at Rome's National Academy of Dramatic Arts and at Pittman's College, where she played a teen in a charity performance of Dario Niccodemi's La nemica, she toured Germany with an Italian acting troupe and her first stage appearance in Rome was for a production of Niccolò Machiavelli's La Mandragola. Vitti's first film role was in Edoardo Anton's Ridere Ridere Ridere, but her first noted performance was at the age of 26, in Mario Amendola's Le dritte.
In 1957 she joined Michelangelo Antonioni's Teatro Nuovo di Milano. She played a leading role in his internationally praised and award winning film L'avventura, as a detached and cool protagonist drifting into a relationship with the lover of her missing girlfriend. Giving a screen presence, described as "stunning", she is credited with helping Antonioni raise money for the production and sticking with him through daunting location shooting. L'avventura made Vitti an international star and one of Italy's most famous actresses of the 20th century, her image appeared on an Italian postage stamp commemorating the film. Vitti received critical praise for starring roles in the Antonioni films La Notte, L'Eclisse and Il Deserto Rosso, which are cited with L'avventura as a series. After her relationship with Antonioni ended, the two did not work together again until Il mistero di Oberwald. Vitti made only two English language films; the first was Modesty Blaise, a mod James Bond spy spoof with Terence Stamp and Dirk Bogarde, which had only mixed success and received harsh critical reviews.
Her other English film was An Almost Perfect Affair, directed by Michael Ritchie and co-starring Keith Carradine, set during the Cannes Film Festival. In 1970 Vitti starred with Marcello Mastroianni in Ettore Scola's successful romantic comedy Dramma della gelosia. In 1973, she made Polvere di stelle, directed by Alberto Sordi, for which she won the 1974 David di Donatello award for Best Actress. In 1974, she starred in Luis Buñuel's innovative Le Fantôme de la liberté; this is considered her last great film. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Vitti appeared in Italian films which did not gain international distribution. Il mistero di Oberwald, the last collaboration between Vitti and Antonioni, is not as well known as L'Avventura. After that movie, Vitti did not do as much screen work. In 1989, Vitti tried writing and directing, created Scandalo Segreto, which she starred in; the film was not a success and she retired from cinema. By 1986 Vitti had returned to the theatre as an teacher. During the 1990s she did television work and directing.
In 1993 Vitti was awarded the Festival Tribute at the Créteil International Women's Film Festival, in France. Michelangelo Antonioni and Vitti met in the late 1950s, their relationship grew stronger after L'Avventura was made, because it had shaped both their careers. However, by the late 1960s, they did not make any movies together, making the relationship strained until it ended. In a interview, Vitti stated that Antonioni ended their relationship, they made the film Il mistero di Oberwald together in 1981. In 1995 Vitti married Roberto Russo, with whom she has lived since 1975. In 2011, it was learned that Alzheimer's disease had "removed her from the public gaze for the last 15 years." In 2018, her husband confirmed she is still living with a caretaker. Nastro d'Argento: 3 occasions David di Donatello: 5 occasions Golden Grail: 4 occasions Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival
Indro Alessandro Raffaello Schizogene Montanelli Knight Grand Cross OMRI was an Italian journalist and historian. Considered one of the greatest Italian journalists of the 20th century, he was among the 50 World Press Freedom Heroes of the previous 50 years named by the International Press Institute in 2000, he distinguished himself for his original approach to writing history in books such as History of the Greeks and History of Rome. Indro Montanelli was born near Florence. Throughout his career he retained an idiosyncratic and undiplomatic style when this made him unpopular among his peers and employers; this is well illustrated in his book La stecca nel coro, a list of leading articles he composed between 1974 and 1994 in the newspaper Il Giornale which he founded and directed after being sacked from the prestigious Corriere della Sera, in October 1973. It was during this experience, in 1977 that the Red Brigade terrorists shot him four times in the legs in the streets of Milan. Montanelli's career began with a Law degree from the University of Florence in the early 1920s, where he wrote a thesis on the electoral reform of Benito Mussolini's fascism.
In this thesis, he maintained that rather than a reform it amounted to the abolition of elections, which goes some way to illustrate the ambiguous nature of the Italian fascist censorship. According to him, it was a short experience of the French cultural atmosphere in Grenoble, while he was taking language lessons, that he realised that his true vocation was that of the journalist. Montanelli began his journalistic career by writing for the fascist newspaper Il Selvaggio directed by Mino Maccari, in 1932 for the Universale, a magazine published only once fortnightly and which offered no pay. Montanelli admitted that in those days he saw in fascism the hope of a movement that could create an Italian national conscience that would have resolved the economic and socioeconomic differences between the north and the south; this enthusiasm for the fascist movement began to wane when in 1935 Mussolini forced the abolition of the Universale along with other magazines and newspapers that expressed opinions on the nature of fascism.
But it was in 1934, in Paris that Montanelli began to write for the crime pages of the daily newspaper Paris Soir as foreign correspondent in Norway, in Canada. From there he began a collaboration with Webb Miller of the United Press in New York. While working for the United Press he learned to write for the lay public in an uncomplicated style that would distinguish him within the realm of Italian journalism. One lesson he took to heart from Miller was to "always write as if writing to a milkman from Ohio"; this open and approachable style was something he never forgot and he'd recall that quote during his long life. Another indelible American moment occurred. Someone had asked him to explain the composition. Montanelli told him he'd repeat it since he didn't understand... Hitting the table, the red-faced student cut him off and angrily told him, as a matter of fact, that if he hadn't understood Montanelli's composition it was Montanelli, the imbecil!. It was that he realized that he, who had come from the authoritarian regime of fascist Italy, had just had a confrontation with democracy.
During this time Montanelli conducted his first interview with a celebrity: Henry Ford – who surprised him by admitting he did not have a driver's license. During the interview, surrounded by American art depicting pastoral and frontier subjects, Ford began to reverentially talk about the Founding Fathers. Looking at the decor, Montanelli astutely asked him. Puzzled, Ford asked. Undaunted, Montanelli pressed on that the automobile and Ford's revolutionary assembly line system had forever transformed the country. Ford looked shocked, Montanelli realized that, like all geniuses, Ford hadn't had the slightest idea of what he'd done; when Mussolini declared war on Abyssinia with the intent of making Italy an empire, Montanelli abandoned his collaboration with the United Press and became a voluntary conscript for this war. He believed along with many Italians of the time, that this was the chance for Italy to bring civilization to the'savage' world of Africa, an enthusiasm that Montanelli blamed on his passion for the works of Rudyard Kipling.
In spite of these initial passions, it was this experience that led to Montanelli's biggest change of mind with regards to Italian fascism. This amounted to the realisation that the Abyssinia experience was none other than a pretext to elevate Mussolini on an ever-higher pedestal, a show more than the substance of a revolutionary change of the colonization and civilization of Africa. With few exceptions, such as the defense of Gondar, the conquest had been uneventful. One of the fascist leaders of the time, not finding enemies, began throwing hand grenades in the lake of Ascianghi: one exploded in his hand resulting in a silver medal award. Montanelli began writing about the war to his father who – in Montanelli's total ignorance – sent the letters to one of the most famous journalists of those times, Ugo Ojetti, who published them on the most prestigious Italian newspaper: Il Corriere della Sera. On his return from Abyssinia, Montanelli became for
The Simba rebellion of 1964 was a revolt in Congo-Léopoldville which took place within the wider context of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War. The rebellion, located in the east of the country, was led by the followers of Patrice Lumumba, ousted from power in 1960 by Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu and subsequently killed in January 1961 in Katanga; the rebellion was contemporaneous with the Kwilu rebellion led by fellow Lumumbist Pierre Mulele in central Congo. The causes of the Simba Rebellion should be viewed as part of the wider struggle for power within the Republic of the Congo following independence from Belgium on 30 June 1960 as well as within the context of other Cold War interventions in Africa by the West and the Soviet Union; the rebellion can be traced back to the assassination of the first Prime Minister of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba, in January 1961. Political infighting and intrigue followed, resulting in the ascendancy of Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in Kinshasa at the expense of politicians who had supported Lumumba such as Antoine Gizenga, Christophe Gbenye and Gaston Soumialot.
In 1961, this change in power led Antoine Gizenga to declare the creation of a rebel government in Stanleyville. This new state, dubbed the Free Republic of the Congo, received support from the Soviet Union and China as they positioned themselves as being "socialists" opposed to American intervention in the Congo and involvement in the death of Lumumba although, as with Lumumba, there is some dispute over the true political inclinations of the Lumumbists. However, in August 1961, Gizenga dissolved the government in Stanleyville with the intention of taking part in the United Nations sponsored talks at Lovanium University; these talks did not deliver the Lumumbist government, intended, Gizenga was arrested and imprisoned on Balu-Bemba and many of the Lumumbists went into exile. It was in exile. In 1963, the Conseil National de Libération was founded by Gbenye and Soumialot in Brazzaville, capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo. However, whilst these plans for rebellion were being developed in exile, Pierre Mulele returned from his training in China to launch a revolution in his native province of Kwilu.
Mulele proved to be a capable leader and scored a number of early successes, although these would remain localised to Kwilu. With the country again seeming to be in open rebellion of the government in Kinshasa, the CNL launched its rebellion in their political heartland around Stanleyville. Simba meaning a lion or big lion in Swahili, is used in eastern parts of Congo and in other countries of the African Great Lakes, it was from across this area. The majority were young teens although children were not unheard of in the conflict; the rebels were led by Gaston Soumialot and Christophe Gbenye, members of Gizenga's Parti Solidaire Africain, Laurent Kabila, a member of the Lumumba aligned Association générale des Baluba du Katanga. Because of the range of political beliefs amongst the Simba rebels, attributing an ideology to the rebellion is complex. Whilst the leaders claimed to be influenced by Chinese Maoist ideas, the Cuban military advisor Che Guevara wrote that the majority of the fighters did not hold these views.
The fighters practised a system of traditional beliefs which held that correct behaviour and the regular reapplying of dawa would leave the fighters impervious to bullets. The Simba rebels managed to intimidate two well-equipped battalions of government Armée Nationale Congolaise soldiers into retreating without a fight, they began to capture important cities. Within weeks, they controlled about half of the Congo. By August they had captured Stanleyville where a 1,500-man ANC force fled leaving behind weapons and vehicles which the Simba rebels captured; the attack consisted with forty Simba warriors. No shots were fired by the Simba rebels; as the rebel movement spread, discipline became more difficult to maintain, acts of violence and terror increased. Thousands of Congolese were executed, including government officials, political leaders of opposition parties and local police, school teachers, others believed to have been Westernized. Many of the executions were carried out with extreme cruelty, in front of a monument to Patrice Lumumba in Stanleyville.
With much of Northern Congo and the Congolese upcountry under control, the Simba rebels moved south against Kasai Province. Kasai had rich mining concerns but was a strategic key to more lasting control of Congo. If the rebels could capture Kasai Province up to the Angola border they could cut the government forces in half, isolating Katanga Province and overstretching ANC lines. In August 1964 unknown thousands of Simbas moved down out of the hills and began the conquest of Kasai; as before ANC forces retreated with little fight by either throwing down arms or defecting to the rebels. Newly appointed Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe acted decisively against the new threat. Using contacts he had made while exiled in Spain, Tshombe was able to organize an airlift of his former soldiers exiled in rural Angola; the airlift was enacted by the United States and facilitated by the Portuguese as both feared a Soviet influenced socialist state in the middle of Africa. Tshombe's forces were composed of Belgian trained Katangese Gendarmes who had served the Belgian Colonial Authority.
They were a disciplined and well equipped force who had only just lost a bid for independence in the previous conflict. In addition the force was
Mau Mau Uprising
The Mau Mau Uprising known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony between the Kenya Land and Freedom Army known as Mau Mau, the British colonists. Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the KLFA comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, the local Kenya Regiment; the capture of rebel leader, Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, on 21 October 1956, signalled the defeat of the Mau Mau, the rebellion survived until after Kenya's independence from Britain, driven by the Meru units led by Field Marshal Musa Mwariama and General Baimungi. Baimuingi, one of the last Mau Mau generals, was killed shortly after Kenya attained self-rule; the KLFA failed to capture widespread public support due to the British policy of divide and rule, the Mau Mau movement remained internally divided, despite attempts to unify the factions. The British, applied the strategy and tactics they developed in suppressing the Malayan Emergency.
The Mau Mau Uprising created a rift between the European colonial community in Kenya and the metropole, resulted in violent divisions within the Kikuyu community. Suppressing the Mau Mau Uprising in the Kenyan colony cost Britain £55 million; the origin of the term Mau Mau is uncertain. According to some members of Mau Mau, they never referred to themselves as such, instead preferring the military title Kenya Land and Freedom Army; some publications, such as Fred Majdalany's State of Emergency: The Full Story of Mau Mau, claim it was an anagram of Uma Uma and was a military codeword based on a secret language-game Kikuyu boys used to play at the time of their circumcision. Majdalany goes on to state that the British used the name as a label for the Kikuyu ethnic community without assigning any specific definition. Akamba people say the name Mau Mau came from' Ma Umau' meaning'Our Grandfathers'; the term was first used during a pastoralists revolt against de-stocking that took place in 1938 led by Muindi Mbingu during which he urged the colonists to leave Kenya so that his people can live like the time of'Our Grandfathers'.
Some have argued. As the movement progressed, a Swahili backronym was adopted: "Mzungu Aende Ulaya, Mwafrika Apate Uhuru" meaning "Let the foreigner go back abroad, let the African regain independence". J. M. Kariuki, a member of Mau Mau, detained during the conflict, postulates that the British preferred to use the term Mau Mau instead of KLFA in an attempt to deny the Mau Mau rebellion international legitimacy. Kariuki wrote that the term Mau Mau was adopted by the rebellion in order to counter what they regarded as colonial propaganda. Another possible origin is a mishearing of the Kikuyu word for oath "muuma"; the armed rebellion of the Mau Mau was the culminating response to colonial rule. Although there had been previous instances of violent resistance to colonialism, the Mau Mau revolt was the most prolonged and violent anti-colonial warfare in the British Kenya colony. From the start, the land was the primary British interest in Kenya, which had "some of the richest agricultural soils in the world in districts where the elevation and climate make it possible for Europeans to reside permanently".
Though declared a colony in 1920, the formal British colonial presence in Kenya began with a proclamation on 1 July 1895, in which Kenya was claimed as a British protectorate. Before 1895, Britain's presence in Kenya was marked by dispossession and violence. In 1894, British MP Sir Charles Dilke had observed in the House of Commons, "The only person who has up to the present time benefited from our enterprise in the heart of Africa has been Mr. Hiram Maxim". During the period in which Kenya's interior was being forcibly opened up for British settlement, there was plenty of conflict and British troops carried out atrocities against the native population. Opposition to British imperialism existed from the start of British occupation; the most notable include the Nandi Resistance of 1895–1905. None of the armed uprisings during the beginning of British colonialism in Kenya were successful; the nature of fighting in Kenya led Winston Churchill to express concern in 1908 about how it would look if word got out: 160 Gusii have now been killed outright without any further casualties on our side....
It looks like a butchery. If the H. of C. gets hold of it, all our plans in E. A. P. will be under a cloud. It cannot be necessary to go on killing these defenceless people on such an enormous scale. A feature of all settler societies during the colonial period was the ability to obtain a disproportionate share in land ownership. Kenya was no exception, with the first settlers arriving in 1902 as part of Governor Charles Eliot's plan to have a settler economy pay for the Uganda Railway; the success of this settler economy would depend on the availability of land and capital, so, over the next three decades, the colonial government and settlers consolidated their control over Kenyan land, and'encouraged' native Kenyans to become wage labourers. Until the mid-1930s, the two primary complaints were low native Kenyan wages and the requirement to carry an identity document, the kipande. From the early 1930s, howev