A jue is a shape of Chinese ritual bronze, a tripod vessel or goblet used to serve warm wine. It was used for ceremonial purposes by the Chinese of the Xia and Zhou dynasties; the jue had a handle, sometimes in the shape of a dragon. It has two protuberances on the top of the vessel, which were used when lifting the vessel out of heat; as with other shapes, the surface may be decorated with taotie. Sing, Yu. Ringing Thunder- Tomb Treasures from Ancient China. San Diego: San Diego Museum of Art. ISBN 0-937108-24-3; the great bronze age of China: an exhibition from the People's Republic of China, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on jues
In art and archaeology, in sculpture as well as in painting, a register is a horizontal level in a work that consists of several levels arranged one above the other where the levels are separated by lines. Modern comic books use similar conventions, it is thus comparable to a line in modern texts. In the study of ancient writing, such as cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, "register" may be used of vertical compartments like columns containing writing that are arranged side by side and separated by lines in cylinder seals, which mix text and images; when dealing with images it only refers to row compartments stacked vertically. Among many other cultures, the use of registers is common in Ancient Egyptian art, from the Narmer Palette onwards, in medieval art in large frescos and illuminated manuscripts. Narrative art covering the lives of sacred figures, is presented as a sequence of small scenes arranged in registers. Sculpted Luwian language hieroglyphs were usually arranged in registers one above the other.
The direction of reading ran from one of the top corners, reversed direction in each lower register, so that the reader did not have to start at the other end of each new row. Other examples, in the art of Mesopotamia, are Kudurru, or boundary stones, which had registers of gods on the upper registers of the scenes
Ancestor veneration in China
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines. Ancestors, their ghosts, or spirits, gods are considered part of "this world", that is, they are neither supernatural nor transcendent in the sense of being beyond nature; the ancestors are humans who have become beings who keep their individual identities. For this reason, Chinese religion is founded on veneration of ancestors. Ancestors are believed to be a means of connection to the supreme power of Tian as they are considered embodiments or reproducers of the creative order of Heaven. Confucian philosophy calls for paying respect to one's ancestors, an aspect of filial piety; as the "bedrock faith of the Chinese", traditional patriarchal religion influences the religious psychology of all Chinese and has influenced the other religions of China, as it is evident in the worship of founders of temples and schools of thought in Taoism and Chinese Buddhism.
Ancestor veneration practices prevail in south China, where lineage bonds are stronger and the patrilineal hierarchy is not based upon seniority, access to corporate resources held by a lineage is based upon the equality of all the lines of descent. Some contemporary scholars in China have adopted the names "Chinese traditional patriarchal religion" or "Chinese traditional primordial religion" to define the traditional religious system organised around the worship of ancestor-gods. Zhang Jin and Yang Chunpeng, based at the Folk Religion Institute and Party School Theory Research Section of Xuanen County, in an article on the China Ethnic and Religious Network define Chinese traditional primordial religion as faith in God's original form. Mou Zhongjian defines "clan-based traditional patriarchal religion" as "an orthodox religion, accepted by all classes, had been practiced for thousands of years in ancient China". Mou says that this religion was subordinate to the state, it was "diverse and inclusive" and had "a humanistic spirit that emphasises the social, moral function of religion", is related to politics.
It refers to: « The traditional religion, in place since the Xia and Zhou dynasties. It ancestors, it had the basic components of a religion, including religious concepts and rituals. It had no independent organisation. Instead, it was the kinship structure; the emperor, the son of God, was the representative of the people who worshiped Heaven. Elders of the clans and parents represented the family in the worship of ancestors. Respecting Heaven and honoring ancestors, taking good care in seeing off the deceased, maintaining sacrifices to distant ancestors were the basic religious concepts and emotional expressions in this religion. »According to Zhuo Xinping, Chinese patriarchal religion and Confucianism complemented each other in ancient China, as the Confucian religion traditionally lacked a social religious organisation while traditional patriarchal religion lacked an ideological doctrine. In Chinese folk religion, a person is thought to have multiple souls, categorized as hun and po associated with yang and yin, respectively.
Upon death, hun and po separate. The former ascends into heaven and latter descends into the earth and/or resides within a spirit tablet. In accordance with these traditional beliefs, various practices have arisen to address the perceived needs of the deceased; the mourning of a loved one involves elaborate rituals, which vary according to region and sect. The intensity of the mourning is thought to reflect the quality of relationship one had with the deceased. From the time of Confucius until the 20th century, a three-year mourning period was prescribed, mirroring the first three years in a child's life when they are utterly dependent upon and loved unconditionally by their parents; these mourning practices would include wearing sackcloth or simple garb, leaving hair unkempt, eating a restricted diet of congee two times a day, living in a mourning shack placed beside the house, moaning in pain at certain intervals of the day. It is said that after the death of Confucius his followers engaged in this three-year mourning period to symbolize their commitment to his teachings.
Funerals are considered to be a part of the normal process of family life, serving as a cornerstone in inter-generational traditions. The primary goals, regardless of religious beliefs, are to demonstrate obeisance and provide comfort for the deceased. Other goals include: to protect the descents of the deceased from malevolent spirits and to ensure the proper separation and direction of the deceased's soul into the afterlife; some common elements of Chinese funerals include the expression of grief through prolonged exaggerated wailing.
A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim, for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails; the term "flange" is used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be disassembled easily. A flange can be a plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to the pipe. A blind flange is a plate for closing the end of a pipe. A flange joint is a connection of pipes, where the connecting pieces have flanges by which the parts are bolted together. Although the word flange refers to the actual raised rim or lip of a fitting, many flanged plumbing fittings are themselves known as'flanges': Common flanges used in plumbing are the Surrey flange or Danzey flange, York flange, Sussex flange and Essex flange. Surrey and York flanges fit to the top of the hot water tank allowing all the water to be taken without disturbance to the tank, they are used to ensure an flow of water to showers.
An Essex flange requires a hole to be drilled in the side of the tank. There is a Warix flange, the same as a York flange but the shower output is on the top of the flange and the vent on the side; the York and Warix flange have female adapters so that they fit onto a male tank, whereas the Surrey flange connects to a female tank. A closet flange provides the mount for a toilet. There are many different flange standards. To allow easy functionality and interchangeability, these are designed to have standardised dimensions. Common world standards include ASA/ASME, PN/DIN, BS10, JIS/KS. In the USA, ANSI stopped publishing B16.5 in 1996, the standard is ASME B16.5 In most cases these are interchangeable as most local standards have been aligned to ISO standards, some local standards still differ. Further, many of the flanges in each standard are divided into "pressure classes", allowing flanges to be capable of taking different pressure ratings. Again these are not interchangeable; these pressure classes have differing pressure and temperature ratings for different materials.
Unique pressure classes for piping can be developed for a process plant or power generating station. The ASME pressure classes for Flat-Face flanges are Class 125 and Class 250; the classes for Ring-Joint, Tongue & Groove, Raised-Face flanges are Class 150, Class 300, Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500, Class 2500. The flange faces are made to standardized dimensions and are "flat face", "raised face", "tongue and groove", or "ring joint" styles, although other obscure styles are possible. Flange designs are available as "weld neck", "slip-on", "lap joint", "socket weld", "threaded", "blind". Pipe flanges that are made to standards called out by ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47, MSS SP-44. They are made from forged materials and have machined surfaces. ASME B16.5 refers to nominal pipe sizes from ½" to 24". B16.47 covers NPSs from 26" to 60". Each specification further delineates flanges into pressure classes: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 for B16.5, B16.47 delineates its flanges into pressure classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, 900.
However these classes do not correspond to maximum pressures in psi. Instead, the maximum pressure depends on the material of the temperature. For example, the maximum pressure for a Class 150 flange is 285 psi, for a Class 300 Flange it is 740 psi; the gasket type and bolt type are specified by the standard. These flanges are recognized by ASME Pipe Codes such as ASME B31.1 Power Piping, ASME B31.3 Process Piping. Materials for flanges are under ASME designation: SA-105, SA-266, or SA-182. In addition, there are many "industry standard" flanges that in some circumstance may be used on ASME work; the product range includes SORF, SOFF, BLRF, BLFF, WNRF, WNFF, SWRF, SWFF, Threaded RF, Threaded FF & LJ, with sizes from 1/2" to 16". The bolting material used for flange connection is stud bolts mated with two nut. In Petrochemical industries, ASTM A193 B7 STUD & ASTM A193 B16 Stud Bolts are used as these have high tensile strength. Most countries in Europe install flanges according to standard DIN EN 1092-1.
Similar to the ASME flange standard, the EN 1092-1 standard has the basic flange forms, such as weld neck flange, blind flange, lappedthe flange, threaded Flange, weld on collar, pressed collars, adapter flange such as flange coupling GD pressfittings. The different forms of flanges within the EN 1092-1 (European Norm Euronorm
The taotie is a motif found on Chinese ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou dynasty. The design consists of a zoomorphic mask, described as being frontal, bilaterally symmetrical, with a pair of raised eyes and no lower jaw area; some argue that the design can be traced back to jade pieces found in Neolithic sites such as the Liangzhu culture. In ancient Chinese mythology like "Classic of Mountains and Seas", the taotie is one of the "four evil creatures of the world" or four fiends, along with Hundun and Taowu. On the opposite side, there are Four Holy Creatures in Chinese mythology which are called Azure Dragon, Vermilion Bird, White Tiger and Black Tortoise; the four fiends are sometimes juxtaposed with the four benevolent animals which are Qilin, Dragon and Fenghuang. Scholars have long been perplexed over the meaning of this theriomorphic design, there is still no held single answer; the hypotheses range from Robert Bagley's belief that the design is a result of the casting process, rather than having an iconographic meaning was the artistic expression of the artists who held the technological know-how to cast bronze, to theories that it depicts ancient face masks that may have once been worn by either shamans or the god-kings who were the link between humankind and their deceased ancestors.
The once-popular belief that the faces depicted the animals used in the sacrificial ceremonies has now more or less been rejected. Most scholars favor an interpretation that supports the idea that the faces have meaning in a religious or ceremonial context, as the objects they appear on are always associated with such events or roles; as one scholar writes "art styles always carry some social references." It is interesting that Shang divination inscriptions shed no light on the meaning of the taotie. It is not known what word the Zhou used to call the design on their bronze vessels. In fact, the first known occurrence of this word is in Zuo Zhuan, where it is used to refer to one of the four evil creatures of the world Chinese: 四凶; the word taotie itself was glossed by a Zuo Zhuan commentator as "glutton". Nonetheless, the association of the term taotie with the motif on the Zhou bronzes is sufficiently ancient, it comes from the following passage in the Lu’s Spring and Autumn Annals: The taotie on Zhou bronzes has a head but no body.
When it eats people, it harms them. In Sarah Allan's view, association between gluttony and the dings' use for food sacrifices to the "insatiable" spirits of the dead is significant. Li Zehou comments on the description of the taotie in the Spring and Autumn Annals as follows: It is hard to explain what is implied in this, as so many myths concerning the taotie have been lost, but the indication that it eats people accords with its cruel, fearful countenance. To alien clans and tribes, it symbolized force; this religious concept, this dual nature, was crystallized in its hideous features. What appears so savage today had a historical, rational quality in its time, it is for this reason that the savage old myths and legends, the tales of barbarism, the crude and terrifying works of art of ancient clans possessed a remarkable aesthetic appeal. As it was with Homer’s epic poems and African masks, so it was with the taotie, in whose hideous features was concentrated a deep-seated historic force, it is because of this irresistible historic force that the mystery and terror of the taotie became the beautiful—the exalted.
Li Zehou further notes, "Some scholars consider that the meaning of'taotie is not "eating people" but making a mysterious communication between people and Heaven." During the Ming dynasty, a number of scholars compiled lists of traditional motifs seen in architecture and applied art, which became codified as the Nine Children of the Dragon. In the earliest known list of this type, given by Lu Rong in his Miscellaneous records from the bean garden, the taotie appears with a rather unlikely description, as a creature that likes water and depicted on bridges. However, a well-known list of the Nine Children of the Dragon given by Yang Shen accords with both the ancient and the modern usage of the term: The taotie likes to eat and drink; some scholars believed that the Taotie motif is a reference to Chi You and is used to serve as a warning to people who covet power and wealth. In the Book of Imaginary Beings Jorge Luis Borges interpreted the figures as representing a dog-headed, double-bodied monster that represented greed and gluttony.
The Tao Tie are the primary antagonists in the 2016 historical-fantasy epic film The Great Wall. In the film, they are depicted as green-skinned quadrupedal aliens, with shark-like teeth, eyes located on their shoulders, the Tao Tie motif v
A hu is a type of wine vessel that has a pear-shaped cross-section. Its body flares into a narrow neck, creating S-shaped profile. While it is similar to you vessel, hu has a longer body and neck; the shape of hu derives from its ceramic prototype prior to the Shang dynasty. They have handles on the top or rings attached to each side of neck. Many extant hu lack lids while those excavated in such tombs as Fu Hao's indicate that this type of vessel might be made with lids. Although it is more to see hu having a circular body, there appears hu in square and flat rectangular forms, called fang hu and bian hu in Chinese. In addition, hu came to be found in a pair or in a set together with other types of vessels; as wine had played an important part in the Shang ritual, the hu vessel might be placed in the grave of an ancestor as part of ritual in order to ensure a good relationship with ancestor's spirit. The bronze hu vessel has not been found prior to the Shang period. During this period, there are two types of hu vessels.
One has a small mouth and long neck. The décor on the hu in the Shang period was dominated by taotie leiwen thunder pattern. Square form of hu began to appear in the end of the Shang dynasty; because this form of hu is still uncommon at this time, its appearance in the tomb marks the owner's wealth and social status. Hu in the Western Zhou period was undergone several changes. Larger hu vessels seem to become more common after the first half of mid-Western Zhou; this is a response to changes in ritual. Hu from the Western Zhou dynasty still served as a wine vessel for the uses of ritual. In addition to the change in size, hu's previous taotie design was replaced by other types of animal and geometric décor. Hu found during this time were not from tombs, but hoards left by Zhou people, who buried their precious possessions before nomadic people's invasion. Therefore, the vessels' burial context provides less clues about their meanings; the East Zhou dynasty was subdivided into two periods: Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period.
The East Zhou witnessed the rise of feudal states. It is a time of political disunity. Powerful feudal lords paid allegiance to Zhou kings, whose domain drastically dwindled during this time; this political situation reflects in the development of hu vessels. With the rise of local power, the regional bronze making flourished on a large scale and played an important role in forming new styles. By the late Spring and Autumn period the decoration of the vessels in some regions had reflected the influence of animal style art from Central Asian nomads. In addition, bronzes from places such as Xinzheng, Henan Province, Liyu Shanxi Province, Houma, Shanxi Province in the Spring and Autumn period show regional hu style characterized by interlaced dragon motif. Another development of hu vessel is that although the vessel was still used for ancestral sacrifice, it began to take on a more secular and personal usage; this seems to be evidenced by the appearance of representational décor, beginning in the Warring State Period.
Hu with such pictorial illustrations were made out copper inlay. In addition, the shape of the vessel was modified, taking on a more square appearance. While the use of inlay in making bronze have appeared since the Shang dynasty, it was not until the Warring States period that saw the flowering of inlay style. Compared to other bronze vessels, the inlay technique was lavishly employed to create hu vessels; the sumptuous display of colors achieved by means of inlay became an essential feature of hu at this time. Hu continued to be cast in the Han dynasty, they were still lavishly applied with gold inlay and decorated with interlace of zoomorphic and geometric patterns. However, after Han, they appear in ceramic form. In addition, their function was no longer tied to ritual offerings and is utilitarian for daily life. Hu never disappears in Chinese history; the production of them continues today. Most Chinese bronze vessels fall into food vessels or wine vessels. Hu vessels were used for holding wine, but not as drinking vessels.
By the Zhou period, Hu were one of the main vessels in use. During this period the vessels were usually offered in pairs, increased in size over their Shang predecessors. Two hu recovered from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng were each 39 in weighed 529 lb apiece. Hu were an important part of religious and cultural rituals, with many falling into the category of Chinese ritual bronzes. Inscriptions in some vessels indicate that as early as the Shang Dynasty, the king would give bronze vessels as gifts to deserving vassals. By 900 BCE other officials had adapted this custom. Bronzes of all types, including Hu, were given for a variety of occasions: as wedding gifts, funeral items, travel tokens, to commemorate real estate dealings; the hu is a pear shaped vessel, found in both a round and square form. Examples have been discovered with a variety of decorative motifs. During the Shang Dynasty one hu would be offered, decorated with simple taotie designs. Dragons and thunder patterns appear on Hu vessels during the Shang Dynasty.
During the Zhou Dynasty the style of the vessel changed, with taotie being replaced by "heavy, rounded relief figures on a plain ground". Though, one example from the Late Zhou Period shows the entire vessel covered with images that correspond with everyday life. Silk worm farming, hunting and warfare are all repre
In American English, a pitcher is a container with a spout used for storing and pouring contents which are liquid in form. In English-speaking countries outside North America, a jug is any container with a handle and a mouth and spout for liquid—American "pitchers" are more to be called jugs elsewhere. A pitcher has a handle, which makes pouring easier. A ewer is a vase-shaped pitcher decorated, with a base and a flaring spout, though the word is now unusual in informal English describing ordinary domestic vessels. A notable ewer is the America's Cup, awarded to the winning team of the America's Cup sailing regatta match. Pitchers hold one-half gallon gallon, equivalent to two quarts, four pints, sixty-four fluid ounces; the word pitcher comes from the 13th-century Middle English word picher. The word picher is linked to the Old French word pichier, the altered version of the word bichier, meaning drinking cup; the pitcher's origin goes as far back to the Medieval Latin word bicarium from the Greek word bikos, which meant earthen vessel.
Compare with Dutch beker, German Becher and English beaker. An early mention of a pitcher occurs in the Book of Genesis, when Rebekah comes to Abraham's servant bearing a vessel with water. In the Book of Judges, Gideon gives empty pitchers containing lamps to three hundred men divided into three companies. In the gospels of Mark and Luke, Jesus tells two of his disciples to go into the city of Jerusalem, where they will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water, instructs them to follow him to locate the upper room to be used for the Last Supper; the pitcher of Marwan Ibn Mohammad, on display at the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, predates the 8th century. During the Tang Dynasty, ewers fashioned from glazed earthenware bore illustrations of Persian textiles and metalwork and depicted increased cultural diversity in populated Chinese cities. Once coveted by the upper classes, ewers became commonplace; the proverb "little pitchers have big ears" cautions adults that children are not always as naïve as they seem.
Amphora Aquamanile Ashtamangala Bridge spouted vessel Hydria Jar Jug Oenochoe Porron