In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.
Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant to “stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are.”The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.
Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is “irreversible” from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.
One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka
Avukana Buddha statue
The Avukana statue is a standing statue of the Buddha near Kekirawa in North Central Sri Lanka. The statue, which has a height of more than 40 feet, was carved out of a large granite rock face during the 5th century, it depicts a variation of the Abhaya mudra, the worn robe is elaborately carved. Constructed during the reign of Dhatusena, it may have been made as a result of a competition between a master and a pupil; the Avukana statue is one of the best examples of a standing statue constructed in ancient Sri Lanka. It is now a popular tourist attraction; the Avukana statue is located in the village of Avukana near Kekirawa. It is close to the Kala Wewa reservoir, faces it, it was carved out of a large granite rock face, but is not separated. A narrow strip of rock has been left at the back of the statue, connecting it to the rock face and supporting it. However, the pedestal on which the Buddha stands, carved in the form of a lotus flower, was carved separately and positioned under the statue.
The statue alone is 38 feet 10 inches in height, with the pedestal the total height of the Avukana statue reaches 42 feet. The statue had been located within a large image house or shrine, of which parts of the walls still remain; the structure was made of brick and stone, was 74 feet long and 63 feet wide. The Avukana statue is considered to be one of the best examples of a standing statue of the Buddha from ancient Sri Lanka; the Avukana statue shows some influence of the Gandhara school of art, as well as the Amaravati school of art of India. The robe is worn clearly outlining the shape of the body, its pleats are carved and delicately, it is worn over the left shoulder, the right shoulder is bare, as is the tradition in Buddha statues of Sri Lanka. The Buddha's body is straight, the left hand clutches the robe at the left shoulder; the right hand is raised up with the palm facing left. This position is known as a variation of the Abhaya mudra; the Avukana statue is believed to have been constructed in the 5th century during the reign of King Dhatusena, under his orders.
However, another theory is. There is another nearby standing statue of the Buddha, quite similar to the Avukana statue, at Sasseruwa. According to legend, the two statues are the result of a competition between a stone sculpting guru and gola; the story goes that the master constructed the Avukana statue, while the pupil made the statue at Sasseruwa. The first to complete his statue had to notify the other by ringing a bell; the master managed to complete his statue first, won the competition. This is said to be; the Avukana statue is considered to be the better of the two, similarities between them have led historians to believe that the story is true. However, mere legend as the Sasseruwa stature was built nearly four hundred years prior to the Avukana Buddha image. Reswehera Rajamaha Vihara is an ancient temple, built by the king Devanampiya Tissa. Today, pilgrims visit the statue from all parts of the country and the Avukana statue has become a popular tourist attraction. Although the site lacked many facilities, it has now been improved by the Department of Archaeology and the Civil Defence Force.
Buduruvagala Maligawila Buddha statue Samadhi statue Toluvila statue von Schroeder, Ulrich. Buddhist Sculptures of Sri Lanka.. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd. ISBN 962-7049-05-0
Prayer beads are used by members of various religious traditions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith to mark the repetitions of prayers, chants or devotions, such as the rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Catholicism, dhikr in Islam. Beads are among the earliest human ornaments and ostrich shell beads in Africa date to 10,000 BC. Over the centuries various cultures have made beads from a variety of materials from stone and shells to clay; the English word bead derives from the Old English noun bede. The oldest image of a string of beads in a religious context and resembling a string of prayer beads is found on the fresco of the "Adorants" at the Xeste 3 building of the prehistoric settlement of Akrotiri, Santorini Greece dating from the 17th c. BC The exact origins of prayer beads remain uncertain, but their earliest historical use traces to Hindu prayers in India. Buddhism borrowed the concept from Hinduism; the statue of a Hindu holy man with beads dates to the third century BC.
The number of beads varies by use. Islamic prayer beads, called Misbaha or Tasbih have 100 beads (99 +1 = 100 beads in total or 33 beads read thrice and +1. Buddhists and Hindus use the Japa Mala, which has 108 beads, or 27 which are counted four times. Baha'i prayer beads consist of either 95 beads or 19 beads, which are strung with the addition of five beads below; the Sikh Mala has 108 beads. Roman Catholics use the Rosary with 59 beads. However, Eastern Orthodox Christians use a knotted prayer rope called either a komboskini or chotki, with 100 knots, although prayer ropes with 50 or 33 knots can be used. In Vita of Saint Paul of Thebes, written by Saint Jerome it states that Saint Paul of Thebes used pebbles and knotted cord to count prayers. Although Anglo-Catholics have used the Dominican rosary since the 19th century, in the 1980s Rev. Lynn Bauman from the Episcopal Church in the United States of America introduced a Rosary for Anglicans with 33 beads; the Greek "komboloi" has an odd number of beads—usually one more than a multiple of four, e.g. +1, +1.
Since the beads are fingered in an automatic manner, they allow the user to keep track of how many prayers have been said with a minimal amount of conscious effort, which in turn allows greater attention to be paid to the prayers themselves. A fresco picture dating from 1600 B. C. discovered in Akrotiri of Santorini, shows women handling a prayer rope of beads. The Desert Fathers of the 3rd to 5th centuries, used pebbles or knotted ropes to count prayers the Jesus Prayer; the invention is attributed to Anthony the Great or his associate Pachomius the Great in the 4th century. The Catholic Encyclopedia mentions strings of beads for prayer, found in the tombs of Saint Gertrude of Nivelles and Saint Norbert and Saint Rosalia. A more explicit reference is that in 1125 William of Malmesbury mentioned a string of gems that Lady Godiva used to count prayers; these strings of beads were known as "paternosters" and were used to count repetitions of the Lord's Prayer. Roman Catholics and Anglicans prayed the rosary with strings of 59 beads.
The term rosary comes from the Latin rosarium "rose garden" and is an important and traditional devotion of the Catholic Church, combining prayer and meditation in sequences of the Lord's Prayer, 10 Hail Marys, a Gloria Patri as well as a number of other prayers at the beginning and end. The prayers are accompanied by meditation on the Mysteries, events in the life and ministry of Jesus; this traditional Catholic form of the rosary is attributed to Saint Dominic, though some Catholic writers have doubted this claim. Catholic rosary beads are composed of crucifix and center which can be made of sterling silver and/or gold, beads which are made of glass, rose quartz stone, black onyx, lavender glass or pearl, but all parts can be made of any material. Catholics use prayer beads to pray chaplets; the Eastern Orthodox Church uses prayer ropes that come with 33, 50 or 100 knots. The loops of knotted wool, called komboskini to pray the Jesus Prayer. Although among the Orthodox, their use is restricted to monks and bishops, being less common among laity or secular clergy.
Among Russian Old Believers, a prayer rope made of leather, called'lestovka', is more common, although this type is no longer used now by the Russian Orthodox Church. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "The rosary is conferred upon the Greek Orthodox monk as a part of his investiture with the mandyas or full monastic habit, as the second step in monastic life, is called his'spiritual sword'." Ethiopian and Coptic prayer rope employ numbers such as 41, 64, 100 as their length and is used for reciting the Kyrie Eleison. In regards to the first two numbers, the former represent the number of wounds inflicted on Jesus from lashing, the nails, the lance while the latter represents Mary's age upon her Assumption. In the mid-1980s, Anglican prayer beads or "Christian prayer beads" was developed in the Episcopal Church of the United States by Episcopalians participating in a study group dealing with methods of prayer; the set consists of 33 beads arranged in four groupings o
The Laykyun Sekkya Buddha is, as of 2018, the third-tallest statue in the world at 116 metres. This statue of Gautama Buddha stands on a 13.5-metre throne located in the village of Khatakan Taung, near Monywa, Myanmar. Construction began in 1996 and it was completed on 21 February 2008, it was commissioned by the Chief Abbot Ven. Nãradã. List of statues by height Maha Bodhi Tahtaung
The Maitreya Project is an international organisation, operating since 1990, which intends to construct statues of Maitreya Buddha in India and elsewhere. Initial plans were for a 152-metre colossal statue, to be built in either Bodhgaya; these plans have since changed, the Maitreya Project now intends to construct modest statues in both towns. The project was initiated by the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition, an organisation within the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. On Friday 13 December 2013 the State Government of Uttar Pradesh handed over 275 acres of land for the site of the Maitreya Project in Kushinagar; the land is adjacent to the Parinirvana Temple denoting the place where Buddha Shakyamuni passed into Parinirvana, the Rambhar Stupa which marks the holy site of Buddha’s cremation. On that same day, the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Akhilesh Yadav, presided over a foundation stone laying ceremony on this land. Maitreya Project's Spiritual Director, Lama Zopa Rinpoche and the Board of Trustees of the Maitreya Project Trust attended as state guests.
The Project reports for 1990–2008 outgoings of more than US$20 million and investment of more than US$11 million. Nita Ing has taken over responsibility for the funding of the statue in Bodhgaya. There has been criticism in the press about some aspects of the Project, including the compulsory acquisition, under "India's Land Acquisition Act", by the State Government of 660 acres of private land and small farms. Peter Kedge, Director and CEO of the Maitreya Project has posted a number of replies to these criticisms. Following the 1,262nd day of "peaceful dharna", in August 2010, by the majority of local farmers against the compulsory acquisition of their farms, the Cabinet Secretary of Uttar Pradesh announced a reconsideration of support for the Project. Maitreya Project website Videos posted on YouTube by Maitreya Project BBC Documentary Pepper, Daniel Giant Buddha's tough love will drive out poor The Scotsman, 9 September 2007 on The Buddhist Channel Aros Architects Kushingar Masterplan with location map and simulated aerial view Fearing unrest, UP govt scales down Maitreya Buddha project Indian Express, Thu 26 May 2011
A mudra is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some mudras involve the entire body, most are performed with the fingers. A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions. In hatha yoga, mudras are used in conjunction with pranayama while in a seated posture, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana, boddhicitta, amrita or consciousness in the body. Unlike older tantric mudras, hatha yogic mudras are internal actions, involving the pelvic floor, throat, tongue, genitals and other parts of the body. Examples of this diversity of mudras are Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra; these expanded in number from 3 in the Amritasiddhi, to 25 in the Gheranda Samhita, with a classical set of ten arising in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Chinese translation is yinxiang. Both these Chinese words appear as loanwords in Japanese and Korean.
Two other Chinese-based compounds, 印契 and 密印, are used. In Japanese, the former compound may be used with the order of the characters reversed. Mudra is used in the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist art of the Indian subcontinent and described in the scriptures, such as Nātyaśāstra, which lists 24 asaṁyuta and 13 saṁyuta mudras. Mudra positions are formed by both the hand and the fingers. Along with āsanas, they are employed statically in the meditation and dynamically in the Nāṭya practice of Hinduism. Hindu and Buddhist iconography share some mudras. In some regions, for example in Laos and Thailand, these are distinct but share related iconographic conventions. According to Jamgotn Kongtrul in his commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, the ornaments of wrathful deities and witches made of human bones are known as mudra "seals". In Indian classical dance, the term "Hasta Mudra" is used; the Natya Shastra describes 24 mudras, while the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara gives 28. In all their forms of Indian classical dance, the mudras are similar, though the names and uses vary.
There are 24 in Kathakali and 20 in Odissi. These root mudras are combined in different ways, like one hand, two hands, arm movements and facial expressions. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of combinations, the vocabulary adds up to c. 900. Sanyukta mudras use both hands and asanyukta mudras use one hand; the classical sources for the mudras in yoga are the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika states the importance of mudras in yoga practice: "Therefore the goddess sleeping at the entrance of Brahma's door should be aroused with all effort, by performing mudra thoroughly." In the 20th and 21st centuries, the yoga teacher Satyananda Saraswati, founder of the Bihar School of Yoga, continued to emphasize the importance of mudras in his instructional text Asana, Mudrā, Bandha. The yoga mudras are diverse in the parts of the body involved and in the procedures required, as in Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra. Mula Bandha, the Root Lock, consists of pressing one heel into the anus in a cross-legged seated asana, contracting the perineum, forcing the prana to enter the central sushumna channel.
Mahamudra, the Great Seal has one heel pressed into the perineum. Viparita Karani, the Inverter, is a posture with the head down and the feet up, using gravity to retain the prana; the time spent in the posture is increased until it can be held for "three hours". The practice is claimed by the Dattatreyayogashastra to destroy all diseases and to banish grey hair and wrinkles. Khecarī mudrā, the Khechari Seal, consists of turning back the tongue "into the hollow of the skull", sealing in the bindu fluid so that it stops dripping down from the head and being lost when the yogi "embraces a passionate woman". To make the tongue long and flexible enough to be folded back in this way, the Khecharividya exhorts the yogi to make a cut a hair's breadth deep in the frenulum of the tongue once a week. Six months of this treatment destroys the frenulum. After six years of practice, which cannot be hurried, the tongue is said to become able to close the top end of the sushumna channel. Vajroli mudra, the Vajroli Seal, requires the yogi to preserve the semen, either by learning not to release it, or if released by drawing it up through the urethra from the vagina of "a woman devoted to the practice of yoga".
The Abhayamudra "gesture of fearlessness" represents protection, peace and the dispelling of fear. In Theravada Buddhism it is made while standing with the right arm bent and raised to shoulder hei
Dai Kannon of Kita no Miyako park
The Dai Kannon of Kita no Miyako park known as the Hokkaido Kannon, as well as the Byakue Kannon, is the third-tallest statue in Japan, is the tenth-tallest statue in the world, tied with the Grand Buddha at Ling Shan. It was considered the tallest statue in the world when it opened in 1989 at 88 metres, holding the world record until 1991. Planning of the statue first began in 1975 and construction occurred until its completion until 1989; the statue is located in the Kita no Miyako park on the island of Hokkaido. The statue contains over 20 floors with an elevator, with floors containing shrines and places of worship, eight in total, a platform providing a panoramic view of the area to visitors. Buddhism Buddhist art List of statues by height Ashibetsu