East Berlin was the de facto capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Formally, it was the Soviet sector of Berlin, established in 1945; the American and French sectors were known as West Berlin. From 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989, East Berlin was separated from West Berlin by the Berlin Wall; the Western Allied powers did not recognise East Berlin as the GDR's capital, nor the GDR's authority to govern East Berlin. With the London Protocol of 1944 signed on September 12, 1944, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into three occupation zones and to establish a special area of Berlin, occupied by the three Allied Forces together. In May 1945, the Soviet Union installed a city government for the whole city, called "Magistrate of Greater Berlin", which existed until 1947. After the war, the Allied Forces administered the city together within the Allied Kommandatura, which served as the governing body of the city. However, in 1948 the Soviet representative left the Kommandatura and the common administration broke apart during the following months.
In the Soviet sector, a separate city government was established, which continued to call itself "Magistrate of Greater Berlin". When the German Democratic Republic was established in 1949, it claimed East Berlin as its capital - a claim, recognised by all Communist countries, its representatives to the People's Chamber were not directly elected and did not have full voting rights until 1981. In June 1948, all railways and roads leading to West Berlin were blocked, East Berliners were not allowed to emigrate. More than 1,000 East Germans were escaping to West Berlin each day by 1960, caused by the strains on the East German economy from war reparations owed to the Soviet Union, massive destruction of industry, lack of assistance from the Marshall Plan. In August 1961, the East German Government tried to stop the population exodus by enclosing West Berlin within the Berlin Wall, it was dangerous for fleeing residents to cross because armed soldiers were trained to shoot illegal migrants. East Germany was a socialist republic.
Privileges such as prestigious apartments and good schooling were given to members of the ruling party and their family. Christian churches were allowed to operate without restraint after years of harassment by authorities. In the 1970s, wages of East Berliners rose and working hours fell; the Western Allies never formally acknowledged the authority of the East German government to govern East Berlin. The United States Command Berlin, for example, published detailed instructions for U. S. military and civilian personnel wishing to visit East Berlin. In fact, the three Western commandants protested against the presence of the East German National People's Army in East Berlin on the occasion of military parades; the three Western Allies established embassies in East Berlin in the 1970s, although they never recognised it as the capital of East Germany. Treaties instead used terms such as "seat of government."On 3 October 1990, East and West Germany and East and West Berlin were reunited, thus formally ending the existence of East Berlin.
Since reunification, the German government has spent vast amounts of money on reintegrating the two halves of the city and bringing services and infrastructure in the former East Berlin up to the standard established in West Berlin. After reunification, the East German economy suffered significantly. Many East German factories were shut down due to inability to comply with West German pollution and safety standards, as well as inability to compete with West German factories; because of this, a massive amount of West German economic aid was poured into East Germany to revitalize it. This stimulus was part-funded through a 7.5% tax on income, which led to a great deal of resentment toward the East Germans. Despite the large sums of economic aid poured into East Berlin, there still remain obvious differences between the former East and West Berlin. East Berlin has a distinct visual style; the unique look of Stalinist architecture, used in East Berlin contrasts markedly with the urban development styles employed in the former West Berlin.
Additionally, the former East Berlin retains a small number of its GDR-era street and place names commemorating German socialist heroes, such as Karl-Marx-Allee, Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße. Many such names, were deemed inappropriate and changed after a long process of review. Another popular symbolic icon of the former East Berlin is the "Ampelmännchen", a stylized version of a fedora-wearing man crossing the street, found on traffic lights at many pedestrian crosswalks throughout the former East; these days they are visible in parts of the former West Berlin. Following a civic debate about whether the Ampelmännchen should be abolished or disseminated more several crosswalks in some parts of the former West Berlin employ the Ampelmännchen. Twenty-five years after the two cities were reunified, the people of East and West Berlin still had noticeable differences between each other, which become more apparent amo
Edo Castle known as Chiyoda Castle, is a flatland castle, built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is today part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace and is in Chiyoda, Tokyo known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here, it was the residence of the shōgun and location of the shogunate, functioned as the military capital during the Edo period of Japanese history. After the resignation of the shōgun and the Meiji Restoration, it became the Tokyo Imperial Palace; some moats and ramparts of the castle survive to this day. However, the grounds were more extensive during the Edo period, with Tokyo Station and the Marunouchi section of the city lying within the outermost moat, it encompassed Kitanomaru Park, the Nippon Budokan Hall and other landmarks of the surrounding area. The warrior Edo Shigetsugu built his residence in what is now the Honmaru and Ninomaru part of Edo Castle, around the end of the Heian or beginning of the Kamakura period; the Edo clan perished in the 15th century as a result of uprisings in the Kantō region, Ōta Dōkan, a retainer of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi family, built Edo Castle in 1457.
The castle came under the control of the Later Hōjō clan in 1524 after the Siege of Edo. The castle was vacated in 1590 due to the Siege of Odawara. Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo Castle his base after he was offered eight eastern provinces by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he defeated Toyotomi Hideyori, son of Hideyoshi, at the Siege of Osaka in 1615, emerged as the political leader of Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of Sei-i Taishōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of Tokugawa's administration. Parts of the area were lying under water; the sea reached the present Nishinomaru area of Edo Castle, Hibiya was a beach. The landscape was changed for the construction of the castle. Most construction started in 1593 and was completed in 1636 under Ieyasu's grandson, Tokugawa Iemitsu. By this time, Edo had a population of 150,000; the existing Honmaru and Sannomaru areas were extended with the addition of the Nishinomaru, Nishinomaru-shita and Kitanomaru areas. The perimeter measured 16 km; the shōgun required the daimyōs to supply building materials or finances, a method shogunate used to keep the powers of the daimyōs in check.
Large granite stones were moved from afar, the size and number of the stones depended on the wealth of the daimyōs. The wealthier ones had to contribute more; those who did not supply stones were required to contribute labor for such tasks as digging the large moats and flattening hills. The earth, taken from the moats was used as landfill for sea-reclamation or to level the ground, thus the construction of Edo Castle laid the foundation for parts of the city where merchants were able to settle. At least 10,000 men were involved in the first phase of the construction and more than 300,000 in the middle phase; when construction ended, the castle had 38 gates. The ramparts were 20 meters high and the outer walls were 12 meters high. Moats forming concentric circles were dug for further protection; some moats reached as far as Ichigaya and Yotsuya, parts of the ramparts survive to this day. This area is bordered by either the Kanda River, allowing ships access. Various fires over the centuries damaged or destroyed parts of the castle and the majority of its buildings being made of timber.
On April 21, 1701, in the Great Pine Corridor of Edo Castle, Asano Takumi-no-kami drew his short sword and attempted to kill Kira Kōzuke-no-suke for insulting him. This triggered the events involving the forty-seven rōnin. After the capitulation of the shogunate in 1867, the inhabitants and shōgun had to vacate the premises; the castle compound was renamed Tokyo Castle in October, 1868, renamed Imperial Castle in 1869. In the year Meiji 2, on the 23rd day of the 10th month of the Japanese calendar the emperor moved to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. A fire consumed the old Edo Castle on the night of May 5, 1873; the area around the old donjon, which burned in the 1657 Meireki fire, became the site of the new Imperial Palace Castle, built in 1888. Some Tokugawa-period buildings which were still standing were destroyed to make space for new structures for the imperial government; the imperial palace building itself, was constructed in Nishinomaru Ward, not in the same location as the shōgun's palace in Honmaru Ward.
The site suffered substantial damage during World War II and in the destruction of Tokyo in 1945. Today the site is part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace; the government declared the area an historic site and has undertaken steps to restore and preserve the remaining structures of Edo Castle. The plan of Edo Castle was not only large but elaborate; the grounds citadels. The Honmaru was with the Ninomaru, Sannomaru extending to the east; the different wards were divided by moats and large stone walls, on which various keeps, defense houses and towers were built. To the east, beyond the Sannomaru was an outer moat, enclosing the Otomachi and Daimyō-Kōji districts. Ishigaki stone walls were constructed around the eastern side of the Nishinomaru; each ward could be reached via wooden bridges. The circumference is subject to debate, with estimates ranging from 6 to 10 miles. With the enforcement of the sankin-kōtai system in the 17th century, it became expedient for the daimyōs to set up residenc
A security guard is a person employed by a public or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, looking for signs of crime or other hazards, taking action to minimize damage, reporting any incidents to their clients and emergency services, as appropriate. Security officers are uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction; the authorities permitted to security guards vary by subnational jurisdiction. Security officers are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations; until the 1980s, the term watchman was more applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement.
This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security officers are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function. Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer's responsibility is protecting their client from a variety of hazards. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, they sometimes have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control, operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving.
All security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons and pepper spray. Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties; the number of jobs is expected to grow in the U. S. with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016. In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs.
The presence of security officers tends to diminish "shrinkage", employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or sabotage. Many casinos hire security officers to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. Security personnel may perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates. Security officers are called upon to respond to potential hazards and to assist in serious emergencies by securing the scene to prevent further loss or damage, summoning emergency responders to the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, by documenting what happened on an incident report to give their client an idea of how to prevent similar situations from occurring. Armed security officers are contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene. Patrolling is a large part of a security officer's duties, as most incidents are prevented by being looked for instead of waiting for them to occur.
These patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until the most used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it, but electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, a
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Saint Michael's Castle
St. Michael's Castle called the Mikhailovsky Castle or the Engineers' Castle, is a former royal residence in the historic centre of Saint Petersburg, Russia. St. Michael's Castle was built as a residence for Emperor Paul I by architects Vincenzo Brenna and Vasili Bazhenov in 1797-1801, it was named after St. Michael, the patron saint of the Royal family; the castle looks different from each side, as the architects used motifs of various architectural styles such as French Classicism, Italian Renaissance and Gothic. St. Michael's Castle was built to the south of the Summer Garden and replaced the small wooden palace of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. Afraid of intrigues and assassination plots, Emperor Paul I disliked the Winter Palace where he never felt safe. Due to his personal fascination with medieval knights and his constant fear of assassination, the new royal residence was built like a castle around a small octagonal courtyard; the building with rounded corners was surrounded by the waters of the Moika River, the Fontanka River and two specially dug canals, transforming the castle area into an artificial island which could only be reached by drawbridges.
Construction began on 26 February, 1797 and the castle was solemnly consecrated on 8 November 1800, i.e. on St. Michael's Day in the Eastern Orthodox calendar, though finishing work on the interior continued until March 1801. In 1800, the bronze equestrian Monument to Peter the Great was set up in front of the castle; this statue had been designed during Peter the Great's lifetime and with the casting being completed in 1747 by the architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli. By order of Paul I, the inscription "From Great Grandson to Great Grandfather" was made on the pedestal, decorated with bas-reliefs depicting scenes of two Russian victories over Sweden during the Great Northern War. Paul I was assassinated only 40 nights after he moved into his newly built castle, he was murdered on 12 March 1801, in his own bedroom, by a group of dismissed officers headed by General Bennigsen. The conspirators forced him to a table, tried to compel him to sign his abdication. Paul offered some resistance, one of the assassins struck him with a sword, he was strangled and trampled to death.
He was succeeded by his son, Emperor Alexander I, in the palace at the time and was informed of his accession by General Nicholas Zubov, one of the assassins. After Paul's death, the imperial family returned to the Winter Palace. From on, the building was known as the Engineers' Castle. Between 1838 and 1843, the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky studied as a cadet at the Main Engineering School. In the early 1990s, St. Michael's Castle became a branch of the Russian Museum and now houses its Portrait Gallery, featuring official portraits of the Russian Emperors and Empresses and various dignitaries and celebrities from the late 17th to the early 20th century. Mikhaylovsky Palace Pamyatniki architektury Leningrada: Architectural monuments of Leningrad: Glavnoe architekturno-planirovocnoe upravlenie ispolnitelnogo komiteta Leningradskogo gorodskogo Soveta deputatov trudjascichsja, Gosudarstvennaja inspekciya po ochrane pamyatnikov, ed. A. N. Petrov, 4th ed. Leningrad: Stroyizdat, 1976. Nordisk Familjebok, Stockholm: Nordisk familjeboks förlags aktiebolag, 2 ed. 1904.
Photos of St Michael's Castle
Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic
The Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic was the border guard of the German Democratic Republic from 1946 to 1990. The Grenztruppen were the primary force guarding the Berlin Wall and the Inner German border, the GDR's international borders between West Berlin and West Germany respectively; the force belonged to the Ministry of National Defence from 1961, was a service branch of the National People's Army until 1971 when it became directly subordinate to the MfNV. The Border Troops numbered 47,000 personnel at its peak, consisting of volunteers and conscripts, the third-largest Warsaw Pact border guard after Soviet Union and Poland; the Grenztruppen's main role was preventing Republikflucht, the illegal migration from the GDR, were controversially responsible for many deaths at the Berlin Wall. At least 29 border guards were killed in the line of duty, many faced criminal charges after German Reunification. By December 1945, within six months of the end of the Second World War, each of the five States in the Soviet Zone of Occupation had new police forces in clear violation of the Yalta and Potsdam agreements.
In early January 1946, the name Volkspolizei was publicly applied to the new police forces in the Soviet Zone, in August these forces were placed under the centralized control of the newly created German Administration of the Interior, headed by Erich Reschke. On 1 December 1946, the Deutsche Grenzpolizei was organized by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany as a paramilitary to defend the borders of the Soviet Zone; the initial 3,000 recruits of the Grenzpolizei were organized and trained from Volkspolizei resources, by April 1948 numbered 10,000 personnel before rising to 18,000 in 1950. The Grenzpolizei were armed and organised like a police force, were subordinate to the Main Administration of the Border Police and Alert Units of the German Administration of the Interior; the Soviet Zone was formed into the German Democratic Republic in October 1949 and led by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany under Soviet influence. The SED reorganized the Grenzpolizei along military lines, similar to the USSR Border Troops, transferred them from the Ministry of the Interior to the Ministry of State Security from May 1952 to June 1953.
In 1961, the Grenzpolizei were reorganized as the Border Troops of the GDR and were moved from the Ministry of the Interior, which oversaw policing, to the Ministry of National Defense which oversaw the military. The Grenztruppen became the fourth service branch of the National People's Army, the armed forces of the GDR, until 1973 when they were separated and became directly subordinate to the MfNV. While wearing standard NVA uniforms, the Grenztruppen had their own dark green arm-of-service colour, their service and dress uniforms bore a green cuff title with white lettering "Grenztruppen der DDR" on the left arm. From 1973, service in the Grenztruppen became voluntary, ending the use of involuntarily conscripts – only professional soldiers and voluntary conscripts could serve in its ranks; the vast majority of Grenztruppen efforts were directed along the GDR's western borders with West Germany and West Berlin, with only about 600 members assigned to guard the GDR's borders with Poland and Czechoslovakia.
This continued until the 1980s when the rise of the Solidarity trade union in Poland saw the GDR toughen the Grenztruppen's presence along their border. On 1 July 1990, the GDR's border control regime along the borders with West Germany and West Berlin was ended. In September 1990, shortly before the reunification of Germany, the Grenztruppen der DDR were disbanded. For most visitors to East Berlin and the GDR, including persons who utilized the land transit routes between West Germany and West Berlin, their exposure to the Grenztruppen der DDR consisted of dealing with the members of the Pass and Control Units who processed travellers passing through the GDR's Grenzübergangsstellen. Although they wore Grenztruppen uniforms, the members of the PKE were in fact members of the 6th Main Department of the Stasi. 1952 Richard Smolorz 1952–55 Hermann Gartmann 1955–57 Heinrich Stock 1957 Hermann Gartmann 1957–60 Paul Ludwig 1960–79 Generaloberst Erich Peter 1979–90 Generaloberst Klaus-Dieter Baumgarten 1990 Generalmajor Dieter TeichmannThe units of the Grenztruppen der DDR were organised in the same manner as ordinary NVA army units.
The structure listed below was that which existed prior to 30 November 1989. The headquarters of the Grenztruppen der DDR was located near Königs Wusterhausen; the Grenzkommando Nord, with headquarters at Stendal was responsible for the northern sector of the East German border. The GKN consisted of six frontier troops regiments, two training regiments, a helicopter flight and some smaller support units. Commanders: Oberst Harald Bär Oberst Johannes Fritzsche Order of battle: Grenzregiment 6 "Hans Kollwitz" Grenzregiment 8 "Robert Abshagen" Grenzregiment 20 "Martin Schwantes" Grenzregiment 23 "Wilhelm Bahnik" Grenzregiment 24 "Fritz Heckert" Grenzregiment 25 "Neithardt von Gneisenau" Gr
Fortress of Louisbourg
The Fortress of Louisbourg is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Its two sieges that of 1758, were turning points in the Anglo-French struggle for what today is Canada; the original settlement was made in 1713, called Havre à l'Anglois. Subsequently, the fishing port grew to become a major commercial port and a defended fortress; the fortifications surrounded the town. The walls were constructed between 1720 and 1740. By the mid-1740s Louisbourg, named for Louis XIV of France, was one of the most extensive European fortifications constructed in North America, it was supported by two smaller garrisons on Île Royale located at present-day St. Peter's and Englishtown; the Fortress of Louisbourg suffered key weaknesses, since it was erected on low-lying ground commanded by nearby hills and its design was directed toward sea-based assaults, leaving the land-facing defences weak.
A third weakness was that it was a long way from France or Quebec, from which reinforcements might be sent. It was captured by British colonists in 1745, was a major bargaining chip in the negotiations leading to the 1748 treaty ending the War of the Austrian Succession, it was returned to the French in exchange for border towns in. It was captured again in 1758 by British forces in the Seven Years' War, after which its fortifications were systematically destroyed by British engineers; the British continued to have a garrison at Louisbourg until 1768. The fortress and town were reconstructed in the 1960s and 1970s, using some of the original stonework, which provided jobs for unemployed coal miners; the head stonemason for this project was Ron Bovaird. The site is operated by Parks Canada as a living history museum; the site stands as the largest reconstruction project in North America. French settlement on Île Royale can be traced to the early 17th century following settlements in Acadia that were concentrated on Baie Française such as at Port-Royal and other locations in present-day peninsular Nova Scotia.
A French settlement at Sainte Anne on the central east coast of Île Royale was established in 1629 and named Fort Sainte Anne, lasting until 1641. A fur trading post was established on the site from 1651–1659, but Île Royale languished under French rule as attention was focused on the St. Lawrence River/Great Lakes colony of Canada and the small agricultural settlements of mainland Acadia; the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 gave Britain control of part of Newfoundland. In 1713, France set about constructing Port Dauphin and a limited naval support base at the former site of Fort Sainte-Anne; the harbour, being ice-free and well protected, soon became a winter port for French naval forces on the Atlantic seaboard and they named it Havre Louisbourg after King Louis XIV. The Fortress was besieged in 1745 by a New England force backed by a Royal Navy squadron; the New England attackers succeeded when the fortress capitulated on June 16, 1745. A major expedition by the French to recapture the fortress led by Jean-Baptiste de La Rochefoucauld de Roye, duc d'Anville, the following year was destroyed by storms and British naval attacks before it reached the fortress.
In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession, restored Louisbourg to France in return for territory gained in the Austrian Netherlands and the British trading post at Madras in India. Maurepas, the ministre de la marine, was determined to have it back, he regarded the fortified harbour as essential to maintaining French dominance in the fisheries of the area. The disgust of the French in this transaction was matched by that of the English colonists; the New England forces left, taking with them the famous Louisbourg Cross, which had hung in the fortress chapel. This cross was rediscovered in the Harvard University archives only in the half of the 20th century. Having given up Louisbourg, Britain in 1749 created its own fortified town on Chebucto Bay which they named Halifax, it soon became the largest Royal Navy base on the Atlantic coast and hosted large numbers of British army regulars. The 29th Regiment of Foot was stationed there. Britain's American colonies were expanding into areas claimed by France by the 1750s, the efforts of French forces and their Indian allies to seal off the westward passes and approaches through which American colonists could move west soon led to the skirmishes that developed into the French and Indian War in 1754.
The conflict widened into the larger Seven Years' War by 1756, which involved all of the major European powers. A large-scale French naval deployment in 1757 fen