Sir William Wallace was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence. Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297, he was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland, he is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart. He was first cousin to Roger de Kirkpatrick. Roger himself was a third cousin to Robert the Bruce. William Wallace was a member of the lesser nobility, but little is known of his family history or his parentage.
Blind Harry's late-15th-century poem gives his father as Sir Malcolm of Elderslie. This Alan Wallace may be the same as the one listed in the 1296 Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but there is no additional confirmation. Blind Harry's assertion that William was the son of Sir Malcolm of Elderslie has given rise to a tradition that William's birthplace was at Elderslie in Renfrewshire, this is still the view of some historians, including the historical William Wallace Society itself. However, William's seal has given rise to a counter claim of Ellerslie in Ayrshire. There is no contemporary evidence linking him with either location, although both areas had connections with the wider Wallace family. Records show early members of the family as holding estates at Riccarton and Auchincruive in Kyle, Stenton in East Lothian, they were vassals of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland as their lands fell within his territory. Wallace's brothers John are known from other sources; the origins of the Wallace surname and its association with southwest Scotland are far from certain, other than the name's being derived from the Old English wylisc, meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman".
It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but as the term was used for local Cumbric-speaking Strathclyde Welsh, it seems likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being "Welsh" due to their Cumbric language. When Wallace was growing up, King Alexander III ruled Scotland, his reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse; the heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290; the lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the "Great Cause", with several families laying claim to the throne. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland.
In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgment was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. John was a weak king, known as "Toom Tabard" or "Empty Coat". John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town. In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar in East Lothian and by July, Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles; some historians, such as Andrew Fisher, believe Wallace must have had some earlier military experience in order to lead a successful military campaign in 1297. Campaigns like Edward I of England's wars in Wales might have provided a good opportunity for a younger son of a landholder to become a mercenary soldier.
Wallace's personal seal bears the archer's insignia, so he may have fought as an archer in Edward's army. Walter Bower states that Wallace was "a tall man with the body of a giant... with lengthy flanks... broad in the hips, with strong arms and legs... with all his limbs strong and firm". Blind Harry's Wallace reaches seven feet; the first act known to have been carried out by Wallace was his assassination of William de Heselrig, the English High Sheriff of Lanark, in May 1297. He joined with William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, they carried out the raid of Scone; this was one of several rebellions taking place across Scotland, including those of several Scottish nobles and Andrew Moray in the north. The uprising suffered a blow. Wallace and Moray were not involved, continued their rebellions. Wallace used the Ettrick Forest as a base for raiding, attacked Wishart's palace at Ancrum. Wallace and Moray met and joined their forces at the siege of Dundee in early September. On 11 September 1297, an army jointly led by Wallace and Andrew Moray won the Battle of Stirling Bridge
History of Scotland
The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall. North of this was Caledonia, inhabited by the Picti, whose uprisings forced Rome's legions back to Hadrian's Wall; as Rome withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonising Western Scotland and Wales. Prior to Roman times, prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, the Iron Age around 700 BC; the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, Irish missionaries introduced the pagan Picts to Celtic Christianity. Following England's Gregorian mission, the Pictish king Nechtan chose to abolish most Celtic practices in favour of the Roman rite, restricting Gaelic influence on his kingdom and avoiding war with Anglian Northumbria. Towards the end of the 8th century, the Viking invasions began, forcing the Picts and Gaels to cease their historic hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century, forming the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the House of Alpin, whose members fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. The last Alpin king, Malcolm II, died without issue in the early 11th century and the kingdom passed through his daughter's son to the House of Dunkeld or Canmore; the last Dunkeld king, Alexander III, died in 1286. He left only his infant granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway as heir, who died herself four years later. England, under Edward I, would take advantage of this questioned succession to launch a series of conquests, resulting in the Wars of Scottish Independence, as Scotland passed back and forth between the House of Balliol and the House of Bruce. Scotland's ultimate victory confirmed Scotland as a independent and sovereign kingdom; when King David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stuart, which would rule Scotland uncontested for the next three centuries. James VI, Stuart king of Scotland inherited the throne of England in 1603, the Stuart kings and queens ruled both independent kingdoms until the Act of Union in 1707 merged the two kingdoms into a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Ruling until 1714, Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha has been due to their descent from James VI and I of the House of Stuart. During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial and industrial powerhouses of Europe, its industrial decline following the Second World War was acute. In recent decades Scotland has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector and the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Since the 1950s, nationalism has become a strong political topic, with serious debates on Scottish independence, a referendum in 2014 about leaving the British Union. People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britain's recorded history. At times during the last interglacial period Europe had a climate warmer than today's, early humans may have made their way to Scotland, with the possible discovery of pre-Ice Age axes on Orkney and mainland Scotland.
Glaciers scoured their way across most of Britain, only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC. Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, archaeologists have dated an encampment near Biggar to around 12000 BC. Numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers; the oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the oval structure of wooden posts found at South Queensferry near the Firth of Forth, dating from the Mesolithic period, about 8240 BC. The earliest stone structures are the three hearths found at Jura, dated to about 6000 BC. Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements. Evidence of these includes the well-preserved stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BC and the village of similar houses at Skara Brae on West Mainland, Orkney from about 500 years later; the settlers introduced chambered cairn tombs from around 3500 BC, as at Maeshowe, from about 3000 BC the many standing stones and circles such as those at Stenness on the mainland of Orkney, which date from about 3100 BC, of four stones, the tallest of, 16 feet in height.
These were part of a pattern. The creation of cairns and Megalithic monuments continued into the Bronze Age, which began in Scotland about 2000 BC; as elsewhere in Europe, hill forts were first introduced in this period, including the occupation of Eildon Hill near Melrose in the Scottish Borders, from around 1000 BC, which accommodated several hundred houses on a fortified hilltop. From the Early and Middle Bronze Age there is evidence of cellular round houses of stone, as at Jarlshof and Sumburgh on Shetland. There is evidence of the occupation of crannogs, roundhouses or built on artificial islands in lakes and estuarine waters. In the early Iron Age, from the seventh century BC, cellular houses began to be replaced on the northern isles by simple Atlantic roundhouses, substantial circular buildings with a dry stone construction. From about 400 BC, more complex Atlantic roundhouses began to be built, as at Howe and Crosskirk, Caithness; the most massive constructions that date from this era are the circular broch towers, p
Archbishop of St Andrews
"Primate of Scotland" redirects here. The Bishop of St. Andrews was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of St Andrews and as Archbishop of St Andrews, the Archdiocese of St Andrews; the name St Andrews is not church's original name. It was Cellrígmonaid located at Cennrígmonaid. Today St Andrews has replaced both Kilrymont as well as the older English term Anderston as the name of the town and bishopric; the bishopric itself appears to originate in the period 700–900. By the 11th century, it is clear. There had been a monastery there since the 8th century, it was taken over by Céli Dé monks in the 9th or 10th centuries, these survive into the 14th century. It is the Gaelic abbey, rather than the continental priory. Only a few abbots are known, it is thought that the position of Abbot and Bishop were the same until the Norman era, but clear evidence for this is lacking. The pre-11th century "bishop of the Scots" may have had no fixed seat before settling at St Andrews; the bishopric of St Andrews was elevated into an archbishopric in 1472 by Pope Sixtus IV.
The Scottish church broke with Rome in the Scottish Reformation of 1560. Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, vol. I Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie, "St. Andrews before Alexander I", in G. W. S. Barrow, The Scottish Tradition, pp. 1–13 Barrow, G. W. S. "The Clergy of St. Andrews", in The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. pp. 187–202 Dowden, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, Robert, An Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops: Down to the Year 1688, Sir Archibald, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A. D. 1153, John, MacQueen, Winifred & Watt, D. E. R. Scottichronicon by Walter Bower in Latin and English, Vol. 3, Watt, D. E. R. Fasti Ecclesiae Scotinanae Medii Aevi ad annum 1638, 2nd Draft, Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh Bishop of St Andrews and Dunblane
Parliament of Scotland
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland. The parliament, like other such institutions, evolved during the Middle Ages from the king's council of bishops and earls, it is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, during the reign of Alexander II, when it was described as a "colloquium" and possessed a political and judicial role. By the early fourteenth century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, from 1326 commissioners from the burghs attended. Consisting of the "three estates" of clergy and the burghs sitting in a single chamber, the parliament gave consent for the raising of taxation and played an important role in the administration of justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, such as General Councils or Convention of Estates; these could carry out much business dealt with by parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Parliament of Scotland met for more than four centuries, until it was prorogued sine die at the time of the Acts of Union in 1707. Thereafter the Parliament of Great Britain operated for both England and Scotland, thus creating the Kingdom of Great Britain; when the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From January 1801 until 1927, the British state was called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the pre-Union parliament was long portrayed as a constitutionally defective body that acted as a rubber stamp for royal decisions, but research during the early 21st century has found that it played an active role in Scottish affairs, was sometimes a thorn in the side of the Scottish Crown. The members were collectively referred to as the Three Estates, or "community of the realm", composed of until 1690: the first estate of prelates the second estate of the nobility the third estate of Burgh Commissioners The bishops and abbots of the First Estate were the thirteen medieval bishops of Aberdeen, Brechin, Dunblane, Galloway, Isles, Orkney, Ross and St Andrews and the mitred abbots of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart.
The bishops themselves were removed from the Church of Scotland during the Glorious Revolution and the accession of William of Orange. The Second Estate was split into two to retain the division into three. From the 16th century, the second estate was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners: this has been argued to have created a fourth estate. During the 17th century, after the Union of the Crowns, a fifth estate of royal office holders has been identified; these latter identifications remain controversial among parliamentary historians. Regardless, the term used for the assembled members continued to be "the Three Estates". A Shire Commissioner was the closest equivalent of the English office of Member of Parliament, namely a commoner or member of the lower nobility; because the parliament of Scotland was unicameral, all members sat in the same chamber, as opposed to the separate English House of Lords and House of Commons. The Scottish parliament evolved during the Middle Ages from the King's Council.
It is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, described as a "colloquium" and with a political and judicial role. In 1296 we have the first mention of burgh representatives taking part in decision making. By the early 14th century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, Robert the Bruce began calling burgh commissioners to his Parliament. Consisting of The Three Estates – of clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners – sitting in a single chamber, the Scottish parliament acquired significant powers over particular issues. Most it was needed for consent for taxation, but it had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation, whether political, social or economic. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business dealt with by Parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Scottish parliament met in a number of different locations throughout its history. In addition to Edinburgh, meetings were held in Perth, Stirling, St Andrews, Linlithgow, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Berwick-upon-Tweed. From the early 1450s until 1690, a great deal of the legislative business of the Scottish Parliament was carried out by a parliamentary committee known as the "Lords of the Articles"; this was a committee chosen by the three estates to draft legislation, presented to the full assembly to be confirmed. In the past, historians have been critical of this body, claiming that it came to be dominated by royal nominees, thus undermining the power of the full assembly. Recent research suggests. Indeed, in March 1482, the
William de Lamberton
William de Lamberton, sometimes modernized as William Lamberton, was Bishop of St Andrews from 1297 until his death. Lamberton is renowned for his influential role during the Scottish Wars of Independence, he campaigned for the national cause under William Wallace and Robert the Bruce. As Bishop of St Andrews, the most powerful seat in Scotland, Bishop Lamberton along with Bishop Robert Wishart of Glasgow conducted the coronation of Robert the Bruce as King Robert I. Lamberton would go on to have a vital role in the formulation of the Declaration of the Clergy 1310 and the Declaration of Arbroath which would lead to Scottish Independence. During his tenure Lamberton was excommunicated by Rome for his role in the Wars of Independence along with Robert I and the Clergy of Scotland. However, he was reconciled with the Papacy before his death. Details from the National Dictionary of Biography do seem to clarify his origins in the Lamberton family from Berwickshire, but holding lands in north-east Scotland by the late twelfth century and in Stirlingshire also.
Details of his birth and early career are not certain. By the time of his appearance at King John's first parliament in February 1293 he was chancellor of Glasgow Cathedral, he seems to have been sent abroad for further study by Bishop Robert Wishart of Glasgow in the year or two before July 1295. The Lamberton surname is recorded in one source as having a close association with the ancient Barony of Kilmaurs and the Lands of Lambroughton. William Lamberton however most originated from the settlement of Lamberton, near Berwick in the Scottish Borders where the family held large estates; the name Lamberton here was derived from the Germanic name Lambert, whilst Lambroughton, sometimes spelt Lamberton, is derived from a corruption of the clan McLamroch. He was appointed Bishop of St Andrews in 1298 by Pope Boniface VIII in succession to William Fraser. Lamberton appears to have been a odd choice for a Bishop as he was young at the time. However, according to Scottish historian Geoffrey Barrow Lamberton landed the position of Bishop due to Guardian William Wallace who saw Lamberton as a potential ally and supporter of Independence due to Lamberton's close ties with Bishop Wishart, a staunch supporter of Independence.
St Andrews was the wealthiest and most powerful See in Scotland catapulting Lamberton straight into the highest circles in Scotland. The English would charge Wallace with forcing the Chapter of Saint Andrews into electing Lamberton although evidence suggests that Lamberton was a popular candidate amongst the Chapter attracting the support of Nicholas Balmyle and William Comyn, he was consecrated in Rome on 1 June 1298, before joining other Scots on a diplomatic mission to France. Bishop Lamberton took a young James Douglas as his squire, Douglas' father William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas had joined the Scots during the First War of Independence and died while imprisoned by King Edward I. Lamberton protected Douglas and took him to court to petition unsuccessfully for the return of his estates. James Douglas became one of the closest friends of Robert the Bruce. William Lamberton rebuilt St. Andrew's Cathedral, the castle of St Andrew's, the fortified manor houses at Inchmurdo, Dairsie, Muckhart, Monymusk and Stow.
Upon becoming Bishop, Lamberton found himself in control of the diocese's vast funds. He would act as an important diplomat and envoy for Scotland. Lamberton remained a supporter of Scotland's independence and was excommunicated for his role; when being consecrated as Bishop, Lamberton went to France to build support for Scotland in the French Court and Papal Curia. As early as June 1298 Lamberton had won victories for the Scottish cause, it led to Scotland's deposed king John Balliol being handed over into papal custody in 1299. In a letter to Scottish leaders dated 6 April 1299 Philip IV commended Lamberton's efforts and declared he would assist Scotland. Despite the Bishop's pleas, he did not send a military force to Scotland. Lamberton returned to France in 1301, in 1302, to keep pressing for France's support in the war. Lamberton formed a bond with Philip - the French king intervened several times for Scotland. Bishop Lamberton's diplomatic abilities were recognised by the Scottish Magnates when he was chosen as a third Guardian, alongside Robert Bruce and John Comyn in 1299.
His role was to act as a third, but neutral party between the two enemies. He would hold the position until 1301 and during his term he formed a close friendship with Bruce. Lamberton owed his position to the efforts of William Wallace, made sole Guardian of Scotland after the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 and as such Lamberton supported Wallace. Lamberton's clergy supported Wallace. Lamberton ordered his Diocese's officials to divert Church funds to Wallace's campaign and urged Wallace to continue to fight England. After the defeat at Falkirk Wallace resigned the guardianship. Lamberton continued to support Scottish Independence. After forming close ties with Bruce during his time as Guardian, Lamberton saw him as a potential leader of a fight for independence. On 11 June 1304 Lamberton and Bruce formed a band "to resist prudently attacks by rivals...to be of one another's council in all their business and affairs at all times...without any deceit" This bond mar
Robert II of Scotland
Robert II reigned as King of Scotland from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce, was named heir to the throne but he died without heirs on 3 December 1318. Marjorie had died in 1317 in a riding accident and parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, in same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne under the guardianship of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol—assisted by the English and those Scottish nobles, disinherited by Robert I—invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333.
Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. David escaped to France in 1334 and parliament, still functioning, appointed Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Randolph was captured by the English in July 1335 and in the same year Robert submitted to Balliol bringing about the removal of his guardianship; the office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357. Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising five daughters, his subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two surviving daughters. Robert rebelled against the King in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. David died in 1371 and Robert succeeded him at the age of fifty-five.
The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. Robert ensured that Scotland was included in the Anglo-French truce of 1384 and, a factor in the coup in November when he lost control of the country first to his eldest son and from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert. King Robert was buried at Scone Abbey. Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died in 1317 following a riding accident, he had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, in Renfrew. In 1315 parliament removed Marjorie's right as heir to her father in favour of her uncle, Edward Bruce. Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318, resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor.
The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir. This reinstatement of his status was accompanied by the gift of lands in Argyll and the Lothians; the first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol. His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland; the Scottish leadership concluded that only war could release the country from the English king's continued weakening of Balliol's sovereignty and so finalised a treaty of reciprocal assistance with France in October 1295. The Scots forayed into England in March 1296—this incursion together with the French treaty angered the English king and provoked an invasion of Scotland taking Berwick on 30 March before defeating the Scots army at Dunbar on 27 April. John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner.
Despite this, resistance to the English led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray had emerged in the name of King John Balliol. On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself. David Bruce, aged five, became king on 7 June 1329 on the death of his father Robert. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327, the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer, who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. David's accession kindled the second independence war. In 1332 Edward Balliol, son of the deposed John Balliol, spearheaded an attack on the Bruce sovereignty with the tacit support of King Edward III of England and the explicit endorsement of'the disinherited'. Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated.
Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was taking refuge. Few other strongholds remain