Guards Armoured Division
The Guards Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army during the Second World War. The division was created in the United Kingdom on 17 June 1941 during World War II from elements of the Guards units, the Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards, Irish Guards. and Welsh Guards. The division remained in the United Kingdom, until 13 June 1944, when it landed several armoured command vehicles at Arromanches and lagered its advanced tactical headquarters in communication with GHQ awaiting the bulk of the armour Normandy, during Operation Overlord as part of VIII Corps where its first major engagement was Operation Goodwood, the attack by three armoured divisions towards Bourguebus Ridge in an attempt to break out of the Normandy beachhead; that was followed by the advance east of Caen as the Falaise pocket formed. Transferred to XXX Corps, the division liberated Brussels, it led the XXX Corps attack in Operation Market Garden, the ground forces' advance to relieve airborne troops aiming to seize the bridges up to Arnhem, capturing Nijmegen bridge in conjunction with American paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne Division.
The Tac HQ reached Arnhem but was not able to seize the bridge because German anti tank guns were entrenched on the North side and the British airborne had surrendered or were too far away to help. During the Ardennes offensive, it was sent in bitterly cold weather, which forced the tanks to start their engines every hour to prevent diesel fuel freezing, to the Meuse as a reserve in case the Germans broke through the American lines, it endured hard fighting in Operation Veritable, the advance towards the Rhine through the Reichswald, again in the advance through Germany. The division existed until 12 June 1945, more than two months after Victory in Europe Day, when it was reorganised as an infantry division, the Guards Division, after exactly four years as an armoured division. Brainchild of General Sir Alan Brooke, Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces, the Guards Armoured Division, commanded by Major General Oliver Leese, was formed in May 1941 as a result of the shortage of armoured troops in England to face a German invasion.
There was opposition to this move, as it was felt by the establishment that the height of the Guards—selected for height, amongst other criteria, as elite soldiers—would make them poor tank crew. The division consisted of two armoured brigades, the 5th and the 6th; these consisted of three tank regiments of a motor infantry battalion. A certain level of common sense was applied to these changes, with the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards being assigned as the motor battalion, due to the presence of King's Company; this group of men were expected to struggle to fit into tanks. Uniquely the Guards Armoured Division kept its infantry company structure, with the tanks organised into companies and battalions, rather than squadrons and regiments. At the end of 1942, the division, now under the command of Major General Allan Adair, was split in line with all armoured divisions at this time, with one armoured brigade replaced with a brigade of lorried infantry. At this point the 6th and 5th Guards Armoured Brigades were separated.
During this period the division re-equipped with Crusader III tanks, which were again replaced with Sherman Vs by 1944. The Guards Armoured Division landed in Normandy at the end of June, went into battle around Carpiquet Airfield soon after, with the infantry of the 32nd Guards Brigade skirmishing with the 12th SS Hitlerjugend; however this was only to last a couple of weeks before the armour arrived and the division was deployed further south to participate in Operation Goodwood. The aim of this attack has been debated many times, but whether an attempt at a breakout or a more limited effort, it had the effect of drawing most of the German reserves towards Caen, aiding the Cobra offensive. Intended as a combined attack, it was changed to an armoured assault as the British Army in France had suffered heavy infantry casualties and were struggling to find replacements; as a result, the attack was changed to one of armoured divisions, as lost tanks would be easier to replace. The Guards Armoured Division joined with the 7th and 11th Armoured Divisions for this attack.
The aim was to strike south out of the Orne bridgehead on 18 July. The Guards Armoured Division was to advance south-east to capture Argences. Prior to this attack the German defences were bombed be the Royal Air Force; this was less effective than hoped against the dug-in defenders, both in the south of Caen and in Cagny and Emieville. All three of these areas were in the path of the Guards advance; the attack bogged down and losses became heavy, the guards losing 60 tanks to a single battery of four Luftwaffe 88mm AA guns. In addition to this, a group of Tiger I tanks of the 503, knocked out in the bombardment, recovered enough over the course of the morning to stiffen the resistance against the Guards. In addition, the Guards were checked by a Schwere Panzerabteilung and a counterattack by the 12 SS Hilterjugend. Novel tactics had to be employed to deal with the more gunned and armoured Tiger, with one being rammed by a Sherman of the Irish Guards. Whilst taking part in Operation Goodwood east of Cagny, Lt John Gorman, a Troop Commander in the 2nd Armoured Battalion was probing forward in his Sherman tank Ballyragget when he found himself broadside to a German Tiger II, the German heavy tank that no-one had yet seen.
He fired his 75mm gun but the shot bounced off German tank. He was unable to fire again. By now, the Tiger Tank was travers
1st Guards Infantry Division (German Empire)
The 1st Guards Infantry Division was a unit of the Prussian Imperial German Army and was stationed in Berlin. The division was created on September 5, 1818. In the reorganization, the guards brigades, assigned to various corps and batteries of the Prussian Guards, were grouped into a single formation. By 1914 the division was subordinate to the Guards Corps of the Imperial German Army. At the outbreak of the First World War it was commanded by Gen-Lt. Oskar von Hutier. Order of Battle: 1914 1st Guards Infantry Brigade 1st Foot Guards 3rd Foot Guards 2nd Guards Infantry Brigade 2nd Foot Guards 4th Foot Guards 1st Guards Field Artillery Brigade 1st Guards Field Artillery 1st Guards Field Artillery Guards Hussar Regiment 1st Company, Guards Pioneer Battalion 1st and 3rd Section, Guards Field Ambulance Company 1st Guards Divisional Pontoon Train Prussian Army Units, by Michael Hughes
Guards Cavalry Division (German Empire)
The Guards Cavalry Division was a unit of the German army, stationed in Berlin. The division was a part of the Guards Corps. Before the outbreak of war, the component units of the division were: 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade Gardes du Corps Guards Cuirassiers 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Dragoons "Queen of Great Britain and Ireland" 2nd Guards Dragoons "Empress Alexandra of Russia" 4th Guards Cavalry Brigade Life Guards Hussars 2nd Guards Uhlans The division was assigned to I Cavalry Corps, which preceded the 3rd Army on the Western Front, it served on the Western Front until December 1914 undertook frontier guard duties against Holland until 30 June 1915, when it relocated to Russia. From 16 March 1918 to 9 April 1918, it was dismounted, re-formed and trained on the Zossen troop training ground. Thereafter, it served as the Guard Cavalry Schützen Division on the Western Front, it was in Artois until May 1918 Champagne / Aisne.
By the end of the war, it was serving under VI Reserve Corps, 1st Army, Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz on the Western Front. A more detailed combat chronicle can be found at the German-language version of this article. Upon the outbreak of war, the 4th Guards Cavalry Brigade was dissolved and its component regiments were assigned as divisional cavalry to the 1st Guards Infantry Division and 2nd Guards Infantry Division. With the addition of support units, the Division's structure was: 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade Gardes du Corps Guards Cuirassiers 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Dragoons "Queen of Great Britain and Ireland" 2nd Guards Dragoons "Empress Alexandra of Russia" Horse Artillery Abteilung of the 1st Guards Field Artillery Regiment 1st Guard Machine Gun Detachment Pioneer Detachment Signals Detachment Heavy Wireless Station 2 Light Wireless Station 1 Light Wireless Station 2 Cavalry Motorised Vehicle Column 10See: Table of Organisation and Equipment The Guard Cavalry Division was extensively reorganised in the course of the war, culminating in the conversion to a Cavalry Schützen Division, to say, dismounted cavalry.
Here, the cavalry brigades were renamed Cavalry Schützen Commands and performed a similar role to that of an infantry regiment command. The cavalry regiments became Cavalry Schützen Regiments and allocated the role of an infantry battalion. However, these units were much weaker than normal infantry formations. 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 9 April 1917 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 6 June 1916 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 18 October 1916 19th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 8 April 1917 and became independent on 12 February 1918 11th Cavalry Brigade joined from 5th Cavalry Division on 23 March 1918 and renamed 11th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 14th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 23 February 1918 and renamed 14th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 38th Cavalry Brigade joined from 8th Cavalry Division on 20 April 1918 and renamed 38th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 Allied Intelligence rated this division as 2nd Class.
Its late war organisation was: 5th Landwehr Brigade 11th Cavalry Schützen Command Guards Cuirassiers 1st Life Cuirassiers "Great Elector" 8th Dragoons "King Frederick III" 14th Cavalry Schützen Command 4th Hussars "von Schill" 11th Hussars 5th Uhlans 38th Cavalry Schützen Command 4th Cuirassiers "von Driesen" 2nd Jäger zu Pferde 6th Jäger zu Pferde 1st Guard MG Detachment 1st Squadron, 5th Jäger zu Pferde 132nd Artillery Command 3rd Guards Field Artillery 722nd Light Ammunition Column 852nd Light Ammunition Column 1135th Light Ammunition Column 412th Pioneer Battalion 2nd Ersatz Company, 18th Pioneer Battalion 307th Pioneer Company 226th Signal Command 226th Telephone Detachment 183rd Wireless Detachment Medical and Veterinary 257th Ambulance Company 642nd Ambulance Company 1st Field Hospital 302nd Field Hospital 262nd Vet. Hospital Train 636th Motor Transport Column German Army German cavalry in World War I German Army order of battle Histories of two hundred and fifty-one divisions of the German army which participated in the war p. 29-32.
Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919; the London Stamp Exchange Ltd. 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3; the German Forces in the Field. Imperial War Museum and The Battery Press, Inc. 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms; the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control and administration of military organization is undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War; these in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.
The civilian or civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet known as a Minister of Defense. Subordinated to that position are Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants. There are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work. In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services: army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the standard model of four basic Armed Services.
Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons; some other variations include: Bangladesh: Army, Air Force, Border Guards, Coast Guard Brazil: Army, Air Force, Firefighters Chile: Army, Air Force, National Police Croatia: Army, Air Force and Air Defence Egypt: Army, Air Force, Air Defense France: Army, Air Force, National Guard Greece: Army, Air Force Germany: Army, Air Force, Joint Support Service, Joint Medical Services Hungary: Army, Air Force India: Army, Air Force, Strategic Forces Command, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces Indonesia: Army, Air Force, Marines Iran: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Revolutionary Guard Italy: Army, Air Force, Military Police Japan: Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, Japan Air Self Defense Force Latvia: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard Netherlands: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie Norway: Army, Air Force, Home Guard, Cyber Defence Force Pakistan: Army, Air Force, Frontier Corps, Pakistan Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Gilgit Scouts, Pakistan National Guard, Airports Security Force, Frontier Constabulary, National Command Authority Philippines: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard Poland: Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defence Force People's Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force, People's Armed Police Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Reserve Force, Military Police Russian Federation: Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces plus three independent arms of service South Africa: Army, Air Force, Military Health Service Spain: Army, Air Force, Civil Guard, Emergencies Unit, Royal Guard Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Civil Security Force Turkey: Land Forces, Air Force, Naval Forces, Coast Guard, War Academies United States: Army, Air Force, Coast Guard United Kingdom: Army, Air Force, Marines Venezuela: Army, Air Force, National Guard, National Militia Vietnam: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Guard, Coast GuardIn larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.
Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units, it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military. Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist, it is common, at least in the European and Nort
Imperial Guard (Russia)
The Russian Imperial Guard known as the Leib Guard were military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. Peter the Great founded the first such units following the Prussian practice in the 1690s, to replace the politically motivated Streltsy; the Imperial Guard subsequently increased in size and diversity to become an elite corps of all branches within the Imperial Army rather than Household troops in direct attendance on the Tsar. Numerous links were however maintained with the Imperial family and the bulk of the regiments of the Imperial Guard were stationed in and around Saint Petersburg in peacetime; the first units to be formed were the Semyonovsky Regiments by Peter the Great. He formed the two regiments as part of his move to professionalize Russia's army following their disastrous defeat in the Battle of Narva against the Swedish Empire during the early phases of Great Northern War. Another influencing factor for the unit's formation was the fact that the Streltsy had fallen out of favour with Peter as a result of a series of uprising, one taking place during his childhood which traumatised him, another taking place during his reign.
On, Anna of Russia formed the Izmaylovsky Regiment recruited from her native Duchy of Courland and Semigallia out of distrust of her current guard regiments as a result of her paranoia of losing power. The Izmaylovsky Regiment became, but the term "leib" was not used until the reign of Elizabeth of Russia during her formation of the Leib Company made up of the grenadiers who helped put her on the throne. During the October Revolution, the Pavlovsky Regiment, though celebrated for their actions during the Napoleonic Wars, was among the first regiments to mutiny and join the Bolsheviks, participated in The Storming of the Winter Palace. However, notable members like the commander of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, Alexander Kutepov remained loyal to the end, fighting against the Bolsheviks; the final composition of the Russian Imperial Guard at the beginning of 1914 was: Guards Corps St. Petersburg District. Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Millionaya. 1st Guards Infantry Division. Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Fontanka 1st Brigade: Life-Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment, Life-Guards Semyonovsky Regiment 2nd Brigade: Life-Guards Izmailovsky Regiment, Life-Guards Egersky Regiment 1st Life-Guards Artillery Brigade 2nd Guards Infantry Division.
Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Fontanka 1st Brigade: Life-Guards Moscow Regiment, Life-Guards Grenadier Regiment 2nd Brigade: Life-Guards Pavlovsky Regiment, Life-Guards Finliandsky Regiment 2nd Life-Guards Artillery Brigade 3rd Guards Infantry Division. Headquarters, Warsaw. 1st Brigade: Life-Guards Lithuanian Regiment, Emperor of Austria's Life-Guards Kexgolmsky Regiment 2nd Brigade: King Frederick-William III's Life-Guards St.-Petersburg/Petrograd Regiment, Life-Guards Volinsky Regiment 3rd Life-Guards Artillery Brigade 2nd Infantry Division Separate Guards Cavalry Brigade: His Majesty's Lancers, Grodno Hussars 3rd Battery of Life-Guards Horse Artillery 23rd Howitzer Artillery Battalion 9th Sapper Battalion 1st Guards Cavalry Division. Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Fontanka 1st Brigade: Her Sovereign Majesty Empress Maria Theodorovna's Chevalier Guard Regiment, Life-Guards Horse Regiment 2nd Brigade: His Majesty's Life-Guards Cuirassier Regiment, Her Majesty Empress Maria Theodorovna's Life-Guards Cuirassier Regiment 3rd Brigade: His Majesty's Life-Guards Cossack Regiment, His Imperial Highness the Sovereign Heir and Tsesarevich's Life-Guards Ataman Regiment, Life-Guards Combined Cossack Regiment, 1st His Majesty's Ural Sotnia, 2nd Orenburg Sotnia, 3rd Combined Sotnia, 4th Amur Sotnia 1st Division of Life-Guards Horse-Artillery Brigade 2nd Guards Cavalry Division.
Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Fontanka 1st Brigade: Life-Guards Horse-Grenadier Regiment, Her Majesty Empress Alexandra Theodorovna's Life-Guards Lancer Regiment 2nd Brigade: Life-Guards Dragoon Regiment, His Majesty's Life-Guards Hussar Regiment, 2nd Division of Life-Guards Horse-Artillery Brigade Guards Rifle Brigade. Headquarters, St. Petersburg, Fontanka Life-Guards 1st His Majesty's Rifle Regiment Life-Guards 2nd Tsarskoe-Selo Rifle Regiment Life-Guards 3rd His Majesty's Rifle Regiment Life-Guards 4th The Imperial Family's Rifle Regiment Guards Rifle Artillery Battalion Life-Guards Horse Artillery Guards Howitzer Artillery Battalion Life-Guards Sapper Battalion Guards Aviation Company'Guard units of direct subordination as of 1917: Palace Grenadiers Company Guards Replacement Cavalry Regiment Guards Field Gendarme Squadron His Majesty's Guards Convoy Unit His Majesty's Railway RegimentPlus the following were part of the 23rd Army Corps, Warsaw Military District. Headquarters, Poland.
3rd Guards Infantry Division. Headquarters, Warsaw Division HQ 1st Brigade: Life-Guards Lithuania Regiment, Emperor of Austria's Life-Guards Kexholm Regiment 2nd Brigade: King Frederick-William III's Life-Guards St.-Petersburg Regiment, Life-Guards Volynski Regiment 3rd Life-Guards Artillery Brigade Independent Guards Cavalry Brigade 3rd Battery of Life-Guards Horse Artillery Every soldier and officer of the Guard had the style of the Leib Guard, for example: Colonel of the Leib Guard. It is a misconception that the monarch himself functioned as the commander of the Leib Guard regiments, so only he and some members of the imperial family could hold a title of Colonel of the Guards. In fact, there were many guards offi
Guards units are elite units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union and in the armed forces of Belarus and Russia. These units were awarded Guards status after distinguishing themselves in service, are considered to have elite status; the Guards designation originated during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, its name coming from the Tsarist Imperial Guard. The title of Soviet Guards was first introduced on September 18, 1941, at the direction of the Headquarters of the Soviet Supreme Commander-in-Chief. By order №308 of the People's Commissar of Defense, the 100th, 127th, 153rd and 161st Rifle Divisions were renamed the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Guards Divisions for their distinguished service during the 1941 Yelnya Offensive; the Soviet 316th Rifle Division was renamed the 8th Guards Rifle Division on November 18, 1941, following the actions of the Panfilovtsy and was given the Panfilovskaya title in honor of its late commander Ivan Panfilov. By December 31, 1941, the 107th, 120th, 64th, 316th, 78th, 52nd Rifle Divisions had become the 5th through 10th Guards Rifle Divisions.
All artillery units equipped with Katyusha multiple rocket launchers were designated Guards Mortars Units. Some twenty Guards Airborne Brigades were converted into the 11th–16th Guards Rifle Divisions in December 1943; the units and formations nominated for the Soviet Guard title received special Guards banners in accordance with the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On May 21, 1942, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR introduced Guards ranks and Guards badges to be worn of the right side of the chest. In June 1943, they introduced the Guards Red Banners for the land forces, in February 1944 for the naval forces. After the Second World War a number of Guards troops were stationed in Eastern Europe, for example, in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Guards designations for military units have been retained by Belarus and Kazakhstan. Ukraine retained the Guards designations until 2016. A number of former Soviet republics have national guard branches of their armed forces, including Armenia, Georgia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Divisions of the Soviet Union 1917-1945 has an complete list of Soviet Guards divisions. List of guards units of Russia List of guards units of Ukraine Russian Guards David Glantz. Colossus Reborn: The Red Army at War 1941–43. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1353-3. Richard Overy. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027169-4. Steven J. Zaloga and James Grandsen. Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8. Red Army Guards, from the U. S. Military Intelligence Bulletin, March 1946
2nd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)
The Imperial Japanese Army's 2nd Guards Division was renumbered from the Imperial Guards Division in June 1943, when the 1st Guards Division was activated. Its organization was: 2nd Guards Division 3rd Guards Infantry Regiment 4th Guards Infantry Regiment 5th Guards Infantry Regiment Guards Recon Regiment 2nd Guards Field Artillery Regiment 2nd Guards Field Engineer Regiment Support units Imperial Guard Madej, W. Victor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945 Allentown, PA: 1981