Guatemalan quetzal

The quetzal is the currency of Guatemala, named after the national bird of Guatemala, the resplendent quetzal. In ancient Mayan culture, the quetzal bird's tail feathers were used as currency, it is divided into lenes in Guatemalan slang. The plural is quetzales; the quetzal was introduced in 1925 during the term of President José María Orellana, whose image appears on the obverse of the one-quetzal bill. It replaced the peso at the rate of 60 pesos; until 1987, the quetzal was pegged to and domestically equal to the United States dollar and before the pegging to the US dollar, it was pegged to the French franc as well, since the quetzal utilized the gold standard. In 1925, coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10 centavos, ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2 and 1 quetzal were introduced, although the majority of the 1 quetzal coins were withdrawn from circulation and melted. ​1⁄2 and 2 centavo coins were added in 1932. Until 1965, coins of 5 above were minted in 72 % silver. 1⁄2 and 1 quetzal coins were reintroduced in 1999, respectively.

The coins in circulation are disc-shaped and include Guatemala's national coat of arms on the obverse. The coins, their reverse designs are: 1 centavo: Friar Bartolomé de las Casas 5 centavos: the tree of liberty and the motto "LIBRE CREZCA FECUNDO" 10 centavos: a monolith from Quiriguá 25 centavos: an indigenous woman, Concepción Ramírez 50 centavos: Monja Blanca, the national flower 1 quetzal: a stylized dove, the word "Paz", the date “29 de Diciembre de 1996 ” The first banknotes were issued by the Central Bank of Guatemala in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 100 quetzales, with ​1⁄2 quetzal notes added in 1933. In 1946, the Bank of Guatemala took over the issuance of paper money, with the first issues being overprints on notes of the Central Bank. Except for the introduction of 50 quetzal notes in 1967, the denominations of banknotes remained unchanged until ​1⁄2 and 1 quetzal coins replaced notes at the end of the 1990s. In the top-right corner of the obverse face of each banknote, the value is displayed in Mayan numerals, representing Guatemala's cultural history.

The Bank of Guatemala has introduced a polymer banknote of 1 quetzal on August 20, 2007, followed by a 5 quetzal polymer banknote on November 14, 2011. Economy of Guatemala Banco de Guatemala Images of Guatemalan coins from the Banco de Guatemala page Banco de Guatemala currency in circulation The banknotes of Guatemala


A debutante or deb is a young woman of aristocratic or upper-class family background who has reached maturity and, as a new adult, comes out into society at a formal "debut" or debutante ball. The term meant that the woman was old enough to be married, part of the purpose of her coming out was to display her to eligible bachelors and their families, with a view to marriage within a select circle. Vienna, Austria still maintains many of the institutions that made up the social, courtly life of the Habsburg Empire. One of those is the most active formal ball season in the world. From January 1 to March 1, no less than 28 formal balls, with a huge variety of hosts, are held in Vienna. Many are like the Russian Ball or the Serbian Saint Sava ball; some of these balls have débutantes. However, the two that are best known for their débutantes are the Officer's Ball and the Vienna Opera Ball; the Ball der Offiziere is considered to be the direct successor of Vienna's Imperial Court Ball. The modern version was founded in 1919, by the association Alt-Neustadt, an association of graduates of the Maria Theresian Military Academy.

They have organized the ball publicly since 1926. The Ball is held on the third Friday of January across the twenty-three salons of the Vienna Hofburg Palace and includes nine bands of different styles of music, military formations, dancing troupes from around the world, the patron is the President of the Republic and is hosted by the Chief of the Defense Staff; the entrance and presentation of the 80 Débutantes is the highlight of the opening event, followed by the presentation Ministers of State the Diplomatic Corps, finishes with the debutantes leading the first formal Viennese Waltz to the music of the Blue Danube. The ladies are from the nobility, daughters of senior ranking military officers, or female officers in the Austrian military, they are presented to the Minister of Defense. The dress code is Mess Dress Uniform for men; the final ceremonial takes place 4 o'clock in the morning. The Vienna Opera Ball is held in the auditorium of the Vienna State Opera, turned into a large ballroom.

On the eve of the event, the rows of seats are removed from the stalls, a new floor, level with the stage, is built. The ball does not start until around 10 pm when the Austrian president and his guests enter the imperial balcony, their arrival is heralded by trumpets. The Austrian national anthem is played followed by the European anthem. There are performances of the state opera ballet company and classical arias sung by the opera stars; these are a small selection of Italian opera and famous Austrian pieces. The highlight of the opening ceremony is the introduction of 180 debutante couples; these are selected young women and men who have completed an application program and a strict classical dance choreography organised by the Elmayer dance school. The debutantes are led into the opera house to the sounds of Carl Michael Ziehrer's Fächerpolonaise; the dress code is evening dress: white tie and tails for men. White opera gloves are still mandatory for female debutantes at the Vienna Opera Ball.

In Australia, débutante balls are organised by high schools, church groups or service clubs, such as Lions or Rotary. The girls who take part are in either Year 11 or 12 at high school; the event is used as a fund-raiser for local charities. The Australian debutante wears a pale-coloured gown similar to a wedding dress. However, the dress does not come with a train on the skirt, the debutante does not wear a veil; the boy wears another formal dress suit. It is customary for the female to ask a male to the débutante ball, with males not being able to "do the deb" unless they are asked; the débutantes and their partners must learn how to ballroom dance. Débutante balls are always held in a reception centre, school hall, the function room of a sporting or other community organisation venue e.g. RSL club, or ballroom, they are held late in the year and consist of dinner and speeches. In the United Kingdom, the last débutantes were presented at Court in 1958, after which Queen Elizabeth II abolished the ceremony.

Attempts were made to keep the tradition going by organising a series of parties for young women who might otherwise have been presented at Court in their first season by Peter Townend. However, the withdrawal of royal patronage made these occasions insignificant, scarcely distinguishable from any other part of the social season; the expression "débutante", or "deb" for short, has continued to be used in the press, to refer to young women of marriageable age who participate in a semi-public upper class social scene. The expression "deb's delight" is applied to good looking unmarried young men from similar backgrounds; the presentation of débutantes to the Sovereign at Court marked the start of the British social season. Applications for young women to be presented at court were required to be made by ladies who themselves had been presented to the Sovereign. A mother-in-law who herself had been presented might, for example, present her new daughter-in-law; the presentation of debutantes at court was a way for young women of marriageable age to be presented to suitab

Josef Greiner

Josef Greiner was an Austrian writer. He knew Adolf Hitler during Hitler's time in Vienna and published two memoirs on this topic, for which he is best known. Josef Greiner was born in Styria in 1886, he moved to Vienna around 1908 and earned his living through various jobs, including as a sign painter, as a lamplighter for a cabaret. He lived in the Meldemannstraße dormitory from January to April 1910. According to an essay by Reinhold Hanisch published posthumously in The New Republic in 1939, during this period Greiner and Hitler at one point worked together in a job that involved filling old tin cans with paint and going door to door to sell it. In 1938, Greiner published a memoir entitled Sein Kampf und Sieg. Eine Erinnerung an Adolf Hitler. In it, he told of knowing Hitler during his time in the Meldemannstraße dormitory, he praised Hitler, calling him "Lord of Ostmark", a "genius", a "messiah". Greiner sent copies of this book to Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Göring, saying that the book could be mass distributed and used as part of Nazi propaganda.

He touted himself as a successful businessman who would be an ideal choice to head the Reich Economics Ministry. Instead, Hitler ordered the publisher to pulp the book. In the Nazi Party files of the time, Greiner is referred to as an "extortionist" and Greiner's repeated attempts to join the Nazi Party, beginning in May 1938, were rejected. After World War II and the downfall of the Nazi regime, Greiner took advantage of his rejection by the Nazis to portray himself as a resistance fighter. In 1947, he published Das Ende des Hitler-Mythos. Greiner sent a copy of this book to Joseph Stalin, offering his services to facilitate Soviet-German economic relations; the End of the Hitler Myth contains several demonstrable errors about Hitler's life. For example, Greiner places Hitler in Vienna in 1907-1908, at which time Hitler was still living in Linz, he tells several stories about Hitler's anti-Semitic behavior at this time, including a story that he tormented one Polish Jew with stink bugs and by giving children "Aryan chocolate" to induce them to torment their Jewish playmate as a "filthy Jew".

Greiner claims that at one point Hitler attempted to rape one of his models. He claims that Hitler contracted syphilis from a Leopoldstadt prostitute, he claimed that in 1945, Hitler did not commit suicide, but instead fled from Berlin in an airplane. Greiner's claims to have been a heroic leader of the Austrian resistance appear implausible. In 1956, Franz Jetzinger dismissed Greiner's claims as "palpable lies". Robert G. L. Waite concludes that Greiner could not have known Hitler, speculates that the reason why so many historians have been willing to accept Greiner's work as legitimate is because a man named Greiner is mentioned as a companion of Hitler by Reinhold Hanisch; this page is based on this page on German Wikipedia