Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana
Reducción de Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana was one of the many colonial missions for Indian Reductions founded in the 17th century by the Jesuits in South America during the Spanish colonial period. The mission was within the colonial Province of Paraguay, its present-day ruins are located in Argentina. The Spanish relocated the indigenous Guaraní people from their home villages to the reduction sites, where they established mission centers; these were modeled on Spanish rural villages, complete with a town square bounded by a church and administrative buildings. Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana was founded in 1633, is located in the present-day Candelaria Department of the Misiones Province, Argentina, it is 2 kilometers from the chief city of the Candelaria Department. The ruins of Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana are not far from the reduccion site of San Ignacio Miní. Like most settlements of the era, the reducciones were located along waterways, which supplied drinking and washing water, were used for transportation and trade.
In 1984 Mission Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana was one of four sites of Jesuit reductions in Argentina and one in Brazil to be declared by UNESCO the Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis World Heritage Sites. Spanish Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis-related topics Governorate of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
Ischigualasto Provincial Park
Ischigualasto Provincial Park called Valle de la Luna, due to its otherworldly appearance, is a provincial protected area in the north-east of San Juan Province, north-western Argentina, limiting to the north with the Talampaya National Park, in La Rioja Province. Both areas belong to the same geological formation, the Ischigualasto Formation Established on 3 November 1971, the park has an area of 60,370 ha In 2000 UNESCO included Ischigualasto and Talampaya National Park among its World Heritage Sites; the name Ischigualasto is derived from the extinct Cacán language, spoken by an indigenous group referred to as the Diaguita by the Spanish conquistadors and means "place where the moon alights". Another hypothesis gives the name "Ischigualasto" a Quechua origin, meaning "dead land", although some scholars have proposed Huarpe roots; the first paleontological description of Ischigualasto dates from 1930. In 1941 the area was studied in more detail, which led to the discovery of 70 species of fossil plants.
The region received for the first time the name Valle de la Luna in 1943, in a publication edited by the Automobil Club Argentino. That year, Dr. Ángel Cabrera of University of La Plata described the traversodontid Exaeretodon—the first cynodont found in Ischigualasto—after samples sent by a geologist prospecting for coal on behalf of an Argentine mining company. Academic work and geological prospecting proceeded until 1958, when Dr. Alfred Sherwood Romer, a Harvard University expert in ancient mammals, discovered several rich fossil beds which he described as "extraordinary". Most of the park lies within the Valle Fértil Department, with a minor part in the Jachal Department of San Juan, at an altitude of about 1,300 m amsl; the park is part of the western border of the Central Sierras, it features typical desert vegetation which covers between 10 and 20% of the area. The climate is dry, with rainfall during the summer, temperature extremes. There is a constant southern wind with a speed of 20–40 km/h after noon and until the evening, sometimes accompanied by the strong Zonda wind.
Ischigualasto Provincial Park scenery The Ischigualasto Formation contains Late Triassic deposits, with some of the oldest known dinosaur remains, which are the world's foremost with regards to quality and importance. This allows for the study of the transition between ancient mammals. In the Carnian this area was a volcanically active floodplain dominated by rivers and had a seasonal rainfall. Petrified tree trunks of Protojuniperoxylon ischigualastianus more than 40 m tall attest to a rich vegetation at that time. Fossil ferns and horsetails have been found. Rhynchosaurs and cynodonts are by far the predominant findings among the tetrapod fossils in the park. A study from 1993 found dinosaur specimens to comprise only 6% of the total tetrapod sample. Carnivorous dinosaurs are the most common terrestrial carnivores of the Ischigualasto Formation, with herrerasaurids comprising 72% of all recovered terrestrial carnivores. Dinosaurs of Ischigualasto Formation include early samples of the two major lineages of dinosaurs.
The carnivorous archosaur Herrerasaurus is the most numerous of these dinosaur fossils. Another important putative dinosaur with primitive characteristics is Eoraptor lunensis, found in Ischigualasto in the early 1990s. List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations Ángel. 1943. El primer hallazgo de terápsidos en la Argentina. Notas del Museo de la Plata 8. 317–331. Martínez, Ricardo N.. Sereno. 2011. A Basal Dinosaur from the Dawn of the Dinosaur Era in Southwestern Pangaea. Science 331. 206–210. Accessed 2019-03-29. Rogers, Raymond R.. Swisher III. Sereno. 1993. The Ischigualasto Tetrapod Assemblage and 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Dinosaur Origins. Science 260. 794–797. Accessed 2019-03-29. Ischigualasto at Ente Autárquico Ischigualasto UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Description of the Ischigualasto-Talampaya site at UNESCO Localities of the Triassic: Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina at University of California Museum of Paleontology Parque Provincial Ischigualasto at La HueYa Valle de la Luna – Ischigualasto at ArgentinaXplora Pictures from Valle de la Luna at
Talampaya National Park
Talampaya National Park is a national park located in the east/centre of La Rioja Province, Argentina. It was designated a provincial reserve in 1975, a national park in 1997, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000; the park protects an area of the Argentine Monte ecoregion. The park covers an area of 2,150 square kilometres, at an altitude of 1,500 metres above mean sea level, its purpose is to protect important palaeontological sites found in the area. It has landscapes of great beauty, with fauna typical of the mountain biome; the park is in a basin between the Cerro Los Colorados to the west and the Sierra de Sañagasta to the east. The landscape is the result of erosion by water and wind in a desert climate, with large ranges in temperature - high heat by day and low temperature at night, with torrential rain in summer and strong wind in spring; the park includes: The dry bed of the Talampaya River, where dinosaurs lived millions of years ago - fossils, whilst not as interesting as Ischigualasto, have been found here.
Official park website
Domingo Martínez de Irala
Domingo Martínez de Irala was a Spanish Basque conquistador. He headed for America in 1535 enrolled in the expedition of Pedro de Mendoza and participated in the founding of Buenos Aires, he explored the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers along with Juan de Ayolas and was commanding the rear-guard when Ayolas' advance party was wiped out by the Payagua Indians. Unique in Spanish America, the colony had been granted by Charles V the right to elect its own commander under such circumstances. In 1539, he began to move the inhabitants of Buenos Aires to Asunción, the city was abandoned by 1541, he outlasted the Charles V's appointment, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, whom he had recalled to Spain for trial as a traitor. Although Juan de Sanabria and his son Diego were appointed governor in 1547 and 1549, they never fulfilled their commissions, de Irala was confirmed by the king as governor in 1552, he ruled forcefully until his death around 1556. During his rule, he had churches and public buildings erected, towns established, the native population subjugated and distributed among the colonists in encomiendas.
He was succeeded by Gonzalo de Mendoza. Maura, Juan Francisco Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: El gran burlador de América Publicaciones de Parnaseo, Universidad de Valencia, Spain, in Spanish Infoplease Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Argentina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 468
The Tupi people were one of the most numerous peoples indigenous to Brazil, before colonisation. Scholars believe that while they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, from about 2,900 years ago the Tupi started to migrate southward and occupied the Atlantic coast of Southeast Brazil; the Tupi people inhabited all of Brazil's coast when the Portuguese first arrived there. In 1500, their population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly equal to the population of Portugal at the time, they were divided into each tribe numbering from 300 to 2,000 people. Some examples of these tribes are: Tupiniquim, Tupinambá, Tabajara, Caetés, Temiminó, Tamoios; the Tupi were adept agriculturalists. There was not a unified Tupi identity despite the fact. From the 16th century onward, the Tupi, like other natives from the region, were assimilated, enslaved, or killed by diseases such as smallpox or by Portuguese settlers and Bandeirantes, nearly leading to their complete annihilation, with the exception of a few isolated communities.
The remnants of these tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society. The Tupi were divided into several tribes which would engage in war with each other. In these wars the Tupi would try to capture their enemies to kill them in cannibalistic rituals; the warriors captured from other Tupi tribes were eaten as it was believed by the Indians that such act would lead to their strength being absorbed and digested, thus in fear of absorbing weakness, they chose only to sacrifice warriors perceived to be strong and brave. For the Tupi warriors when prisoners, it was a great honor to die valiantly during battle or to display courage during the festivities leading to his sacrifice; the Tupi have been documented to eat the remains of dead relatives as a form of honoring them. The practice of cannibalism among the Tupi was made famous in Europe by Hans Staden, a German soldier and mercenary, traveling to Brazil to steal riches, captured by the Tupi in 1552.
In his account published in 1557, he tells that the Tupi carried him to their village where it was claimed he was to be devoured at the next festivity. There, he won the friendship of a powerful chief, whom he cured of a disease, his life was spared. Cannibalistic rituals among Tupi and other tribes in Brazil decreased after European contact and religious intervention; when Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, arrived in Santa Catarina in 1541, for instance, he attempted to ban cannibalistic practices in the name of the King of Spain. Because our understanding of Tupi cannibalism relies on primary source accounts of European writers, the existence of cannibalism has been disputed by some in academic circles. William Arens seeks to discredit Staden's and other writers' accounts of cannibalism in his book The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology & Anthropophagy, where he claims that when concerning the Tupinambá, "rather than dealing with an instance of serial documentation of cannibalism, we are more confronting only one source of dubious testimony, incorporated verbatim into the written reports of others claiming to be eyewitnesses".
Many indigenous peoples were important for the formation of the Brazilian people, but the main group was the Tupi. When the Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century, the Tupi were the first Amerindian group to have contact with them. Soon, a process of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers and indigenous women started; the Portuguese colonists brought women, making the Indian women the "breeding matrix of the Brazilian people". When the first Europeans arrived, the phenomenon of "cunhadismo" began to spread by the colony. Cunhadismo was an old Indian tradition of incorporating strangers to their community; the Indians offered the Portuguese an Indian girl as wife. Once he agreed, he formed a bond of kinship with all the Indians of the tribe. Polygyny, a common practice among South American Indians, was adopted by European settlers; this way, a single European man could have dozens of Indian wives. Cunhadismo was used as recruitment of labour; the Portuguese could have many temericós and thus a huge number of Indian relatives who were induced to work for him to cut pau-brasil and take it to the ships on the coast.
In the process, a large mixed-race population was formed. Without the practice of cunhadismo, the Portuguese colonization was impractical; the number of Portuguese men in Brazil was small and Portuguese women were fewer in number. The proliferation of mixed-race people in the wombs of Indian women provided for the occupation of the territory and the consolidation of the Portuguese presence in the region. Although the Tupi population disappeared because of European diseases to which they had no resistance or because of slavery, a large population of maternal Tupi ancestry occupied much of Brazilian territory, taking the ancient traditions to several points of the country. Darcy Ribeiro wrote that the features of the first Brazilians were much more Tupi than Portuguese, the language that they spoke was a Tupi-based language, named Nheengatu or Língua Geral, a lingua franca in Brazil until the 18th century; the region of São Paulo was the biggest in the proliferation of Mamelucos, who in the 17th century under the name of Bandeirantes, spread throughout the Brazilian territory, from the Amazon rainforest to the extreme South.
They were responsible for t
Quebrada de Humahuaca
The Quebrada de Humahuaca is a narrow mountain valley located in the province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina, 1,649 km north of Buenos Aires. It is about 155 km long, oriented north-south, bordered by the Altiplano in the west and north, by the Sub-Andean hills in the east, by the warm valleys in the south; the name quebrada translates as ravine. It receives its name from a small city of 11,000 inhabitants; the Grande River, dry in winter, flows copiously through the Quebrada in the summer. The region has always been a crossroads for economic and cultural communication, it has been populated for at least 10,000 years, since the settlement of the first hunter-gatherers, evidenced by substantial prehistoric remains. It was a caravan road for the Inca Empire in the 15th century an important link between the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the Viceroyalty of Peru, as well as a stage for many battles of the Spanish War of Independence; the Quebrada de Humahuaca was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 2 July 2003.
Iruya Abra Pampa Hornillos de Eresma Huacalera Humahuaca La Quiaca Maimará Purmamarca Cerro de los Siete Colores Pucará de Tilcara Tilcara Volcán Serranía de Hornocal UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Description of the site. Jujuy Province - Official website. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Pictures from Humahuaca
Cueva de las Manos
Cueva de las Manos is a cave or a series of caves located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km south of the town of Perito Moreno. It is famous for the paintings of hands; the art in the cave dates from 13,000 to 9,000 years ago. Several waves of people occupied the cave, early artwork has been carbon-dated to ca. 9300 BP. The age of the paintings was calculated from the remains of bone-made pipes used for spraying the paint on the wall of the cave to create silhouettes of hands; the site was last inhabited around 700 AD by ancestors of the Tehuelche people. It was entered on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999; the cave lies in an isolated spot in the Patagonian landscape. It is most reached by a gravel road, which leaves Ruta 40 north of Bajo Caracoles and runs northeast to the south side of the Pinturas Canyon; the north side of the canyon can be reached by rough, but shorter, roads from Ruta 40. A 3 km path connects the two sides of the canyon; the main cave measures 248 m in depth, with an entrance 15 m wide, it is 10 m high.
The ground inside the cave has an upward slope. The images of hands are negative painted, that is. Most of the hands are left hands, which suggests that painters held the spraying pipe with their right hand or they put the back of their right hand to the wall and held the spraying pipe with their left hand. Besides these there are depictions of human beings, rheas and other animals, as well as geometric shapes, zigzag patterns, representations of the sun, hunting scenes; the hunting scenes are naturalistic portrayals of a variety of hunting techniques, including the use of bolas. Bolas were weapons designed with cords, having weights on each end that were thrown at the legs of animals in order to trap them allowing them to be killed by hunters. Similar paintings, though in smaller numbers, can be found in nearby caves. There are red dots on the ceilings made by submerging their hunting bolas in ink, throwing them up; the binder is unknown but the mineral pigments include iron oxides, producing reds and purples.
Carlos J. Gradin has studied the cave. Cueva de las Manos has been listed as a World Heritage Site since 1999. List of Stone Age art Cueva de las Manos, cave 3D model Cueva de las Manos, Perito Moreno, images Cave of Hands, Perito Moreno, images http://www.artinsociety.com/art-and-survival-in-patagonia.html Many pictures from Cueva de los Manos