The treble flute is a member of the flute family. It is in the key of G, pitched a fifth above the concert flute and is a transposing instrument, sounding a fifth up from the written note; the instrument is rare today, only found in flute choirs, some marching bands or private collections. Some 19th-century operas, such as Ivanhoe include the instrument in their orchestrations. A limited number of manufacturers produce G treble flute, including Myall-Allen and Flutemakers Guild; the flutes have many of the same options as their larger C flute cousins, including sterling silver bodies, trill keys, soldered keys. It is similar to a piccolo, plays in the same range, because it is a larger instrument, it has a different quality at the upper end of its register, it has an extended lower register, as compared with the piccolo; the instrument should not be confused with the Alto Flute in G, a larger instrument that transposing down by a fourth to the octave below the treble flute. Since the demise of the Renaissance flute consorts, the use of this treble flute in G seems to have all but disappeared.
Only in the flute bands of Northern Ireland and Scotland that have converted from the traditional "simple system" flutes to Boehm system silver flutes, do we see extensive use of the treble flutes in G. Current instrumentation of one of these ensembles would be: Solo piccolo in C, Solo treble flute in G, 1st, 2nd and 3rd treble flutes in G, Solo flute in C, 1st and 2nd flutes in C, 1st and 2nd alto flutes in G, bass flutes in C, 4 percussion
Music of China
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China. It includes music produced by people of Chinese origin in some territories outside mainland China using traditional Chinese instruments or in the Chinese language, it covers a diverse range of music from the traditional to the modern. Different types of music have been recorded in historical Chinese documents from the early periods of Chinese civilization which, together with archaeological artifacts discovered, provided evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou dynasty; these further developed into various forms of music through succeeding dynasties, producing the rich heritage of music, part of the Chinese cultural landscape today. Chinese music continues to evolve in the modern times, more contemporary forms have emerged. According to legends, the founder of music in Chinese mythology was Ling Lun who, at the request of the Yellow Emperor to create a system of music, made bamboo pipes tuned to the sounds of birds including the phoenix.
A twelve-tone musical system was created based on the pitches of the bamboo pipes, the first of these pipes produced the "yellow bell" pitch, a set of tuned bells were created from the pipes. Archaeological evidence indicates that music culture developed in China from a early period. Excavations in Jiahu Village in Wuyang County, Henan found bone flutes dated to 8,000 years ago, clay music instruments called Xun thought to be 6,000 years old have been found in the Hemudu sites in Zhejiang and Banpo in Xi'an. During the Zhou dynasty, a formal system of court and ceremonial music termed yayue was established. Note that the word music in ancient China can refer to dance as music and dance were considered integral part of the whole, its meaning can be further extended to poetry as well as other art forms and rituals; the word "dance" also referred to music, every dance would have had a piece of music associated with it. The most important set of music of the period was the Six-dynasty Music Dance performed in rituals in the royal court.
Music in the Zhou Dynasty was conceived as a cosmological manifestation of the sound of nature integrated into the binary universal order of yin and yang, this concept has enduring influence Chinese thinking on music. "Correct" music according to Zhou concept would involve instruments correlating to the five elements of nature and would bring harmony to nature. Around or before the 7th century BC, a system of pitch generation and pentatonic scale was derived from a cycle-of-fifths theory. Chinese philosophers took varying approaches to music. To Confucius, a correct form of music is important for the cultivation and refinement of the individual, the Confucian system considers the formal music yayue to be morally uplifting and the symbol of a good ruler and stable government; some popular forms of music, were considered corrupting in the Confucian view. Mozi on the other hand condemned making music, argued in Against Music that music is an extravagance and indulgence that serves no useful purpose and may be harmful.
According to Mencius, a powerful ruler once asked him whether it was moral if he preferred popular music to the classics. The answer was. In ancient China the social status of musicians was much lower than that of painters, though music was seen as central to the harmony and longevity of the state; every emperor took folk songs sending officers to collect songs to record the popular culture. One of the Confucianist Classics, The Classic of Poetry, contained many folk songs dating from 800 BC to about 400 BC; the Imperial Music Bureau, first established in the Qin dynasty, was expanded under the emperor Han Wudi and charged with supervising court music and military music and determining what folk music would be recognized. In subsequent dynasties, the development of Chinese music was influenced by the musical traditions of Central Asia which introduced elements of Indian music. Instruments of Central Asian origin such as pipa were adopted in China, the Indian Heptatonic scale was introduced in the 6th century by a musician from Kucha named Sujiva, although the heptatonic scale was abandoned.
The oldest extant written Chinese music is "Youlan" or the Solitary Orchid, composed during the 6th or 7th century, but has been attributed to Confucius. The first major well-documented flowering of Chinese music was for the qin during the Tang dynasty, though the qin is known to have been played since before the Han dynasty; this is based on the conjecture that because the recorded examples of Chinese music are ceremonial, the ceremonies in which they were employed are thought to have existed "perhaps more than one thousand years before Christ", the musical compositions themselves were performed in 1000 BC, in the manner prescribed by the sources that were written down in the seventh century AD. Through succeeding dynasties over thousands of years, Chinese musicians developed a large assortment of different instruments and playing styles. A wide variety of these instruments, such as guzheng and dizi are indigenous, although many popular traditional musical instruments were introduced from Central Asia, such as the erhu and pipa.
The presence of European music in China appeared as early as 1601 when the Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci presented a Harpsichord to the Ming imperial court, traine
Acoustic resonance is a phenomenon where acoustic systems amplify sound waves whose frequency matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration. The term "acoustic resonance" is sometimes used to narrow mechanical resonance to the frequency range of human hearing, but since acoustics is defined in general terms concerning vibrational waves in matter, acoustic resonance can occur at frequencies outside the range of human hearing. An acoustically resonant object has more than one resonance frequency at harmonics of the strongest resonance, it will vibrate at those frequencies, vibrate less at other frequencies. It will "pick out" its resonance frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation. In effect, it is filtering out all frequencies other than its resonance. Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders, as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, the shape of a drum membrane.
Acoustic resonance is important for hearing. For example, resonance of a stiff structural element, called the basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear allows hair cells on the membrane to detect sound. Like mechanical resonance, acoustic resonance can result in catastrophic failure of the vibrator; the classic example of this is breaking a wine glass with sound at the precise resonant frequency of the glass. In musical instruments, strings under tension, as in lutes, guitars, violins and so forth, have resonant frequencies directly related to the mass and tension of the string; the wavelength that will create the first resonance on the string is equal to twice the length of the string. Higher resonances correspond to wavelengths that are integer divisions of the fundamental wavelength; the corresponding frequencies are related to the speed v of a wave traveling down the string by the equation f = n v 2 L where L is the length of the string and n = 1, 2, 3.... The speed of a wave through a string or wire is related to its tension T and the mass per unit length ρ: v = T ρ So the frequency is related to the properties of the string by the equation f = n T ρ 2 L = n T m / L 2 L where T is the tension, ρ is the mass per unit length, m is the total mass.
Higher tension and shorter lengths increase the resonant frequencies. When the string is excited with an impulsive function, the string vibrates at all the frequencies present in the impulse; those frequencies that are not one of the resonances are filtered out—they are attenuated—and all, left is the harmonic vibrations that we hear as a musical note. String resonance occurs on string instruments. Strings or parts of strings may resonate at their fundamental or overtone frequencies when other strings are sounded. For example, an A string at 440 Hz will cause an E string at 330 Hz to resonate, because they share an overtone of 1320 Hz; the resonance of a tube of air is related to the length of the tube, its shape, whether it has closed or open ends. Musically useful tube shapes are cylindrical. A pipe, closed at one end is said to be stopped while an open pipe is open at both ends. Modern orchestral flutes behave as open cylindrical pipes. Vibrating air columns have resonances at harmonics, like strings.
Any cylinder resonates at multiple frequencies. The lowest frequency is called the first harmonic. Cylinders used as musical instruments are open, either at both ends, like a flute, or at one end, like some organ pipes. However, a cylinder closed at both ends can be used to create or visualize sound waves, as in a Rubens Tube; the resonance properties of a cylinder may be understood by considering the behavior of a sound wave in air. Sound travels as a longitudinal compression wave, causing air molecules to move back and forth along the direction of travel. Within a tube, a standing wave is formed. At the closed end of the tube, air molecules cannot move much, so this end of the tube is a displacement node in the standing wave. At the open end of the tube, air molecules can move producing a displacement antinode. Where the molecules are unable to move pressure builds up. Thus, the closed end of a pipe is a pressure node as well as a displacement antinode; the table below shows the displacement waves in a cylinder closed at both ends.
Note that the air molecules near the closed ends cannot move, whereas the molecules near the center of the pipe move freely. In the first harmonic, the closed tube contains half of a
The piccolo is a half-size flute, a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written; this gave rise to the name ottavino, which the instrument is called in the scores of Italian composers. It is called flauto piccolo or flautino. Piccolos are now manufactured in the key of C. In the early 20th century, piccolos were manufactured in D♭ as they were an earlier model of the modern piccolo, it was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever". In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is designated as "piccolo/flute III", or "assistant principal"; the larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are orchestrated to double the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards.
In concert band settings, the piccolo is always used and a piccolo part is always available. The piccolo had no keys, should not be confused with the fife, which traditionally was one-piece, had a smaller bore and produced a more strident sound; the Swiss piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland. It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Franz Xaver Süssmayr and Michael Haydn. Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Jean-Philippe Rameau show. Although once made of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from plastic, brass, nickel silver, a variety of hardwoods, most grenadilla.
Finely made piccolos are available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, like the Baroque flute and flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos, the tenon joint that connects the head to the body has two interference fit points that surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint. There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Miguel del Aguila, Robert Dick, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, Karlheinz Stockhausen. Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Miguel del Águila, Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Rob du Bois, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, Gary Schocker. Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman, Martin Amlin, Will Gay Bottje, Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman, Jean Doué, Michael Easton, Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.
Additionally, there is now a selection of chamber music. One example is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums, with optional percussionist and dancer. Another is George Crumb's Madrigals, Book II for soprano and percussion. Other examples include the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse and Malambo for piccolo, double bass, piano by Miguel del Aguila. Published trios for three piccolos include Quelque Chose canadienne by Nancy Nourse and Bird Tango by Crt Sojar Voglar for three piccolos with piano. Petrushka's Ghost for eight piccolos by Melvin Lauf, Jr. and Una piccolo sinfonia for nine piccolos by Matthew King are two more examples. Gippo, Jan; the Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59806-111-6 The Woodwind Fingering Guide, with piccolo fingerings
Divje Babe Flute
The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes, found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals as a form of musical instrument, its hole spacing and alignment leading to its being labeled a "Neanderthal flute". Slovenian archeologist Mitja Brodar, argues that it was made by Cro-Magnons as an element of Central European Aurignacian culture. A form of flute, it is the world's oldest known musical instrument. Despite alternative hypotheses suggesting it was formed by animals, the artifact remains on prominent public display in the National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana as a Neanderthal flute. Divje Babe is the oldest known archaeological site in Slovenia; the site is the location of a horizontal cave, up to 15 metres wide. It is located 230 m above the Idrijca River, near Cerkno, is accessible to visitors. Researchers working at this site have uncovered more than 600 archaeological items in at least ten levels, including 20 hearths, the skeletal remains of cave bears and have studied climate change during the Pleistocene.
According to the museums statements, the presumed flute has been associated with the "end of the middle Pleistocene" and Neanderthals, about 55,000 years ago. In the 1920s and 1930s, archaeologist Srečko Brodar discovered tens of bones with holes at another site, the Potok Cave in the Eastern Karawanks, but all of them were destroyed during the World War II Italian annexation. Of those still preserved, the best known is a mandible of a cave bear with three holes in the mandibular canal. Since World War II, specimens have been found in Mokrica Cave and Betal Rock Shelter; these bones are preserved today at the National History Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana. According to archaeologist Mitja Brodar, who discovered many of them, bones with holes so far not been found in Western Europe and they have been dated only to the end of the Mousterian and the beginning of the Aurignacian. Mitja Brodar assumes that these bones are still not recognized by the international research community due to the fact that most of the bones were found in France and the Paleolithic is still considered to be the French domain.
Another bone point with a hole was found in the Potok Cave. According to Brodar, such holes are an element of the Central European Aurignacian, they have been ascribed to modern human Cro-Magnon. According to Brodar, the Divje Babe Flute is as well a product of modern humans, but this has been disputed by other Slovene scholars. In 1995, Ivan Turk found the 43,100 year oldcave bear femur at the Divje Babe site near a Mousterian hearth; because it has the characteristics of a flute he has dubbed it a Neanderthal flute. Whether it is a flute created by Neanderthals is a subject of debate, it is broken at both ends, has two complete holes and what may be the incomplete remains of one hole on each end, meaning that the bone may have had four or more holes before being damaged. The bone fragment is the diaphysis of the left femur of a one to two year old cave bear and is 133.6 mm long. The maximum diameter of the two complete holes is 9.0 mm. The distance between the centers of the holes is 35 mm. If the bone is indeed a usable flute it would be an argument for the existence of music at 43,000 years ago.
Thus Ivan Turk has asserted that whether the holes are of "artificial" or "natural" origin is the "crucial question.". An critical issue is that if the holes in this "flute" are of artificial origin, to date there does not seem to be any available means to prove that they were deliberately drilled 43,000 years ago, or are of a more contemporary origin; the bone has become a noted attraction in the National Museum of Slovenia, publicized on official Slovenian websites aired on TV with tunes played on a clay replica and is a source of national pride. Paintings were made, models constructed, musicians such as biology professor and flautist Jelle Atema have played them publicly. French-based Italian taphonomist Francesco D'Errico and Serangeli as well as Chase and Nowell hypothesized its carnivore origin; the probability that four randomly placed holes would appear in line in a recognizable musical scale is low according to an analysis made by Canadian musicologist Bob Fink in 2000. Responding to the D'Errico carnivore-origin hypothesis, Turk pointed out that the features "common" between the carnivore-origin artifact and other chewed bones studied by D'Errico do not include the alignment of the holes.
There is no evidence that the two holes could have been bitten at the same time. The tooth spans were analyzed by all taphonomists concerned to see if any animals could bite two or more such holes at once. No match could be found to any known animals. If a match had been found, it could have been cited as prima facie evidence that the holes were animal-made; this was noted by Turk in his book and was noted from the opposing hypothesis holders Nowell and Chase in their article in the August/October 1998 issue of Current Anthropology. Nowell wrote that holes in the specimen "were certainly made sequentially rather than and that the distance between them has nothing to do with the distance between any two teeth in a wolf's jaw."Iain Morley, despite his holding the carnivore-origin hypothesis, observed in an additional observation to his November 2006 article that ""hilst the collections of cave bear bones examined by D'Errico as well as those dis
The red-crowned crane called the Manchurian crane or Japanese crane, is a large East Asian crane among the rarest cranes in the world. In some parts of its range, it is known as a symbol of luck and fidelity. Adult red-crowned cranes are named for a patch of red bare skin on the crown, which becomes brighter during mating season. Overall, they are snow white in color with black on the wing secondaries, which can appear like a black tail when the birds are standing, but the real tail feathers are white. Males are black on the cheeks and neck, while females are pearly gray in these spots; the bill is olive green to greenish horn, the legs are slate to grayish black, the iris is dark brown. This species is among the largest cranes measuring about 150 to 158 cm tall and 101.2–150 cm in length. Across the large wingspan, the red-crowned crane measures 220–250 cm. Typical body weight can range from 4.8 to 10.5 kg, with males being larger and heavier than females and weight ranging higher just prior to migration.
On average, it is the heaviest crane species, although both the sarus and wattled crane can grow taller and exceed this species in linear measurements. On average, adult males from Hokkaidō weighed around 8.2 kg and adult females there averaged around 7.3 kg, while a Russian study found males averaged 10 kg and females averaged 8.6 kg. Another study found the average weight of the species to be 8.9 kg. The maximum known weight of the red-crowned crane is 15 kg. Among standard measurements, the wing chord measures 50.2–74 cm, the exposed culmen measures 13.5–17.7 cm, tail length is 21.5–30 cm, the tarsus measures 23.7–31.9 cm. In the spring and summer, the migratory populations of the red-crowned crane breed in Siberia, northeastern China and in northeastern Mongolia; the breeding range centers on the border of China and Russia. The crane lays two eggs, with only one surviving. In the fall, they migrate in flocks to Korea and east-central China to spend the winter. Vagrants have been recorded in Taiwan.
In addition to the migratory populations, a resident population is found in eastern Hokkaidō in Japan. This species nests in rivers. In the wintering range, their habitat is comprised by paddy fields, grassy tidal flats, mudflats. In the flats, the birds feed on aquatic invertebrates and, in cold, snowy conditions, the birds switch to living on rice gleanings from the paddy fields.. Red-crowned cranes have a omnivorous diet, though the dietary preferences have not been studied, they eat rice, water plants, redbuds, buckwheat and a variety of water plants. The animal matter in their diet consists of fish, including carp and goldfish, amphibians salamanders, crabs, small reptiles and other birds waterfowl, they seem to prefer a carnivorous diet, although rice is now essential to survival for wintering birds in Japan and grass seeds are another important food source. While all cranes are omnivorous, per Johnsgard, the two most common crane species today are among the most herbivorous species while the two rarest species are the most carnivorous species.
When feeding on plants, red-crowned cranes exhibit a preference for plants with a high content of crude protein and low content of crude fiber. They forage by keeping their heads close to the ground, jabbing their beaks into mud when they encounter something edible; when capturing fish or other slippery prey, they strike by extending their necks outward, a feeding style similar to that of the heron. Although animal prey can be swallowed whole, red-crowned cranes more tear up prey by grasping with their beaks and shaking it vigorously, eating pieces as they fall apart. Most foraging occurs in wet grasslands, cultivated fields, shallow rivers, or on the shores of lakes; the population of red-crowned cranes in Japan is non-migratory, with the race in Hokkaidō moving only 150 km to its wintering grounds. Only the mainland population experiences a long-distance migration, they leave their wintering grounds in spring by February and are established on territories by April. In fall, they leave their breeding territories in October and November, with the migration over by mid-December.
Flock sizes are affected by the small numbers of the red-crowned crane, given their carnivorous diet, some feeding dispersal is needed in natural conditions. Wintering cranes have been observed foraging, variously, in family groups and singly, although all roosting is in larger groups with unrelated cranes. By the early spring, pairs begin to spend more time together, with nonbreeding birds and juveniles dispersing separately. While not nesting, red-crowned cranes tend to be aggressive towards conspecifics and maintain a minimum distance of 2 to 3 m to keep out of pecking range of other cranes while roosting nocturnally during winter. In circumstances where a crane violates these boundaries, it may be violently attacked. Bre
The dizi, is a Chinese transverse flute. It is sometimes known as the di or héngdi, has varieties including the qǔdi and bāngdi; these names are to have multiple spellings, depending on the transliteration used to convert from Chinese names. Nonetheless, dizi seems to be the most common name used in the West; the dizi is a major Chinese musical instrument, is used in many genres of Chinese folk music, as well as Chinese opera, the modern Chinese orchestra. Traditionally, the dizi has been popular among the Chinese common people, it is simple to make and easy to carry. Most dizi are made of bamboo, which explains why dizi are sometimes known by simple names such as Chinese bamboo flute. However, "bamboo" is more of a Chinese instrument classification like "woodwind" in the West. Northern Chinese dizi are made from purple or violet bamboo, while dizi made in Suzhou and Hangzhou are made from white bamboo. Dizi produced in southern Chinese regions such as Chaozhou are made of slender, light-colored bamboo and are much quieter in tone.
Although bamboo is the common material for the dizi, it is possible to find dizi made from other kinds of wood, or from stone. Jade dizi are popular among both collectors interested in their beauty, among professional players who seek an instrument with looks to match the quality of their renditions; the dizi is not the only bamboo flute of China. Other Chinese bamboo wind instruments include the koudi. There are many suggestions for the source of dizi. While legends suggest it was the invention of the Yellow Emperor who wanted to make the bamboo a musical instrument, others suggest that dizi was imported into China during the Han Dynasty. Archaeologists have discovered evidence suggesting that the simple transverse flutes have been present in China for over 9,000 years. Fragments of bone flutes from this period are still playable today, are remarkably similar to modern versions in terms of hole placement, etc; the Jiahu neolithic site in central Henan province of China has yielded flutes dating back to 7,000 BC - 5,000 BC that could represent the earliest playable instruments found.
These flutes were carved with five to eight holes, is capable of producing varied sounds in a nearly accurate octave. The dizi as we know it today dates to the 5th century BC, although form of transverse flute have existed as early as the 9th century BC. There are examples of bamboo dizi that date back to 2nd century BC, found; these flutes share common features of other simple flutes from cultures all around the world, including the ney, an end-blown cane flute, depicted in Egyptian paintings and stone carvings. In fact, recent archeological discoveries in Africa suggest that the history of such flutes may date back a long way in human history. Traditionally dizi is made by using a single piece of bamboo. While simple and straightforward, it is impossible to change the fundamental tuning once the bamboo is cut, which made it a problem when it was played with other instruments in a modern Chinese orchestra. In the 1920s musician Zheng Jinwen resolved this issue by inserting a copper joint to connect two pieces of shorter bamboo.
This method allows the length of the bamboo to be modified for minute adjustment to its fundamental pitch. On traditional dizi the finger-holes are spaced equidistant, which produces a temperament of mixed whole-tone and three-quarter-tone intervals. Zheng repositioned the figure-holes to change the notes produced. During the middle of the 20th century dizi makers further changed the finger hole placements to allow for playing in equal temperament, as demanded by new musical developments and compositions, although the traditional dizi continue to be used for purposes such as kunqu accompaniment. In the 1930s, an 11-hole chromatic version of the dizi was created, pitched in the same range as the western flute. However, the modified dizi's extra tone holes prevent the effective use of the membrane, so this instrument lacks the inherent timbre of the traditional dizi family. While both the bangdi and qudi are the most predominant, other dizi include the xiaodi/gaoyindi, the dadi/diyindi, the deidi/diyindadi Whereas most simple flutes have only a blowing hole and finger-holes, the dizi has a different additional hole, called a mo kong, between the embouchure and finger-holes.
A special membrane called dimo, made from an tissue-like shaving of reed, is made taut and glued over this hole, traditionally with a substance called ejiao, an animal glue. Garlic juice may be used to adhere the dimo, but it is not recommended as a permanent replacement; this application process, in which fine wrinkles are created in the centre of the dimo to create a penetrating buzzy timbre, is an art form in itself. The dimo-covered mo kong has a distinctive resonating effect on the sound produced by the dizi, making it brighter and louder, adding harmonics to give the final tone a buzzing, nasal quality. Dizi have a large range, covering about two-and-a-quarter octave