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Guelders

Guelders or Gueldres is a historical county duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries. The duchy was named after the town of Geldern in present-day Germany. Though the present province of Gelderland in the Netherlands occupies most of the area, the former duchy comprised parts of the present Dutch province of Limburg as well as those territories in the present-day German state of North Rhine-Westphalia that were acquired by Prussia in 1713. Four parts of the duchy had their own centres, as they were separated by rivers: the quarter of Roermond called Upper Quarter or Upper Guelders – upstream on both sides of the Maas, comprising the town of Geldern as well as Erkelenz, Nieuwstadt and Straelen; the county emerged about 1096, when Gerard III of Wassenberg was first documented as "Count of Guelders". It was located on the territory of Lower Lorraine, in the area of Geldern and Roermond, with its main stronghold at Montfort. Count Gerard's son Gerard II in 1127 acquired the County of Zutphen in northern Hamaland by marriage.

In the 12th and 13th century, Guelders expanded downstream along the sides of the Maas, IJssel rivers and claimed the succession in the Duchy of Limburg, until it lost the 1288 Battle of Worringen against Berg and Brabant. Guelders was at war with its neighbours, not only with Brabant, but with the County of Holland and the Bishopric of Utrecht. However, its territory grew not only because of its success in warfare, but because it thrived in times of peace. For example, the larger part of the Veluwe and the city of Nijmegen were given as collateral to Guelders by their cash-strapped rulers. On separate occasions, in return for loans from the treasury of Guelders, the bishop of Utrecht granted the taxation and administration of the Veluwe, William II – Count of both Holland and Zeeland, and, elected anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire – granted the same rights over Nijmegen. In 1339 Count Reginald II of Guelders, of the House of Wassenberg, was elevated to the rank of Duke by Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach.

After the Wassenberg line became extinct in 1371 following the deaths of Reginald II's childless sons Edward II and Reginald III, the ensuing Guelders War of Succession saw William I of Jülich emerge victorious. William was confirmed in the inheritance of Guelders in 1379, from 1393 onwards held both duchies in personal union. In 1423 Guelders passed to the House of Egmond, which gained recognition of its title from Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, but was unable to escape the political strife and internecine conflict that had so plagued the preceding House of Jülich-Hengebach, more the pressure brought to bear by the expansionist rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy; the first Egmond Duke, suffered the rebellion of his son Adolf and was imprisoned by the latter in 1465. Adolf, who had enjoyed the support of Burgundian Duke Philip III and of the four major cities of Guelders during his rebellion, was unwilling to strike a compromise with his father when this was demanded by Philip's successor, Duke Charles the Bold.

Charles had Duke Adolf captured and imprisoned in 1471 and reinstated Arnold on the throne of the Duchy of Guelders. Charles bought the reversion from Duke Arnold, against the will of the towns and the law of the land, pledged his duchy to Charles for 300,000 Rhenish florins; the bargain was completed in 1472–73, upon Arnold's death in 1473, Duke Charles added Guelders to the "Low Countries" portion of his Valois Duchy of Burgundy. Upon Charles' defeat and death at the Battle of Nancy in January 1477, Duke Adolf was released from prison by the Flemish, but died the same year at the head of a Flemish army besieging Tournai, after the States of Guelders had recognized him once more as Duke. Subsequently, Guelders was ruled by Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, husband of Charles the Bold's daughter and heir, Mary; the last independent Duke of Guelders was Adolf's son Charles of Egmond, raised at the Burgundian court of Charles the Bold and fought for the House of Habsburg in battles against the armies of Charles VIII of France, until being captured in the Battle of Béthune during the War of the Public Weal.

In 1492, the citizens of Guelders, who had become disenchanted with the rule of Maximilian, ransomed Charles and recognized him as their Duke. Charles, now backed by France, fought Maximilian's grandson Charles of Habsburg in the Guelders Wars and expanded his realm further north, to incorporate what is now the Province of Overijssel, he was not a man of war, but a skilled diplomat, was therefore able to keep his independence. He bequeathed the duchy to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Following in the footsteps of Charles of E

Richland Township, Venango County, Pennsylvania

Richland Township is a township in Venango County, United States. The population was 744 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which, 22.2 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 744 people, 291 households, 213 families residing in the township; the population density was 33.5 people per square mile. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 15.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.33% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 291 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.01. In the township the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $33,661, the median income for a family was $39,688. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $20,972 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,940. About 8.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over

Honest Don's Records

Honest Don's Records was a subsidiary label based in San Francisco, set up along with Pink & Black Records by Fat Wreck Chords to release material by bands that didn't fit within the roster at Fat. The label ceased trading around 2003 with the Nerf Herder EP "My E. P.". Some of the bands were absorbed into the Fat roster, whilst others moved on, they released a number of albums, each of which would have a unique variant on the record labels name: Bad Astronaut Big In Japan Chixdiggit Citizen Fish Dance Hall Crashers Diesel Boy Dogpiss Fluf Hagfish Inspection 12 J Church Limp Mad Caddies MDC The Muffs Nerf Herder The Other The Real McKenzies The Riverdales Squirtgun Submissives Teen Idols List of record labels