Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Vittoria S.p. A. is an Italian bicycle tire manufacturer established in 1953. The company has more than 1000 employees around the world, produces 5 million road and mountain bike tires Their facilities around the world include: Vittoria S.p. A. in Madone, Italy Vittoria Industries North America Inc. in Oklahoma City, OK, USA Vittoria Industries North America Inc. in Salem, MA, USA Lion Tyres Co. Ltd. in Bangkok, Thailand Vittoria Industries Ltd. in Hong Kong Vittoria Logistics Taiwan, in Taipei, Taiwan Vittoria Internazionale Ltd. Taiwan Branch, in Taichung, Taiwan List of bicycle parts List of Italian companies Vittoria Corporate Website
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
Cinelli is an Italian bicycle manufacturing company based in Milan, producing road bicycles and components. Cinelli was founded in 1948 by Cino Cinelli, a former professional road racer and president of the Italian Cyclists' Association, he was a professional racer from 1937 to 1944, winning Milan–San Remo in 1943, the Giro di Lombardia in 1938, the Tour of the Apennines in 1937. He started a company under his name in 1948. Cinelli was the seventh of the son of a small landowner near Florence, he became interested in bicycle technology after mechanical failures in races. Failure to interest manufacturers with his ideas in 1946 led him to start his own company, his brother Giotto was making steel stems and bars in Florence and Cinelli moved the business to Milan, centre of the Italian cycling industry. He made stems and frames but depended on wholesaling for other companies. By his retirement, Cinelli's own goods were half the business. Stems and bars were 80 percent of Cinelli's own sales. Cinelli moved to alloy production in 1963 than other manufacturers because he was concerned about strength.
Annual production of alloy stems and bars rose from 5,000 in the 1950s, to 7,500 in the early 1960s. By 1978 the figure was 150,000, he made no more than 700 frames a year. In 1974, he designed an aerodynamic bike; the staple product was the Speciale Corsa road model made from 1947. The Speciale Corsa became known as the "Super Corsa" after a supplier sent decals that erroneously said "Super Corsa" instead of "Speciale Corsa."Cinelli teamed up with San Francisco-based MashSF to create the popular "Cinelli MASH" frames, which are used in the fixed-gear culture. The Cinelli head badge was cloisonne and 55mm tall. Shortly thereafter it was hand-painted with enamel and 56mm tall. In 1958 it was reduced in height to 51mm. In 1978, it became a decal; the design featured a knight's helmet, inspired by a family heirloom, with a red lily - symbol of Florence - and a green serpent, symbol of Milan. The presidency of the company passed to Antonio Colombo, owner of Columbus tubing, in 1978. In 1997 Cinelli became a division of Gruppo S.r.l.
Binda toe-straps Integral sloping fork crown Unicanitor saddle - The first plastic-bodied saddle Bivalent Hub - After removal the freewheel stays attached to the frame.
Selle Royal is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle saddles. The company acquired Brooks in 2002 and Crank Brothers in 2007. List of bicycle parts List of Italian companies
Campagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle components with headquarters in Vicenza, Italy. The components are organised as groupsets, are a near-complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. Campagnolo's flagship components are the Super Record and Chorus group sets with Record and Super Record representing their recent shift to 12-speed drivetrains. Super Record and Record are the top groupsets, followed by Chorus, Potenza and Veloce. Campagnolo produces aluminum and carbon wheels, as well as other components. Founded by Tullio Campagnolo, the company began in 1933 in a Vicenza workshop; the founder was a racing cyclist in Italy in the 1920s who conceived several ideas while racing, such as the quick release mechanism for bicycle wheels and the rod gear for gear changing. Campagnolo has been awarded more than 135 patents for innovations in cycling technology. At the end of the 1950s, Campagnolo started to manufacture magnesium parts such as wheels for sports cars like Alfa Romeo, Ferrari and Maserati, built chassis for NASA satellites in 1969.
In 1963, Campagnolo produced a disc brake for the Innocenti Lambretta TV motorscooter - the first two-wheel production vehicle with such a brake. In the 1970s they supplied wheels for Ferrari's Formula One cars. Campagnolo worked with the manufacturer Colnago and racer Eddy Merckx and produced lightweight parts for the bike he used to beat the world hour record in 1972. Following Campagnolo's success during the 1970s and'80s, innovation lagged as rival Shimano developed indexed shifting and combined shifter/brake levers. An unsuccessful foray into mountain biking, the overbuilt and heavy Euclid and Olympus groupsets contributed to the company's decline during those years. By the time the expensive Record O. R. and Icarus MTB groupsets made it to the market, Campagnolo's reputation was cemented as a road bike brand. As a result, Campagnolo pulled out of the Mountain Bike market in 1994. Despite its struggles, Campagnolo introduced its ErgoPower combined shifter/brake levers and renewed its focus on high-end road cycling components.
The late 1990s and early 2000s saw Campagnolo's increased use of carbon fibre and titanium parts in groupsets and the development of wheelsets. In 2004, Campagnolo introduced a complete Compact drivetrain with smaller chainrings, to give lower gears than traditional drivetrains. Other innovations included a Hirth-joint engineered Ultra-Torque external-bearing crankset and G3 spoke lacing for racing wheels. In 2008, Campagnolo introduced 11-speed drivetrains with Super Record and Chorus groupsets. Campagnolo has released an electronic version of its drivetrain. In April 2018 the company launched 12-speed Record and Super Record groupsets. Campagnolo has focused on track cycling, it has sponsored teams in the UCI ProTour such as Astana, Lotto-Soudal, Quick Step-Innergetic, Lampre. Campagnolo is associated with the victories of Eddy Merckx, who used Campagnolo and was a friend of Tullio Campagnolo. 1901 Tullio Campagnolo born on 26 August in the eastern suburbs of Vicenza, Italy 1922 Tullio Campagnolo begins his racing career 1930 Campagnolo patents the quick-release hub 1933 After fabricating parts in the backroom of his father's hardware store, Tullio starts Campagnolo SPA with production of the quick-release hub 1940 Tullio hires his first full-time employee.
The derailleur enters production. The pieces are handmade 1949 Campagnolo introduces a parallelogram rear derailleur, the Gran Sport 1956 Campagnolo introduces a parallelogram front derailleur 1963 The Record rear derailleur is introduced 1966 The Nuovo Record rear derailleur is introduced. Eddy Merckx uses it for his first four Tour de France victories 1973 The Super Record Road and Track groups are introduced. 1983 Tullio Campagnolo dies on 3 February. Anniversary groupset to mark 50 years of Campagnolo bicycle parts. 1985 Campagnolo creates Delta brakes, with a parallelogram linkage to actuate the calipers. 1986 The re-designed Record road and track groupsets are introduced, replacing Super Record as the top of range 1987 The last year of Super Record until 2008 1989 Campagnolo introduces a mountain bike groupset, heavier and less advanced than those by Shimano and SunTour. 1991 8-speed shifting components are introduced 1992 The ErgoPower levers are introduced, which combines brake lever and a shift lever to answer Shimano's STI levers 1993 Delta brakes are discontinued 1994 Campagnolo leaves the mountain bike components business 1995 Group names on components are introduced 1997 9-speed shifting components are introduced 1998 Next generation Ergo Levers 1999 Record Carbon Ergo levers, Daytona group, for the Record and Daytona groups new hubs are introduced 2000 10-speed shifting is introduced 2001 Carbon-fiber shifting levers for Record group 2002 Former Daytona group is renamed "Centaur" 2004 Carbon-fiber cranks for Record and Chorus groups 2005 10-speed Centaur and Chorus shift and brake levers are introduced for flat bar road bikes 2006 Hollow external bearing crankset is announced 2007 10-speed Mirage and Xenon component groups and new Ultra-Torque components are introduced.
Record hubs are now black, 20 g lighter and don't have greaseports any more 2008 11-speed Record, Super Record, Chorus groups are introduced 2009 Re-introduction of 11-speed Athena component group below Chorus in product line 2011 First electric 11-speed Super Record group was used at the Tour de France by Team Movistar 20
1979 Giro d'Italia
The 1979 Giro d'Italia was the 62nd running of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours races. The Giro started in Genoa, on 17 May, with a 8 km prologue and concluded in Milan, on 6 June, with a 44 km individual time trial. A total of 130 riders from thirteen teams entered the 19-stage race, won by Italian Giuseppe Saronni of the Scic-Bottecchia team; the second and third places were taken by Italian Francesco Moser and Swede Bernt Johansson, respectively. In addition to the general classification, Saronni won the points classification, Amongst the other classifications that the race awarded, Claudio Bortolotto of Sanson Gelati-Luxor TV won the mountains classification, Bianchi-Faema's Silvano Contini completed the Giro as the best rider aged 24 or under in the general classification, finishing fifth overall. Scic-Bottecchia finishing as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the twenty teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time. Thirteen of the fourteen teams invited to the 1979 Giro d'Italia participated in the race.
Kas were forced to decline their invitation, in favor of racing the Vuelta a España, by the Spanish Federation which wanted the "best Hispanic" peloton to be competing in Vuelta that year. Each team sent a squad of ten riders, which meant that the race started with a peloton of 130 cyclists. From the riders that began this edition, 111 made it to the finish in Milan; the teams entering the race were: The starting peloton did include the 1978 winner, Johan De Muynck. Successful French rider Bernard Hinault did not enter the race; the route was unveiled on 22 March 1978. Covering a total of 3,301 km, it included five individual time trials, nine stages with categorized climbs that awarded mountains classification points; the organizers chose to include two rest days. When compared to the previous year's race, the race was 309 km shorter and contained one more time trial. In addition, this race contained one less stage. There were four main individual classifications contested in the 1979 Giro d'Italia, as well as a team competition.
Four of them awarded jerseys to their leaders. The general classification was the most important and was calculated by adding each rider's finishing times on each stage; the rider with the lowest cumulative time was the winner of the general classification and was considered the overall winner of the Giro. The rider leading the classification wore a pink jersey to signify the classification's leadership; the second classification was the points classification. Riders received points for finishing in the top positions in a stage finish, with first place getting the most points, lower placings getting successively fewer points; the rider leading this classification wore a purple jersey. The mountains classification was the third classification and its leader was denoted by the green jersey. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists; each climb was ranked as either first, second or third category, with more points available for higher category climbs.
Most stages of the race included one or more categorized climbs, in which points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit first. The Cima Coppi, the race's highest point of elevation, awarded more points than the other first category climbs; the Cima Coppi for this Giro was the Passo Pordoi, first crossed by Italian rider Leonardo Natale. The fourth classification, the young rider classification, was decided the same way as the general classification, but exclusive to neo-professional cyclists; the leader of the classification wore a white jersey. In addition, the rider had to be aged younger; the final classification, the team classification, awarded no jersey to its leaders. This was calculated by adding together points earned by each rider on the team during each stage through the intermediate sprints, the categorized climbs, stage finishes, etc; the team with the most points led the classification. There were other minor classifications within the race, including the Campionato delle Regioni classification.
The leader wore a blue jersey with colored vertical stripes. The Fiat Ritmo classification, created in honor Juan Manuel Santisteban who died in stage 1A of 1976 edition. In all stages longer than 131 km, there was a banner at that point in the stage to designate a special sprint; the winner of the sprint in each stage received a Fiat Ritmo. Citations