A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
The franc commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money, it was reintroduced in 1795. After two centuries of inflation, it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs; the NF designation was continued for a few years before the currency returned to being the franc. The French franc was a held international reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries; the first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France. This coin secured the king's freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval; the obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the king's title as Francorum Rex and provides another reason to call the coin a franc. Its value was set as one livre tournois. John's son, Charles V, continued this type, it was copied at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, at Flanders.
Conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom and he voluntarily returned to English captivity. John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces, and so he did. Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage. An edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse, pictured under a canopy, its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, this coin is universally known as a franc à pied. In accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed.
The Mayor of Paris, Étienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The franc fared better, it became associated with money stable at one livre tournoisHenry III exploited the association of the franc as sound money worth one livre tournois when he sought to stabilize French currency in 1577. By this time, inflows of gold and silver from Spanish America had caused inflation throughout the world economy and the kings of France, who weren't getting much of this wealth, only made things worse by manipulating the values assigned to their coins; the States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the public pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc, now as a silver coin valued at one livre tournois; this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver écu. The name "franc" continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois; the decimal "franc" was established as the national currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver.
This was less than the livre of 4.505 g, but the franc was set in 1796 at 1.0125 livres, reflecting in part the past minting of sub-standard coins. Silver coins now had their denomination marked as "5 FRANCS" and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs; this ended the ancien régime's practice of striking coins with no stated denomination, such as the Louis d'or, periodically issuing royal edicts to manipulate their value in terms of money of account, i.e. the Livre tournois. The franc became the official currency of France in 1799. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795. Decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France led the world in adopting the metric system and it was the second country to convert from a non-decimal to a decimal currency, following Russia's conversion in 1704, the third country to adopt a decimal coinage following the United States in 1787. France's first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the coinage designs the United States had adopted in 1793.
The circulation of this metallic currency declined during the Republic: the old gold and silver coins were taken out of circulation and exchanged for printed assignats issued as bonds backed by the value of the confiscated goods of churches, but declared as legal tender currency. The withdrawn gold and silver coins were used to finance wars and to import food, in short supply; as during the "Mississippi Bubble" in 1715–1720, too many assignats were put in circulation, exceeding the value of the "national properties", the coins, due to military requisitioning and hoarding, rarefied to pay foreign suppliers. With national government debt remaining unpaid, a shortage of silver and brass to mint coins, confidence in the new currency declined, leading to hyperinflation, more food riots, severe political instability and termination of the First French Republic and the political fall of the French Convention. Followed the economic failure of the Directoire
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising
The denier or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century. Its appearance represents the end of gold coinage, which, at the start of Frankish rule, had either been Byzantine or "pseudo-imperial". Silver would be the basis for Frankish coinage from on; the denier was minted in France and parts of the Italian peninsula for the whole of the Middle Ages, in states such as the patriarchate of Aquileia, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Siena, the crusader state Kingdom of Jerusalem, among others. Around AD 755, amid the Carolingian Reforms, Pepin the Short introduced a new currency system, adjusted so that 12 pence equaled one shilling and 20 shillings equaled one pound. Three deniers equaled one liard. Only the denier was an actual coin; this system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish dinero and the Portuguese dinheiro.
In Ancien Régime France, the denier was used as a notional measure of interest rates on loans. Thus, a rate of 4% would be expressed as "denier 25". Denarius dinar dinero penny pfennig
Freesia is a genus of herbaceous perennial flowering plants in the family Iridaceae, first described as a genus in 1866 by Chr. Fr. Ekhlon and named after German botanist and doctor Friedrich Freese, it is native to the eastern side of southern Africa, from Kenya south to South Africa, most species being found in Cape Provinces. Species of the former genus Anomatheca are now included in Freesia; the plants known as "freesias", with fragrant funnel-shaped flowers, are cultivated hybrids of a number of Freesia species. Some other species are grown as ornamental plants, they are herbaceous plants which grow from a conical corm 1–2.5 cm diameter, which sends up a tuft of narrow leaves 10–30 cm long, a sparsely branched stem 10–40 cm tall bearing a few leaves and a loose one-sided spike of flowers with six tepals. Many species have fragrant narrowly funnel-shaped flowers, although those placed in the genus Anomatheca, such as F. laxa, have flat flowers. Freesias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Large Yellow Underwing.
The genus was named in honor of a German physician. SpeciesFreesia andersoniae L. Bolus - the Cape Provinces, Free State Freesia caryophyllacea N. E. Br. - Heuningrug region in the Cape Provinces Freesia corymbosa N. E. Br. - the Cape Provinces Freesia fergusoniae L. Bolus - the Cape Provinces Freesia fucata J. C. Manning & Goldblatt - Hoeks River Valley in the Cape Provinces Freesia grandiflora Klatt - Zaire, Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, northeastern South Africa Freesia laxa Goldblatt & J. C. Manning - from Rwanda + Kenya south to the Cape Provinces. C. Manning & Goldblatt - the Cape Provinces Freesia occidentalis L. Bolus - the Cape Provinces Freesia praecox J. C. Manning & Goldblatt - the Cape Provinces Freesia refracta Klatt - the Cape Provinces. E. Br. - Langeberg in the Cape Provinces Freesia speciosa L. Bolus - the Cape Provinces Freesia verrucosa Goldblatt & J. C. Manning - the Cape Provinces Freesia viridis Goldblatt & J. C. Manning - Namibia, the Cape ProvincesSpecies of the former genus Anomatheca are now included in Freesia: Anomatheca cruenta Lindl.
= Freesia laxa subsp. Laxa Anomatheca grandiflora Baker = Freesia grandiflora Anomatheca juncea Ker Gawl. = Freesia verrucosa Anomatheca laxa Goldblatt = Freesia laxa Anomatheca verrucosa Goldblatt = Freesia verrucosa Anomatheca viridis Goldblatt = Freesia viridis Anomatheca xanthospila Ker Gawl. = Freesia caryophyllacea The plants called "freesias" are derived from crosses made in the 19th century between F. refracta and F. leichtlinii. Numerous cultivars have been bred from these species and the pink- and yellow-flowered forms of F. corymbosa. Modern tetraploid cultivars have flowers ranging from white to yellow, pink and blue-mauve, they are cultivated professionally in the Netherlands by about 80 growers. Freesias can be increased from seed. Due to their specific and pleasing scent, they are used in hand creams, candles, etc. however, the flowers are used in wedding bouquets. They can be planted in the fall in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-10, in the spring in Zones 4-8. Freesia laxa is one of the other species of the genus, cultivated.
Smaller than the scented freesia cultivars, it has flat rather than cup-shaped flowers. Extensive'forcing' of this bulb occurs in Half Moon Bay in California where several growers chill the bulbs in proprietary methods to satisfy cold dormancy which results in formation of buds within a predicted number of weeks – 5 weeks at 55 °F. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Freesia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Freesias photos of International Bulb Society Freesias photos of Pacific Bulb Society PlantZAfrica: Freesia Freesia info and pictures How to grow freesia in warm climates
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Bailiwick of Guernsey
The Bailiwick of Guernsey is one of three Crown dependencies. Separated from the Dukedom and Duchy of Normandy by and under the terms of the Treaty of Le Goulet in 1204, the Bailiwick comprises a number of islands in the English Channel which fall into three separate sub-jurisdictions: Guernsey and Sark. A bailiwick is a territory administered by a Bailiff; the Bailiff of Guernsey is the civil head, presiding officer of the States of Guernsey, but not of Alderney or Sark. He is the head of the judiciary of the Bailiwick; the history of the Bailiwick of Guernsey goes back to 933, when the islands came under the control of William Longsword, having been annexed from the Duchy of Brittany by the Duchy of Normandy. The island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands formed part of the lands of William the Conqueror. In 1204 France conquered mainland Normandy – but not the offshore islands of the bailiwick; the islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. There was one governor, or co-governors working together, of the islands making up the Channel Islands.
The title "Governor" has changed over the centuries. "Warden", "Keeper" and "Captain" have been used. The Bailiff stands in for the Governor, or more the Lieutenant Governor, if the latter is absent, for a short term or for longer, for instance during the five years of the German occupation of the Channel Islands; the Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey is the Lieutenant Governor of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and, being the personal representative of the British monarch, has had a distinguished military service. The local courts in Guernsey were "fiefs" with the lord of the manor presiding. Before 1066, a superior court was introduced above the fiefs and below the Eschequier Court in Rouen and comprised the Bailiff and four Knights. Otton de Grandson the Governor of the Islands, delegated the civil powers to two separate bailiffs for Guernsey and Jersey before he went on crusade to the Holy Land in 1290; this can be assessed as the date of first creation of the two Bailiwicks. Situated around 49.5666°N 2.3833°W / 49.5666.
Elevation varies from sea level to 114 m at Le Moulin on Sark. There are many smaller islands, islets and reefs in the Bailiwick. Combined with a tidal range of 10m and fast currents of up to 12 knots, this makes sailing in local waters dangerous; the Bailiwick of Guernsey is a separate jurisdiction in itself, is in turn three separate sub-jurisdictions. It does not form part of, is separate from the United Kingdom; the two Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey together make up the Channel Islands. The Islanders have never had formal representation in the House of Commons of the British Parliament, nor in the European Parliament; those Islanders who were not somehow qualified and eligible in their own right to register to vote and to vote in the United Kingdom under the Representation of the People Acts as overseas voters, were excluded from the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. A unique constitutional position has arisen as successive British monarchs have confirmed the liberties and privileges of the Bailiwick referring to the so-called Constitutions of King John, a legendary document supposed to have been granted by King John in the aftermath of 1204.
Governments of the Bailiwick have tried to avoid testing the limits of the unwritten constitution by avoiding conflict with British governments. The bailiwick comprises twelve parishes, Alderney and ten on Guernsey; each parish has a parish church from the 11th century, with strong religious control exercised from the French Catholic church and for the last 500 years from the English church. Over the years the religious aspect of the administration of each parish has been reduced in favour of democratically elected douzeniers; each jurisdiction has uninhabited islands and its own elected government. All three legal jurisdictions need Royal Assent from the Privy Council on its primary legislation; each jurisdiction raises its own taxation, although in 1949 Alderney transferred its rights to Guernsey. The island of Guernsey has a population of around 63,000 in 24 square miles and forms the legal and administrative centre of the Bailiwick of Guernsey; the parliament of Guernsey and of the nearby inhabited islands of Herm and Lihou is the States of Guernsey.
With a population of around 1,900 in 3 square miles, Alderney has its own parliament, the States of Alderney, which has ten elected members and an elected president. From 1612 Alderney had a Judge appointed, with similar judicial powers to a Bailiff. Sark has a population of around 600, its parliament is the Chief Pleas with 28 elected members. In 1565, Helier de Carteret, Seigneur of St. Ouen in Jersey, was granted the fief of Sark by Queen Elizabeth I, he received letters patent granting him Sark in perpetuity, on condition that he kept the island free of pirates and that the island was occupied by at least forty men to defend it. Despite most families coming from Jersey, Sark remained within the Bailiwick of Guernsey. There is no coat of arms for the Bailiwick of Guernsey. In historic times, the