The Glass–Steagall legislation describes four provisions of the United States Banking Act of 1933 separating commercial and investment banking. The article 1933 Banking Act describes the entire law, including the legislative history of the provisions covered here; as for the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932, the common name comes from the names of the Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass and Representative Henry B. Steagall; the separation of commercial and investment banking prevented securities firms and investment banks from taking deposits, commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: dealing in non-governmental securities for customers, investing in non-investment grade securities for themselves, underwriting or distributing non-governmental securities, affiliating with companies involved in such activities. Starting in the early 1960s, federal banking regulators' interpretations of the Act permitted commercial banks, commercial bank affiliates, to engage in an expanding list and volume of securities activities.
Congressional efforts to "repeal the Glass–Steagall Act", referring to those four provisions, culminated in the 1999 Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the two provisions restricting affiliations between banks and securities firms. By that time, many commentators argued Glass–Steagall was "dead". Most notably, Citibank's 1998 affiliation with Salomon Smith Barney, one of the largest US securities firms, was permitted under the Federal Reserve Board's existing interpretation of the Glass–Steagall Act. In November 1999, President Bill Clinton publicly declared "the Glass–Steagall law is no longer appropriate"; some commentators have stated that the GLBA's repeal of the affiliation restrictions of the Glass–Steagall Act was an important cause of the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Nobel Prize in Economics laureate Joseph Stiglitz argued that the effect of the repeal was "indirect": "hen repeal of Glass-Steagall brought investment and commercial banks together, the investment-bank culture came out on top".
Economists at the Federal Reserve, such as Chairman Ben Bernanke, have argued that the activities linked to the financial crisis were not prohibited by the Glass–Steagall Act. The sponsors of both the Banking Act of 1933 and the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932 were southern Democrats: Senator Carter Glass of Virginia, Representative Henry B. Steagall of Alabama. Between 1930 and 1932 Senator Carter Glass introduced several versions of a bill to regulate or prohibit the combination of commercial and investment banking and to establish other reforms similar to the final provisions of the 1933 Banking Act. On June 16, 1933, President Roosevelt signed the bill into law. Glass introduced his banking reform bill in January 1932, it received extensive critiques and comments from bankers and the Federal Reserve Board. It passed the Senate in February 1932, but the House adjourned before coming to a decision; the Senate passed a version of the Glass bill that would have required commercial banks to eliminate their securities affiliates.
The final Glass–Steagall provisions contained in the 1933 Banking Act reduced from five years to one year the period in which commercial banks were required to eliminate such affiliations. Although the deposit insurance provisions of the 1933 Banking Act were controversial, drew veto threats from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President Roosevelt supported the Glass–Steagall provisions separating commercial and investment banking, Representative Steagall included those provisions in his House bill that differed from Senator Glass's Senate bill in its deposit insurance provisions. Steagall insisted on protecting small banks while Glass felt that small banks were the weakness to U. S. banking. Many accounts of the Act identify the Pecora Investigation as important in leading to the Act its Glass–Steagall provisions, becoming law. While supporters of the Glass–Steagall separation of commercial and investment banking cite the Pecora Investigation as supporting that separation, Glass–Steagall critics have argued that the evidence from the Pecora Investigation did not support the separation of commercial and investment banking.
This source states that Senator Glass proposed many versions of his bill to Congress known as the Glass Bills in the two years prior to the Glass–Steagall Act being passed. It includes how the deposit insurance provisions of the bill were controversial at the time, which led to the rejection of the bill once again; the previous Glass Bills before the final revision all had similar goals and brought up the same objectives which were to separate commercial from investment banking, bring more banking activities under Federal Reserve supervision and to allow branch banking. In May 1933 Steagall's addition of allowing state chartered banks to receive federal deposit insurance and shortening the time in which banks needed to eliminate securities affiliates to one year was known as the driving force of what helped the Glass–Steagall act to be signed into law; the Glass–Steagall separation of commercial and investment banking was in four sections of the 1933 Banking Act. The Banking Act of 1935 clarified the 1933 legislation and resolved inconsistencies in it.
Together, they prevented commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: dealing in non-governmental securities for custom
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security is the used term for the federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance program and is administered by the Social Security Administration. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, the current version of the Act, as amended, encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax. Tax deposits are collected by the Internal Revenue Service and are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the two Social Security Trust Funds. With a few exceptions, all salaried income, up to an amount determined by law, is subject to the Social Security payroll tax. All income over said. In 2018, the maximum amount of taxable earnings was $128,400. With few exceptions, all legal residents working in the United States now have an individual Social Security number.
Indeed, nearly all working residents since Social Security's 1935 inception have had a Social Security number because it is requested by a wide range of businesses. In 2017, Social Security expenditures totaled $806.7 billion for OASDI and $145.8 billion for DI. Income derived from Social Security is estimated to have reduced the poverty rate for Americans age 65 or older from about 40% to below 10%. In 2018, the trustees of the Social Security Trust Fund reported that the program will become financially insolvent in the year 2034 unless corrective action is enacted by Congress. Social Security Timeline 1935 The 37-page Social Security Act signed August 14 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Retirement benefits only to worker, welfare benefits started 1937 First Social Security Cards issued by post offices, over 20 million issued in first year 1937 Ernest Ackerman receives first lump-sum payout in January. 1939 Two new categories of beneficiaries added: spouse and minor children of a retired worker 1940 First monthly benefit check issued to Ida May Fuller for $22.54 1950 Benefits increased and cost of living adjustments made at irregular intervals – 77% COLA in 1950 1954 Disability program added to Social Security 1960 Flemming v. Nestor.
Landmark U. S. Supreme Court ruling that gave Congress the power to revise the schedule of benefits; the Court ruled that recipients have no contractual right to receive payments. 1961 Early retirement age lowered to age 62 at reduced benefits 1965 Medicare health care benefits added to Social security – 20 million joined in three years 1966 Medicare tax of 0.7% added to pay for increased Medicare expenses 1972 Supplemental Security Income program federalized and assigned to Social Security Administration 1975 Automatic cost of living adjustments mandated 1977 COLA adjustments brought back to "sustainable" levels 1980 Amendments are made in disability program to help solve some problems of fraud 1983 Taxation of Social Security benefits introduced, new federal hires required to be under Social Security, retirement age increased for younger workers to 66 and 67 years 1984 Congress passed the Disability Benefits Reform Act modifying several aspects of the disability program 1996 Drug addiction or alcoholism disability benefits could no longer be eligible for disability benefits.
The Earnings limit doubled exemption amount for retired Social Security beneficiaries. Terminated SSI eligibility for most non-citizens 1997 The law requires the establishment of federal standards for state-issued birth certificates and requires SSA to develop a prototype counterfeit-resistant Social Security card – still being worked on. 1997 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children program placed under SSA 1997 State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens – added to Social Security Administration 2003 Voluntary drug benefits with supplemental Medicare insurance payments from recipients added 2009 No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009 signed. A limited form of the Social Security program began, during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, as a measure to implement "social insurance" during the Great Depression of the 1930s; the Act was an attempt to limit unforeseen and unprepared-for dangers in modern life, including old age, poverty and the burdens of widows with and without children.
Opponents, decried the proposal as socialism. In a Senate Finance Committee hearing, Senator Thomas Gore asked Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, "Isn't this socialism?" She said that it was not, but he continued, "Isn't this a teeny-weeny bit of socialism?"The provisions of Social Security have been changing since the 1930s, shifting in response to economic worries as well as coverage for the poor, dependent children, spouses and the disabled. By 1950, debates moved away from which occupational groups should be included to get enough taxpayers to fund Social Security to how to provide more benefits. Changes in Social Security have reflected a balance between promoting "equality" and efforts to provide "adequate" and affordable protection for low wage workers; the larger and better known programs under the Social Security Administration, SSA, are: Federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance, OASDI Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, TANF Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled, Medicare Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs for low income citizens, Medicaid State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens, SCHIP Supplement
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933
The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 was a US labor law and consumer law passed by the US Congress to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would stimulate economic recovery. It established a national public works program known as the Public Works Administration; the National Recovery Administration portion was hailed in 1933, but by 1934 business' opinion of the act had soured. By March 1934 the "NRA was engaged chiefly in drawing up these industrial codes for all industries to adopt." However, the NIRA was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935 and not replaced. The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression in the United States as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislative program. Section 7 of the bill, which protected collective bargaining rights for unions, proved contentious, but both chambers passed the legislation. President Roosevelt signed the bill into law on June 16, 1933; the Act had two main sections.
Title I was devoted to industrial recovery, authorizing the promulgation of industrial codes of fair competition, guaranteed trade union rights, permitted the regulation of working standards, regulated the price of certain refined petroleum products and their transportation. Title II established the Public Works Administration, outlined the projects and funding opportunities it could engage in. Title II provided funding for the Act; the Act was implemented by the Public Works Administration. Large numbers of regulations were generated under the authority granted to the NRA by the Act, which led to a significant loss of political support for Roosevelt and the New Deal; the NIRA was set to expire in June 1935, but in a major constitutional ruling the U. S. Supreme Court held Title I of the Act unconstitutional on May 27, 1935, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U. S. 495. The National Industrial Recovery Act is considered a policy failure, both in the 1930s and by historians today.
Disputes over the reasons for this failure continue. Among the suggested causes are that the Act promoted economically harmful monopolies, that the Act lacked critical support from the business community, that it was poorly administered; the Act encouraged union organizing. The NIRA had no mechanisms for handling these problems, which led Congress to pass the National Labor Relations Act in 1935; the Act was a major force behind a major modification of the law criminalizing making false statements. The Depression began in the United States in October 1929 and grew worse to its nadir in early 1933. President Herbert Hoover feared that too much intervention or coercion by the government would destroy individuality and self-reliance, which he considered to be important American values, his laissez-faire views appeared to be shared by the Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. Mellon. To combat with the growing economic decline, Hoover organized a number of voluntary measures with businesses, encouraged state and local government responses, accelerated federal building projects.
However his policies had little or no effect on economic recovery. Toward the end of his term, Hoover supported several legislative solutions which he felt might lift the country out of the depression; the final attempt of the Hoover administration to rescue the economy was the passage of the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Hoover was defeated for re-election by Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election. Roosevelt was convinced. In his first hundred days in office, the Congress enacted at Roosevelt's request a series of bills designed to strengthen the banking system, including the Emergency Banking Act, the Glass–Steagall Act, the 1933 Banking Act; the Congress passed the Agricultural Adjustment Act to stabilize the nation's agricultural industry. Enactment of the National Industrial Recovery Act climaxed the first 100 days of Roosevelt's presidency. Hugh S. Johnson, Raymond Moley, Donald Richberg, Rexford Tugwell, Jerome Frank, Bernard Baruch—key Roosevelt advisors—believed that unrestrained competition had helped cause the Great Depression and that government had a critical role to play through national planning, limited regulation, the fostering of trade associations, support for "fair" trade practices, support for "democratization of the workplace".
Roosevelt, himself the former head of a trade association, believed that government promotion of "self-organization" by trade associations was the least-intrusive and yet most effective method for achieving national planning and economic improvement. Some work on an industrial relief bill had been done in the weeks following Roosevelt's election, but much of this was in the nature of talk and the exchange of ideas rather than legislative research and drafting; the administration, preoccupied with banking and agriculture legislation, did not begin working on industrial relief legislation until early April 1933. Congress, was moving on its own industrial legislation. In the Senate, Robert F. Wagner, Edward P. Costigan, Robert M. La Follette, Jr. were promoting public works legislation, Hugo Black was pushing short-work-week legislation. Motivated to work on his own industrial relief bill by these efforts, Roosevelt ordered Moley to work wi
Public Works Administration
Public Works Administration, part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges and schools, its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, again in 1938. Called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1935 and shut down in 1944; the PWA spent over $7 billion in contracts to private construction firms. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital eight decades later; the PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration, headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, the idea received considerable support from Harold L. Ickes, James Farley, Henry Wallace. After having scaled back the initial cost of the PWA, Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed to include the PWA as part of his New Deal proposals in the "Hundred Days" of spring 1933; the PWA headquarters in Washington planned projects, which were built by private construction companies hiring workers on the open market. Unlike the WPA, it did not hire the unemployed directly. More than any other New Deal program, the PWA epitomized the progressive notion of "priming the pump" to encourage economic recovery. Between July 1933 and March 1939 the PWA funded and administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects including airports, large electricity-generating dams, major warships for the Navy, bridges, as well as 70% of the new schools and one-third of the hospitals built in 1933–1939. Streets and highways were the most common PWA projects, as 11,428 road projects, or 33% of all PWA projects, accounted for over 15% of its total budget.
School buildings, 7,488 in all, came in second at 14% of spending. PWA functioned chiefly by making allotments to the various Federal agencies. For example, it provided funds for the Indian Division of the CCC to build roads and other public works on and near Indian reservations; the PWA became, with its "multiplier-effect" and first two-year budget of $3.3 billion, the driving force of America’s biggest construction effort up to that date. By June 1934, the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects. For every worker on a PWA project two additional workers were employed indirectly; the PWA accomplished the electrification of rural America, the building of canals, bridges, streets, sewage systems, housing areas, as well as hospitals and universities. The PWA electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, DC. At the local level it built courthouses, schools and other public facilities that remain in use in the 21st century.
Lincoln Tunnel in New York City Overseas Highway connecting Key West, Florida, to the mainland Triborough Bridge Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Bourne Bridge Sagamore Bridge Hoover Dam Fort Peck Dam Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state Pensacola Dam Mansfield Dam Tom Miller Dam Upper Mississippi River lock & dams List of New Deal airports The PWA created three Greenbelt communities based on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard which are now the municipalities of Greenbelt, Greenhills and Greendale, Wisconsin. The PWA was the centerpiece of the New Deal program for building public housing for the poor people in cities; however it did not create as much affordable housing as supporters would have hoped, building only 29,000 units in 4 1⁄2 years. The PWA spent over $6 billion, but did not succeed in returning the level of industrial activity to pre-depression levels. Though successful in many aspects, it has been acknowledged that the PWA's objective of constructing a substantial number of quality, affordable housing units was a major failure.
Some have argued that because Roosevelt was opposed to deficit spending, there was not enough money spent to help the PWA achieve its housing goals. Reeves argues that the competitive theory of administration used by Roosevelt proved to be inefficient and produced delays; the competition over the size of expenditure, the selection of the administrator, the appointment of staff at the state level, led to delays and to the ultimate failure of PWA as a recovery instrument. As director of the budget, Lewis Douglas overrode the views of leading senators in reducing appropriations to $3.5 billion and in transferring much of that money to other agencies in lieu of their own specific appropriations. The cautious and penurious Ickes won out over the more imaginative Hugh S. Johnson as chief of public works administration. Political competition between rival Democratic state organizations and between Democrats and Progressive Republicans led to delays in implementing PWA efforts on the local level. Ickes instituted quotas for hiring skilled and unskilled black people in construction financed through the Public Works Administration.
Resistance from employers and unions was overcome by negotiations and implied
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
Public Works of Art Project
The Public Works of Art Project was a program to employ artists, as part of the New Deal, during the Great Depression. It was the first such program, running from December 1933 to June 1934, it was headed by Edward Bruce, under the United States Treasury Department and paid for by the Civil Works Administration. The purpose of the PWAP was "to give work to artists by arranging to have competent representatives of the profession embellish public buildings." Artists were told that the subject matter had to be related to the "American scene". Artworks from the project were shown or incorporated into a variety of locations, including the White House and House of Representatives. Artists participating in the project were paid wages of $38 – $46.50 per week. Participants were required to be professional artists, in total, 3,749 artists were hired, 15,663 works were produced; the project was succeeded by the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration. The largest of the projects sponsored by the PWAP were the murals in San Francisco’s Coit Tower, employing a total of 44 artists and assistants, begun in December 1933 and completed in June 1934.
Many of the muralists were former students of the California School of Fine Arts. Among the lead artists were Maxine Albro, Victor Arnautoff, Jane Berlandina, Ray Bertrand, Roy Boynton, Ralph Chesse, Ben Cunningham, Rinaldo Cuneo, Mallette Harold Dean, Parker Hall, Edith Hamlin, George Albert Harris, William Hesthal, John Langley Howard, Lucien Labaudt, Gordon Langdon, Jose Moya del Pino, Otis Oldfield, Frederick E. Olmsted, Suzanne Scheuer, Ralph Stackpole, Edward Terada, Frede Vidar, Clifford Wight, Bernard Zakheim. After a majority of the murals were completed, the Big Strike of 1934 shut down the Pacific Coast. Though it has been claimed that allusions to the event were subversively included in the murals by some of the artists, in fact the murals were completed before the strike began and none of those that were not completed by that time show any reference to the strike. Another significant project funded by PWAP is the Astronomers Monument at Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles; the monument is a large outdoor concrete sculpture on the front lawn of the Observatory that pays homage to six of the greatest astronomers of all time: Hipparchus.
Soon after the PWAP began in December 1933, in cooperation with the Los Angeles Park Commission, PWAP commissioned a sculpture project on the grounds of the new Griffith Observatory. Using a design by local artist Archibald Garner and materials donated by the Women's' Auxiliary of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and five other artists sculpted and cast the concrete monument and figures; each artist was responsible for sculpting one astronomer. On November 25, 1934, about six months prior to the opening of the Observatory, a celebration took place to mark completion of the Astronomers Monument; the only "signature" on the Astronomers Monument is "PWAP 1934" referring to the program which funded the project and the year it was completed. This Art Deco style monument serves as the gateway to the Hollywood Bowl, is said to be the largest of hundreds of monuments in Southern California constructed under the WPA; the 200-foot long, 22-foot high sculpture is a fountain and was constructed with concrete and covered with slabs of decorative granite.
The structure was completed in 1940 by George Stanley a contributor to the Griffith Observatory's Astronomers Monument and, better known as the sculptor who molded the original Academy Awards' Oscar statue. The structure was refurbished in 2006. Federal Art Project, a New Deal federal arts program operated by the Works Progress Administration which ran from 1935 to 1943. Section of Painting and Sculpture, a New Deal federal arts program operated by the United States Department of the Treasury. Treasury Relief Art Project List of New Deal sculpture Pohl, Frances K.. Framing America. A Social History of American Art. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28715-6. Contreras, Belisario R.. Tradition and Innovation in New Deal Art. London and Toronto: Associated University Presses. O'Connor, Francis V. ed.. Art for the Millions: Essays from the 1930s by Artists and Administrators of the WPA Federal Art Project. Boston: New York Graphic Society. "1934: A New Deal for Artists" is an exhibition featuring artworks from the Public Works of Art Project at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
This site contains a slide show, public programs, recent news stories Public Works of Art Project, video The Living New Deal Project, a digital database of the lasting effects of the New Deal founded in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Berkeley (including an interactive map featuring detailed information on public artworks created as a part of the New Deal. New Deal Art Registry 1934: A New Deal for Artists, a link to Anne Prentice Wagner's article, "1934: A New Deal for Artists" in the Spring 2009 issue of Antiques and Fine Art Magazine
Federal Project Number One
Federal Project Number One is the collective name for a group of projects under the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program in the United States. Of the $4.88 billion allocated by the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935, $27 million was approved for the employment of artists, musicians and writers under the WPA's Federal Project Number One. In its prime, Federal Project Number One employed up to 40,000 writers, musicians and actors because, as Secretary of Commerce Harry Hopkins put it, “Hell, they’ve got to eat, too”; this project had two main principles: 1) that in time of need the artist, no less than the manual worker, is entitled to employment as an artist at the public expense and 2) that the arts, no less than business and labor, are and should be the immediate concern of the ideal commonwealth. The five divisions of Federal One were these: Federal Art Project Federal Music Project Federal Theatre Project Federal Writers' Project Historical Records Survey All projects were supposed to operate without discrimination regarding race, color, religion or political affiliation.
Federal Project Number One referred to as Federal One, ended in 1939 when, under pressure from Congress, the theater project was cancelled and the other projects were required to rely on state funding and local sponsorship. Many people were opposed to government involvement in the arts, they feared that government funding and influence would lead to censorship and a violation of freedom of speech. Members of the House Un-American Activities Committee believed the program to be infiltrated by communists. However, with support from Eleanor Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt signed the executive order to create this project because the government wanted to support, as Fortune magazine stated, “the kind of raw cultural material--the raw material of new creative work--, so necessary to artists and to artists in a new country”; as mentioned, at its peak Federal One employed 40,000 writers, musicians and actors and the Federal Writers' project had around 6,500 people on the WPA payroll. Many people benefitted from these programs and some FWP writers became famous, such as John Steinbeck and Zora Neale Hurston.
These writers were considered to be federal writers. Furthermore, these projects published books such as New York Panorama and the WPA Guide to New York City. Mathematical Tables Project Harry Hopkins New Deal National Archives and Records Administration: A New Deal for the Arts New Deal Cultural Programs: Experiments in Cultural Democracy Federal Project Number One The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, George Washington University McCausland, Elizabeth, "Save the Arts Projects," The Nation, July 17, 1937