A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch anti-aircraft guided missiles. Many are equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, anti-surface operations; the NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether; the U. S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system. In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is equipped with two large missile magazines in vertical-launch cells; some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap. Hobart-class destroyer HMAS Hobart HMAS Brisbane HMAS Sydney Type 055 destroyer Nanchang Innominate 2nd ship Innominate 3rd ship Innominate 4th ship Innominate 5th ship Innominate 6th ship Innominate 7th ship Innominate 8th ship Type 052D destroyer Kunming Changsha Hefei Yinchuan Xining Xiamen Urumqi Nanjing Guiyang Hohhot Taiyuan Chengdu Qiqihar Zibo Ganzhou Huainan Nanning Baotou Tangshan Suzhou Innominate 21st ship Innominate 22nd ship Innominate 23rd ship Innominate 24th ship Innominate 25th ship Innominate 26th ship Type 052C destroyer Lanzhou Haikou Changchun Zhengzhou Jinan Xi'an Type 052B destroyer Guangzhou Wuhan Type 051C destroyer Shenyang Shijiazhuang Type 051B destroyer Shenzhen Sovremenny-class destroyer Hangzhou Fuzhou Taizhou Ningbo Although the French Navy no longer uses the term "destroyer", the largest frigates are assigned pennant numbers with flag superior "D", which designates destroyer.
Visakhapatnam-class destroyer INS Visakhapatnam INS Mormugao INS Imphal INS Porbandar Kolkata-class destroyer INS Kolkata INS Kochi INS Chennai Delhi-class destroyer INS Delhi INS Mysore INS Mumbai Rajput-class destroyer INS Rajput INS Rana INS Ranvir INS Ranvijay Durand de la Penne-class destroyer Luigi Durand De La Penne Francesco Mimbelli Maya-class destroyer JS Maya JS Haguro Atago-class destroyer JS Atago JS Ashigara Kongō-class destroyer JS Kongo JS Kirishima JS Myoko JS Chokai Hatakaze-class destroyer JS Hatakaze JS Shimakaze Sejong the Great-class destroyer ROKS Sejong the Great ROKS Yulgok Yi I ROKS Seoae Yu Seong-ryong Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class destroyer ROKS Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin ROKS Munmu the Great ROKS Dae Jo-yeong ROKS Wang Geon ROKS Gang Gam-chan ROKS Choe Yeong Kashin-class destroyer Smetlivy Sovremenny-class destroyer Bystryy Gremyashchiy Bespokoynyy Nastoychivyy Admiral Ushakov Udaloy-class destroyer Vice-Admiral Kulakov Admiral Tributs Marshal Shaposhnikov Severomorsk Admiral Levchenko Admiral Vinogradov Admiral Panteleyev Admiral Chabanenko Kee Lung-class destroyer ROCS Kee Lung ROCS Su Ao ROCS Tso Ying ROCS Ma Kong Type 82 destroyer HMS Bristol Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring HMS Dauntless HMS Diamond HMS Dragon HMS Defender HMS Duncan Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Arleigh Burke USS Barry USS John Paul Jones USS Curtis Wilbur USS Stout USS John S. McCain USS Mitscher USS Laboon USS Russell USS Paul Hamilton USS Ramage USS Fitzgerald USS Stethem USS Carney USS Benfold USS Gonzalez USS Cole USS The Sullivans USS Milius USS Hopper USS Ross USS Mahan USS Decatur USS McFaul USS Donald Cook USS Higgins USS O'Kane USS Porter USS Oscar Austin USS Roosevelt USS Winston S. Churchill USS Lassen USS Howard USS Bulkeley USS McCampbell USS Shoup USS Mason USS Preble USS Mustin USS Chafee USS Pinckney USS Momsen USS Chung-Hoon USS Nitze USS James E. Williams USS Bainbridge USS Halsey USS Forrest Sherman USS Farragut USS Kidd USS Gridley USS Sampson USS Truxtun USS Sterett USS Dewey USS Stockdale USS Gravely USS Wayne E. Meyer USS Jason Dunham USS William P. Lawrence USS Spruance USS Michael Murphy USS John Finn USS Ralph Johnson USS Rafael Peralta USS Thomas Hudner (D
The Bait Ur Rouf Mosque is a distinctive urban mosque located in an economically-challenged area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Designed by Bangladeshi architect Marina Tabassum and completed in 2012, it has been called a refuge of spirituality in urban Dhaka and received recognition for its beautiful use of natural light and for challenging the status quo of traditional mosque design. Instead of traditional symbolism such as domes and minarets, the mosque relies on open space and the rich interplay of light and shadow to create a prayer space that elevates the spirit. In the wake of the tragic loss of two of her daughters, Bangladeshi widow Sufia Khatun donated part of her land for the construction of a mosque. In 2005 she commissioned architect Marina Tabassum, to design it. Community members used a temporary structure on the site for prayer, but when Khatun passed away, Tabassum was left as the sole fundraiser, designer and builder of the project. Community donors provided most of the funding for the building.
The mosque was designed by a female architect from Bangladesh. Known for designing the Museum of Independence in Dhaka, she is recognized as one of the country's top architects and one of only a few women architects in the country. In Bangladesh, it is unusual for a female to design a mosque – Bangladeshi women even enter a mosque, praying instead at home, since few mosques have dedicated sections for women. Tabassum visited more than 100 mosques before designing Bait Ur Rouf Mosque, despite having hardly entered a mosque previously. Bangladesh's rich mosque-building history dates back to the 13th century's Turkish invasion; the earliest mosques incorporated elements from local building traditions, such as small domes that span the roof and brick walls. The architect combined this unique traditional Sultanate mosque architecture with a modern approach to create a design that challenges the status quo; the building is located in a flood-prone area, is designed along an axis angled 13 degrees to the Qibla direction.
To compensate for this angle, the building is raised on a plinth with a cylinder inside of a square. This allowed the designer to rotate the prayer hall to the correct direction and created light courts on four sides with room for other functions; the mosque's prayer hall has no columns inside, instead relying on eight peripheral columns for support. Dozens of random, circular openings in the ceiling and walls allow natural light to enter the building, creating shifting patterns of light and shadow to enhance the spiritual atmosphere; the small-footprint, one-storey building has no domes, minarets, or decorative panels, fits in with its surroundings. Handmade terracotta brick walls provide natural ventilation, helping keep the building cool on hot days. Without using the usual mosque symbolism, the architect created a space of spirituality with simplicity and the use of natural light prompting deep reflection and contemplation in prayer; the building took five years to construct. Construction finished in 2012.
Although locals funded and use the building, visitors from across Bangladesh, including Chittagong and Sylhet, visit the Mosque. This includes devotees and architecture students; the architect purposely reduced symbolism in her design to encourage the building's use for other social activities beyond prayer. Children are encouraged to play in the building, unusual for a mosque; the architect aimed to make the building a place of tranquility in one of the poorest neighbourhoods of one of the most crowded cities in the world, with "Breathing spaces" in and around the building providing a place for worshippers to socialize outside of prayer times. Throughout the day, children play and elderly men chat on the building's plinth; the Bait Ur Rouf Mosque is unusual not only for being only one of two mosques in Bangladesh built by a woman but for its environmentally-friendly design. The architecture pays tribute to lost mosque-building traditions and fits into the landscape of a country with a developing economy, which the architect believed was her social responsibility.
The Bait Ur Rouf Mosque was one of six winners of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2016, along with the Friendship Centre in Gaibandha. This $1 million award, presented by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, recognizes architectural excellence in Muslim communities around the world; the award jury chose the mosque for pushing the boundaries of how a religious space should look and creating a design that elevates the spirit
In the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, state highways are maintained by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Each is assigned a four-digit State Route number in the present Location Referencing System. Traffic Routes are signed as Interstate Highways, U. S. Routes and Pennsylvania Routes, are prefixed with one to three zeroes to give a four-digit number. PA Routes are called Pennsylvania Traffic Routes, State Highway Routes; the are 41,643 mi of roadway maintained by state agencies, with 39,737 mi maintained by PennDOT, 554 mi maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, 1,352 mi maintained by other state agencies. The Pennsylvania State Route System was established by the Sproul Road Bill passed in 1911; the system took control of over 4,000 miles of road. The system of roads continued to grow over the next few decades until continual addition of roads faced greater opposition. On October 1, 1940, the Pennsylvania Turnpike's first section of highway was opened to motorized traffic.
In 1970, the Department of Highways and several other offices and departments were reorganized into the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. In 1987, the Sproul system of Legislative Routes was reorganized into the current Pennsylvania State Route System under the Location Referencing System. In 2013, PennDOT posted weight restrictions on several bridges along the state route system; as a result, several truck routes were signed for U. S. and state routes, bypassing these weight restricted bridges. Signage practices for these truck routes vary by district, with some districts such as District 5 signing them as standard truck routes and others such as District 6 signing them as double-bannered "alternate truck" routes; the symbol used for the signage of state routes is an outline of the keystone after Pennsylvania's nickname. Four-digit State Routes are unsigned, except on small white reference markers at intersections, are only unique within each county. Underneath, there is a larger typeface number identifying the segment of highway being entered.
Segments are one half mile long and are numbered in multiples of 10 on non-Interstate highways. Segment numbers increase in the north or east direction, are even-numbered on undivided highways and on the northbound or eastbound direction of divided highways. Special routes are not assigned State Route numbers corresponding to their signed numbers, but are instead marked along other routes Quadrant Routes. Concurrencies are assigned a number equal to the smaller number of the concurrent routes, or the highest type. A signed Traffic Route number does not match the State Route in the case of an extension or relocation. A different number can be used to avoid conflicts between different types — for instance, signed Pennsylvania Route 380 is State Route 400, renumbered ca. 1973 when Interstate 81E was renumbered Interstate 380. The majority of, but not all, signed. Pennsylvania Turnpike Transportation in Pennsylvania List of BicyclePA bicycle routes Pennsylvania Department of Transportation