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Guided rat

A remotely guided rat, popularly called a ratbot or robo-rat, is a rat with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle and sensorimotor cortex of its brain. They were developed in 2002 by Sanjiv Talwar and John Chapin at the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center; the rats wear. The rat receives remote stimulation in the sensorimotor cortex via its backpack that causes the rat to feel a sensation in its left or right whiskers, stimulation in the MFB, interpreted as a reward or pleasure. After a period of training and conditioning using MFB stimulation as a reward, the rats can be remotely directed to move left and forward in response to whisker stimulation signals, it is possible to guide the animal along an obstacle course, jumping small gaps and scaling obstacles. Robo-rats are being trained to detect explosives in areas where humans and existing robots cannot efficiently search, such as crowds and cargo ships. Other possible uses of the robo-rat include search and rescue operations following a natural disaster, military reconnaissance and landmine detection.

A camera, GPS receiver that mount on rat backpacks have been designed to facilitate these purposes. However, it has been suggested that by interpreting biological signals directly from the brain of the rat, additional information could be obtained without the use of external equipment; this could be used, for example, to detect chemical and biological toxins in the air via the rat's own sense of smell. Additionally, these rats have further applications in pure science, it serves as a new experimental model for behavioral studies in psychology. MFB stimulation is a valuable tool in behavioral research, but traditional research using MFB stimulation has required that test animals be confined within an experimental chamber; this difficulty is avoided. Principal funding for the development of the robo-rat has come from DARPA. Concerns have been raised by animal rights groups about the use of animals in this context due to a concern about the removal of autonomy from an independent creature. For example, a spokesman of the Dr Hadwen Trust, a group funding alternatives to animal research in medicine, has said that the experiments are an "appalling example of how the human species instrumentalizes other species."Researchers tend to liken the training mechanism of the robo-rat to standard operant conditioning techniques.

Talwar himself has acknowledged the ethical issues apparent in the development of the robo-rat, but points out that the research meets standards for animal treatment laid down by the National Institute of Health. Moreover, the researchers emphasize that the animals are trained, not coerced, into particular behaviors; because the rats are encouraged to act via the reward of pleasure, not muscularly compelled to behave in a particular manner, their behavior under MFB stimulation is likened to a carrot-and-stick model of encouraged behavior versus a system of mind control. It seems unlikely that the rats could be persuaded to knowingly risk their lives with this stimulation. "Our animals were happy and treated well," Talwar stated. The technology is reminiscent of experiments performed in 1965 by Dr Jose Delgado, a controversial scientist, able to pacify a charging bull via electrodes fitted in its brain, he was said to control cats and monkeys like "electronic toys." Doctor Robert Galbraith Heath placed electrodes deep into the brains of patients and wrote hundreds of medical papers on his work.

Remote control animal BBC News Feature on Ratbots Nature article discussing Ratbots Original announcement of Ratbot in Nature New Scientist article on Ratbots

Daryl Jones (politician)

Daryl Lafayette Jones is a Democratic politician from Miami, United States. The son of public school teachers, Jones was born in Jackson, the oldest of four children, he attended Lanier High School where he was elected President of the Mississippi State Association of Student Councils and in 1973, graduated valedictorian. Daryl subsequently attended the United States Air Force Academy, where he was the middleweight boxing champion, cadet vice wing commander and a 1977 honor graduate majoring in mathematics, he is the first African-American graduate of a military academy from Mississippi. He has two brothers. Lt. Jones became an F-4E pilot in the United States Air Force, he was transferred to the 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Clark AB in The Philippines, became flight leader and mission commander in Team Spirit and Cope Thunder exercises. In 1981, Capt. Jones arrived at Homestead AFB, FL, as an F-4 Phantom ll instructor pilot, twice named the 31st TTS Outstanding Instructor Pilot and 6 consecutive classes of student pilots named him their Outstanding Instructor Pilot.

Jones enrolled at the University of Miami School of Law. The University awarded Daryl the Iron Arrow, he graduated cum laude in 1987 after serving as president of both the Student Bar and National Bar Associations. Jones worked as a federal judicial clerk for Judge Peter Fay in the 11th circuit court of appeals as an Assistant Dade County Attorney at Miami International Airport, he joined the Puerto Rico Air National Guard as an A-7D Corsair ll fighter pilot. In 1989, Captain Jones transferred to the U. S. Air Force Reserve at Homestead became an F-16 Falcon fighter pilot, he rose to the rank of colonel as an Air Force Reservist. Jones was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1990. After his first session, The Miami Herald named him Freshman Representative of The Year. On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew devastated Representative Jones' House District while he was in the midst of a campaign for the State Senate. From 1992 to 2002, he served in the Florida Senate. Senator Jones' went to work, sponsoring the Hurricane Andrew Trust Fund Bill, which appropriated more than $650 million over four years to help rebuild the devastated area.

South Dade County recovered in only four years. Senator Jones sponsored and passed the Rosewood Bill, the only legislation in American history to grant reparations to African Americans. Uniquely qualified as an Air Force Officer and Statesman, during the 90s, Senator Jones defended the existence of Homestead AFB before 2 Realignment and Closure Commission Boards. In 1995, Senator Jones was elected Democratic Senate President-designate; the next year, President Clinton appointed Senator Jones to the U. S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors. In 1998 he was President Bill Clinton's choice to be Secretary of the Air Force but was not confirmed. In 2002, Jones was the first African-American to run for Governor of Florida. On September 14, 2006, he was chosen as a nominee for the position of Lieutenant Governor of Florida by gubernatorial candidate Jim Davis. Jones resides in Miami, he has three children: Derek and Michele. He has spent the past several years running his own real estate investment and consulting firm, D.

L. Jones & Associates and is president of The Law Offices of Daryl L. Jones, P. A. A law firm specializing in foreclosure defense and loan modifications. Appearances on C-SPAN


Sagipa or Zaquesazipa was the fifth and last ruler of Bacatá known as the Colombian capital Bogotá, as of 1537. He was the brother of his predecessor Tisquesusa but the traditional faction of the Muisca considered him an usurper as his nephew Chiayzaque, the cacique of Chía, was the legitimate successor of Tisquesusa, his zaque counterpart in the northern part of the Muisca territory was Aquiminzaque, the last surviving ruler of the Muisca. The daughter of Sagipa, named as Magdalena de Guatavita, married conquistador Hernán Venegas Carrillo, one of the first mestizo marriages in the New Kingdom of Granada. Sagipa appears with alternative names in the Spanish chronicles. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the central highlands of present-day Colombia, the area was populated by the Muisca, ruled by the zipa. Sagipa was a general in the army of the third and fourth rulers of the southern Muisca and Tisquesusa respectively. In this role Sagipa fought against the zaque Quemuenchatocha.

With the arrival of the Spanish in the central Colombian highlands in 1537, the northern and southern Muisca rulers conspired against the common enemy. The ruler of the northern Muisca, tried to buy off the Spanish with gifts; when Sagipa's brother Tisquesusa was killed by the Spanish conquerors, Sagipa took over the rule. According to the Muisca tradition the nephew of both Sagipa and Tisquesusa, the cacique of Chía, should have accessed the throne; this Chiayzaque was loyal to the Spanish and Sagipa wanted to avenge the death of his brother. The caciques Cuxinimpaba and Cuxinimegua repudiated Sagipa; the constant attacks by Sagipa and his people drove the Spanish out of the grassy intermontane flatlands of the Bogotá savanna towards Bosa, now part of the Colombian capital. When the Panche were revolting against the new rulers in Zipacón, Sagipa took up peace negotiations with the leader of the Spanish troops, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada pointing to the risk for both the Muisca and the Spanish of destroyed crops by the Panche.

De Quesada with only 50 soldiers and Sagipa 12,000 to 20,000 guecha warriors strong beat the Panche on 20 August 1538 in the Battle of Tocarema and celebrated the victory. Sagipa was held by the new Spanish rulers on accusation of his illegal rule; the Spanish demanded the vast amounts of gold of the inheritance of Tisquesusa. Sagipa denied and went into hiding; when Sagipa saw the Muisca lost faith in his rule he surrendered to De Quesada. Outraged by his refusal to hand over the treasure Sagipa was tortured with iron bars. In early 1539 the last zipa died in the Spanish camp in Bosa as a result of the torments by the Spanish rulers. Spanish conquest of the Muisca Muisca rulers, history of Bogotá Matiz, Samper. 1801. República de Colombia: historia general de los Chibchas, 1-103. Accessed 2016-10-05. Ocampo López, Javier. 2004. Tesoros legendarios de Colombia y el mundo, 1-351. Accessed 2016-10-05

Emmanuel Matadi

Emmanuel Matadi born 15 April 1991 in Monrovia, Liberia. Liberian Olympian specializing in sprinting events. Matadi has represented his birth country of Liberia in the 2016 Rio Olympics, African Senior Championship and 2017 world championships. Matadi has become more than just a sprinter in the eyes of Liberia's citizens but more so a national hero. Matadi attended University Of Louisville before transferring to Mankato. At MNSU Matadi won national titles in the 100m and 200m holds Liberia's national records in the 60m, 100m and 200 metres. Internationally, he was the flag bearer for Liberia in the Parade of Nations.2017 world championships Matadi was one of three Africans to advance to the semifinals of the 100m in London. Outdoor 100 metres – 9.93 NR 200 metres – 20.44 NR Indoor 60 metres – 6.58 NR 200 metres – 21.10 NR All-Athletics

Municipal elections in Canada

Municipal elections in Canada fall within the jurisdiction of the various provinces and territories, who hold their municipal elections on the same date every two, three or four years, depending on the location. Each province has its own nomenclature for municipalities and some have local elections for unincorporated areas which are not technically municipalities; these entities can be called cities, villages, hamlets and municipalities, county municipalities, regional county municipalities, municipal districts, regional districts, regional municipalities, specialized municipalities, district municipalities or rural municipalities. Many of these may be used by Statistics Canada as the basis for census divisions or census subdivisions. Municipal elections elect a mayor and city council and also a school board; some locations may elect other bodies, such as Vancouver, which elects its own parks board. Some municipalities will hold referenda or ballot initiatives at the same time relating to spending projects or tax changes.

Elections for city councils are held through either a ward system or an at-large system, depending on the location. Vancouver is the largest city in Canada to use the at-large system, while most other large cities use wards. Most councils elect only independents. However, some municipalities have locally based political parties or election slates; these include Montreal, Quebec City and Longueuil in Quebec and Vancouver, Victoria and Richmond in British Columbia. These local parties are affiliated with any provincial or federal parties. Voting may be done with paper ballots that are hand-counted, or by various forms of electronic voting. Canadian electoral calendar, 2018 Canadian electoral calendar, 2019 Elections in Canada Municipal government in Canada Provincial elections in Canada Public Service Commissions of Canada - Upcoming Elections

Waiting Game (album)

Waiting Game is an album by American jazz saxophonist Zoot Sims and Orchestra arranged by Gary McFarland featuring performances recorded in England in 1966 for the Impulse! label. All compositions by Gary McFarland except as indicated"Old Folks" - 4:52 "I Wish I Knew" - 4:11 "Once We Loved" - 2:46 "It's a Blue World" - 3:47 "September Song" - 4:48 "Over the Rainbow" - 5:02 "Stella by Starlight" - 4:36 "One I Could Have Loved" - 3:13 "You Go to My Head" - 4:04 "Does the Sun Really Shine on the Moon?" - 5:46Recorded in London, England on November 28, 1966, November 30, 1966 Zoot Sims - tenor saxophone, vocals David Snell - harp Gary McFarland – arranger Kenny Napper, Jack Parnell - conductor Unknown OrchestraTechnicalRobert Flynn - cover design Arthur Halpern - cover photography Nat Hentoff - liner notes