Métal hurlant is a French comics anthology of science fiction and horror comics stories, created in December 1974 by comics artists Jean Giraud and Philippe Druillet together with journalist-writer Jean-Pierre Dionnet and financial director Bernard Farkas. The four were collectively known as "Les Humanoïdes Associés", which became the name of the publishing house releasing Métal hurlant, it was published in the United States by National Lampoon under the title Heavy Metal. The magazine was released quarterly. Contributors included Druillet, depicting such characters as Arzach and Lone Sloane. Issues featured Richard Corben, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Enki Bilal, Serge Clerc, Alain Voss, Berni Wrightson, Milo Manara, Frank Margerin, Chantal Montellier, many others, it became bi-monthly with No. 7 and monthly with No. 9. Apart from comics, the magazine contained articles about science fiction books and movies, as well as music and videogame reviews. Métal hurlant, emphasising complex graphics, cinematic imagery and surreal storylines, was influential throughout the world as one of the first mature expressions of "adult" comic book making.
It ceased publication in July 1987. Métal hurlant began publishing again in July 2002 by Humanoids Publishing, with a French, English and Portuguese version, under the French name; as a "two-headed", transatlantic magazine, led by Fabrice Giger in Los Angeles, it published original short stories, sometimes related to existing or to be published comic books. Its aim was to promote the products from the publisher; this incarnation of the magazine ceased publication with issue No. 14, dated November/December 2004. Stories that were published in Métal hurlant include: Arzach Druuna Exterminator 17 Fragile by Stefano Raffaele Jeremiah Kraken Lone Sloane Milady 3000 The Zombies That Ate the World by Guy Davis and Jerry Frissen The Long Tomorrow by Dan O'Bannon and Jean Giraud 1996 by Chantal Montellier Some of their titles have gone on to be adapted into other media. In November 2009, Hicham Benkirane announced that a film based on Stefano Raffaele's Fragile is in development. In October 2011, it was announced that a live-action TV series based on Métal hurlant titled Métal Hurlant Chronicles went into production in France.
A French-United Kingdom co-production, the series consists of 12 half-hour episodes to be shown over two seasons. Featured actors include Rutger Hauer, Scott Adkins, Michael Jai White, Karl E. Landler, Joe Flanigan, David Belle, Matt Mullins and James Marsters. In the United States, the series began airing on the Syfy Channel on 14 April 2014. Metal Hurlant at Humanoids Publishing 2002+ checklist
Accademia di San Luca
The Accademia di San Luca, was founded in 1577 as an association of artists in Rome, with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters and architects, above that of mere craftsmen. Other founders included Pietro Olivieri; the Academy was named after Saint Luke the evangelist who, legend has it, made a portrait of the Virgin Mary, thus became the patron saint of painters' guilds. From the late 16th century until it moved to its present location at the Palazzo Carpegna, it was based in an urban block by the Roman Forum and although these buildings no longer survive, the Academy church of Santi Luca e Martina, does. Designed by the Baroque architect, Pietro da Cortona, its main facade overlooks the Forum; the Academy's predecessor was the Compagnia di San Luca, a guild of painters and miniaturists, which had its statutes and privileges renewed at the much earlier date of 17 December 1478 by Pope Sixtus IV. Included among its founding members, was the famous painter Melozzo da Forlì, as he was the pictor papalis in that period.
In 1605, Pope Paul V granted the Academy the right to pardon a condemned man on the feast of St. Luke. In the 1620s, Urban VIII extended its rights to decide, considered an artist in Rome and it came under the patronage of his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini. In 1633, Urban VIII gave it the right to tax all artists as well as art-dealers, monopolize all public commissions; these latter measures raised strong opposition and were poorly enforced. Over the early years, the papal authorities exerted a large degree of control over the leadership of the institution; some modern critics have stated "with the ostensible purpose of giving artists a higher education and the real one of asserting the Church's control over art,". The prìncipi of the institution have included some of the pre-eminent painters of the 17th century, including Domenichino, Bernini and Romanelli. However, many prominent artists never were admitted to the academy. Artistic issues debated within the Academy included the Cortona-Sacchi controversy about the number of figures in a painting.
Disdain was espressed by many academicians for the Bamboccianti. Giovanni Bellori gave famous lectures on painting in the Academy. In the early 18th century, the painter Marco Benefial was inducted, expelled for criticizing the academy as an insider; the Academy is still active. From the beginning, the statutes of the Academy directed that each candidate-academician was to donate a work of his art in perpetual memory and a portrait, thus the Academy, in its current premises in the 16th-century Palazzo Carpegna, located in the Piazza dell'Accademia di San Luca, has accumulated a unique collection of paintings and sculptures, including about 500 portraits, as well as an outstanding collection of drawings. Prominent artists to become Principi of the academy over the first 200 years include: Claude Lorrain was a member but declined the offer of being principi; the Academy can boast modern members, including sculptors Ernesto Biondi and Piccirilli Brothers. Accademia Nazionale di San Luca Official site Galleria Nazionale di San Luca Accademia San Luca The History of the Accademia di San Luca, c.
1590–1635: Documents from the Archivio di Stato di Roma
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Class conflict is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society consequent to socio-economic competition among the social classes. As a means of effecting radical social and political changes for the social majority, class struggle is a central tenet of the philosophic works of Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor. Additionally, political forms of class conflict exist; the conflict can be direct, as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union, or indirect, as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages by workers or unfair labor practices by capital. In the past the term class conflict was a term used by socialists and Marxists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production—such as factories and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labor is a contest between classes, the division of these resources involves conflict and inflicts harm.
It can involve ongoing low-level clashes, escalate into massive confrontations, in some cases, lead to the overall defeat of one of the contending classes. However, in more contemporary times this term is striking chords and finding new definition amongst capitalistic societies in the United States and other Westernized countries; the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin argued that the class struggle of the working class and poor had the potential to lead a social revolution involving the overthrow of ruling elites, the creation of libertarian socialism. This was only a potential, class struggle was, he argued, not always the only or decisive factor in society, but it was central. By contrast, Marxists argue that class conflict always plays the decisive and pivotal role in the history of class-based hierarchical systems such as capitalism and feudalism. Marxists refer to its overt manifestations as class war, a struggle whose resolution in favor of the working class is viewed by them as inevitable under plutocratic capitalism.
Where societies are divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, class structures arise and are thus coeval with civilization itself. It is well documented since at least European Classical Antiquity and the various popular uprisings in late medieval Europe and elsewhere. One of the earliest analysis of these conflicts is Friedrich Engels' The Peasant War in Germany. One of the earliest analyses of the development of class as the development of conflicts between emergent classes is available in Peter Kropotkin's Mutual Aid. In this work, Kropotkin analyzes the disposal of goods after death in pre-class or hunter-gatherer societies, how inheritance produces early class divisions and conflict. Bill Moyers, for example, gave a speech at Brennan Center for Justice in December 2013, titled "The Great American Class War," referring to the current struggle between democracy and plutocracy in the U. S. Chris Hedges wrote a column for Truthdig called "Let's Get This Class War Started,", a play on Pink's song "Let's Get This Party Started."Historian Steve Fraser, author of The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power, asserts that class conflict is an inevitability if current political and economic conditions continue, noting that “people are fed up… their voices are not being heard.
And I think that can only go on for so long without there being more and more outbreaks of what used to be called class struggle, class warfare.” The typical example of class conflict described is class conflict within capitalism. This class conflict is seen to occur between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, takes the form of conflict over hours of work, value of wages, division of profits, cost of consumer goods, the culture at work, control over parliament or bureaucracy, economic inequality; the particular implementation of government programs which may seem purely humanitarian, such as disaster relief, can be a form of class conflict. In the USA class conflict is noted in labor/management disputes; as far back as 1933 representative Edward Hamilton of ALPA, the Airline Pilot's Association, used the term "class warfare" to describe airline management's opposition at the National Labor Board hearings in October of that year. Apart from these day-to-day forms of class conflict, during periods of crisis or revolution class conflict takes on a violent nature and involves repression, restriction of civil liberties, murderous violence such as assassinations or death squads.
Although Thomas Jefferson led the United States as president from 1801–1809 and is considered one of the founding fathers, he died with immense amounts of debt. Regarding the interaction between social classes, he wrote, I am convinced that those societies which live without government enjoy in their general mass an infinitely greater degree of happiness than those who live under the European governments. Among the former, public opinion is in the place of law, & restrains morals as powerfully as laws did anywhere. Among the latter, under pretence of governing they have divided their nations i
Corriere dei Piccoli
The Corriere dei Piccoli renamed Corriere dei Ragazzi and nicknamed Corrierino, was a weekly magazine for children published in Italy from 1908 to 1995. It was the first Italian periodical to make a regular feature of publishing comic strips. Corriere dei Piccoli was established in 1908; the first issue was published on 27 December 1908, with Silvio Spaventa Filippi as editor-in-chief. It was founded by Luigi Albertini; the magazine was formally a supplement for children of Corriere della Sera, but it was sold separately for 0.10 lira At its acme, the magazine sold 700,000 copies. By 1970 the magazine started having financial difficulties due to rising costs and competition by other magazines and comics books. Feeling that the quaint name was to blame, on 1 January 1972 the publisher renamed the bulk of the magazine Corriere dei Ragazzi, which would be more appealing to teenagers; the name Corriere dei Piccoli survived as the title of a thin supplement of the publication, aimed at the younger readers.
The last issue was dated 15 August 1995. Throughout its history, the Corrierino published material in many genres: stories in comic strip format, illustrated tales and novels, educational material, feature columns, news, readers' letters, board games, more. Although comic strips had been published before in Italian children’s magazines—Il novellino had published American examples including, in 1904, a Yellow Kid cartoon—the Corriere was the first to make them a regular feature and the first to commission original Italian artwork as well as using American strips. A Italian comic strip format was introduced by the Corrierino from its first issue; the full page was divided in three rows. Instead of text balloons, the narrative and dialogue were provided by octosyllabic rhymed couplets underneath each panel, e.g.: In time this format gave way to balloon-captioned comics, besides being the universal norm outside Italy, made for more lively action and dialogue, gave more freedom to the artists in the choice of panel size and layout.
Strips in this "Italian format" continued to make sporadic appearances throughout the life of the magazine aimed at younger readers. Besides introducing comics to Italian public, the Corrierino influenced four generations of Italians, played a significant role in the career of many Italian artists and writers, such as Giana Anguissola, Mino Milani, Hugo Pratt, Lino Penati, Dino Battaglia, Aldo Di Gennaro, Sergio Toppi, Mario Uggeri, Benito Jacovitti, Guido Buzzelli and many more. Comics which appeared in the magazine include: List of magazines published in Italy Spirou, a famous Belgian magazine for children. Tintin a Belgian magazine
"À Suivre" or "A SUIVRE" was a Franco-Belgian comics magazine published from February 1978 to December 1997 by the Casterman publishing house. Along with the comic book magazines Spirou, Tintin and Metal Hurlant, it is considered to have been one of the major vehicles for the development of Franco-Belgian comics during the 20th century. À Suivre was established by Casterman publishing house in 1978. The magazine was published on a monthly basis, it presented the work of major European comic book artists including Hugo Pratt, Jean-Claude Forest, Alexandro Jodorowsky, Milo Manara, Jean Giraud, Jacques Tardi, François Bourgeon, F'Murr, Ted Benoît, Guido Crepax, Vittorio Giardino, François Schuiten, Benoît Sokal and François Boucq. It was pioneer in introducing graphic novels. At the early 1990s À Suivre was printed in full color. List of magazines in Belgium
L'Unità was an Italian newspaper, founded as official newspaper of the Italian Communist Party. Once left-wing, it has been supportive of that party's successor parties, the Democratic Party of the Left, Democrats of the Left and from October 2007 until its closure the Democratic Party; the newspaper closed on 31 July 2014. It was restarted on 30 June 2015, but it ceased again on 3 June 2017. L'Unità was founded by Antonio Gramsci on 12 February 1924 as the "newspaper of workers and peasants", the official newspaper of Italian Communist Party; the paper was printed in Milan with a circulation of 20,000 to 30,000. On 8 November 1925, publications were blocked by the Prefect of the city together with Italian Socialist Party's Avanti!. After an assassination attempt on Benito Mussolini, its publication was suppressed. A clandestine edition was resumed on the first day of 1927 with irregular circulation in Milan, Rome and in France. Full publication was resumed after the Allied conquest of Rome on 6 June 1944, the new editor-in-chief being Celeste Negarville.
After the liberation from the German occupation in 1945, new local editions were started in Milan and Turin, the latter edited by philosopher Ludovico Geymonat. Elio Vittorini became the editor-in-chief of l'Unità during this period; the newspaper's contributors included Davide Layolo, Luigi Cavallo, Ada Gobetti, Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Alfonso Gatto, Aldo Tortorella and Paolo Spriano. In the same year, the Festa de l'Unità was launched in most Italian cities. In 1957, the Genoese and Torinese editions were merged into a single edition for northern Italy; the newspaper's editorships were unified in 1962 under Mario Alicata, succeeded by Maurizio Ferrara in 1966. In 1974, daily circulation of l'Unità amounted to 239,000 copies, but this number dropped starting from early 1980s from the competition with the new left-oriented La Repubblica: the 100 million copies sold in 1981 decreased to 60 million in 1982. In the subsequent year, a document published by the newspaper which accused the Christian Democratic minister Vincenzo Scotti of being a collaborator of the Camorra leader Raffaele Cutolo proved to be a false.
The editor-in-chief Claudio Petruccioli was replaced by Emanuele Macaluso. Massimo D'Alema, the future Prime Minister of Italy, was managing-director until July 1990. From 1989 to 1990, the newspaper was accompanied by a satirical weekly magazine, directed by Michele Serra. In 1991, the title changed from Journal of the Italian Communist Party to Journal founded by Antonio Gramsci. From 1992 to 1996, director was Walter Veltroni, who started periodically accompanying the newspaper with free gifts such as books and videocassettes; the newspaper ceased publication for eight months from 28 July 2000 to 28 March 2001 because of financial troubles. Since it was published by Baldini & Castoldi, a company not linked to the Democrats of the Left or Democratic Party. However, its political position continued to be tied to the Democratic Party. On May 2008, Tiscali founder and Sardinia President Renato Soru finalized a deal to become the new newspaper owner. One of the first moves made by the new property was the appointment of former La Repubblica journalist Concita De Gregorio as new editor-in-chief in August 2008, replacing Antonio Padellaro in the post.
On 7 May 2012, the paper began to be published in Berliner format.l'Unita again suspended publication on 31 July 2014. A meeting of shareholders was unable to decide how to keep the newspaper financially viable as debts amounted to €30 million; the 1988 circulation of l'Unita was 300,000 copies. In 1991, the paper had a circulation of circa 156,000 copies, but next year its circulation was 124,000 copies. In 1997, it was the tenth best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 82,078 copies; the circulation of the paper was 49,536 copies in 2008 and 53,221 copies in 2009. It fell to 44,450 copies in 2010. In April 2014, the paper had a circulation of 20,937 copies