Les Guignols Les Guignols de l'info, was a satirical latex puppet show broadcast on Canal+, a French subscription-based television channel, the show being available without subscription. Hosted by a puppet facsimile of TF1 news anchor Patrick Poivre d'Arvor, Les Guignols was similar to the 1984–1996 British Spitting Image. A segment appeared every weeknight on the Canal+ program Nulle part ailleurs, with a weekly roundup on Sundays; the show started in 1988 as Les Arènes de l'info. It did not follow the news of the day, being written weeks in advance, was not popular, it was not until the first Gulf War that the show began to follow the news. It enjoyed a tremendous growth in popularity and eclipsed its rival, Le Bébête Show; the last episode was aired on 22 June 2018. The Guignols has had a tremendous impact on French popular culture, in many cases introducing or popularizing phrases. For instance, à l'insu de mon plein gré, repeated by Richard Virenque's puppet, is now attributed in jest to people who hypocritically deny having willfully committed attributed acts.
The impact of political caricature in the Guignols is unclear, but some polls have shown that they influence voters. The show went far in how violently it challenged and portrayed public figures; some sketches displayed for example Raymond Barre, a former Prime Minister in a gonzo pornographic scene, President Jacques Chirac and his team in a Pulp Fiction–like destruction race to eliminate their competitors or the then-Minister of Interior Department Nicolas Sarkozy as a flip-flopping politician. The Guignols displays a left-leaning political outlook. While they focus on French politics, they parody international events concerning terrorism, including Osama Bin Laden, the Iraq conflict and Saddam Hussein, United States foreign policy in general; these spoofs on international events are presented in an anti-Bush manner, mocking the fact that grey eminences lead the politic, not the president himself. They often mocked their own TV channel, Canal+, its executive staff; the characters appearing in Les Guignols are based on real personalities of the political and artistic worlds.
The show had a few dozen anonymous puppets at its disposal. PPD is a caricature of a news anchor, he is the main anchor of the show since its first season. He is depicted as a rather cowardly journalist who tries to get on with the mighty and the powerful, while using irony and sarcasm to get his point across, he sports a variety of hairstyles, trying to mask his receding hairline. Despite the end of the news anchor career of the real Patrick Poivre d'Arvor, "PPD" wasn't retired until the 2015 season. Commandant Sylvestre, Cardinal Sylvestre, many others, both named and unnamed, all with the same face, are fictional characters based on the likeness of the American actor Sylvester Stallone, they are parodies of "an ugly American", of greedy multinational corporations, the military-industrial complex. They always say "beuuarhh" instead of "bonsoir" as a greeting. During the first Gulf War, the Guignols had a character called Commandant Sylvestre. Cmdt Sylvestre would explain the war in broad terms After the war, Cmdt Sylvestre was reintroduced as Mr. Sylvestre, an ubiquitous executive from the military-industrial complex, the corporate world, the CIA.
Sylvestre wears a security badge. Cardinal Sylvestre, joined with Reverend Sylvestre, Imam Sylvestre, Rabbi Sylvestre and other religious leaders, form the Church Company, twin sister of the World Company specialized in "religious business". Since the beginning of the European economic crisis, Mr. Sylvestre is a Moody's analyst. During the 2017 season, he was the show's main anchor. In the last episode, he portrays the CEO who fires PPD and Jacques Chirac. Jacques Chirac, the president of France from 1995 to 2007, is depicted as beer-guzzling, incompetent liar, yet coming off as charming and well-loved; the Guignols went as far as to introduce Super Menteur, a super hero, into whom Jacques Chirac changes into at times of need. Super Menteur is capable of uttering unbelievable lies without getting caught. Only one person is a better liar, Ultra menteur, portrayed by French retired politician Charles Pasqua, convicted in some corruption cases, he served as the show's main anchor during its last season, in 2018.
George W. Bush is depicted as a cretin along with his father, he shows a tendency to war and fights terrorism in his bedroom, defending himself with hand grenades. His laptop password is "connard", he appears along with one of the Sylvestres, who himself gets portrayed as the guy in charge. Joey Starr and Doc Gynéco: The rapper Joey Starr, convicted of violence, is portrayed as a brutal individual, he is coupled with rapper Doc Gynéco to discuss the consumption of cannabis. Bernard Tapie, a French businessman, is represented as a bully, speaking in a frank, blunt an
Laurent Mourguet was a French puppeteer, creator of the famous puppet Guignol. Guignol Laurent Mourguet on Wikisource Société des Amis de Guignol Portail des Arts de la Marionnette Jean Guy Mourguet présente Guignol. Institut national de l’audiovisuel Jean-Guy Mourguet raconte Guignol au Musée des marionnettes du monde
Pulcinella is a classical character that originated in commedia dell'arte of the 17th century and became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. Engineered to be the star of southern Italy, he is described as "the voice of the people, as the direct expression of a people as lively and spirited as the Neapolitans is never questioned." Pulcinella's versatility in status and attitude has captivated audiences worldwide and kept the character popular in countless forms since his introduction to commedia dell'arte by Silvio Fiorillo in 1620. Pulcinella was raised by two "fathers", Maccus and Bucco, who were as different as two parents could be. Maccus is described as being witty, sarcastic and cruel, while Bucco is a nervous thief, as silly as he is full of himself; this duality manifested itself in both the way he acts. Physically, the characteristics he inherited from his fathers attributed to his top-heavy, chicken-like shape, he inherited his humpback, his large, crooked nose, his gangly legs from Maccus.
His potbelly, large cheeks, gigantic mouth come from Bucco. Due to this duality of parental lineage, Pulcinella can be portrayed as both a servant and master depending on the scenario. "Upper" Pulcinella is more like Bucco, with a scheming nature, an aggressive sensuality, great intelligence. "Lower" Pulcinella, favors Maccus, is brilliantly described by Pierre Louis Duchartre as being "a dull and coarse bumpkin." This juxtaposition of proud, cunning thief from the upper class and loud, crass pervert from the servant class is one, key to understanding Pulcinella's behaviors. Duality is the name of the game with Pulcinella, he either plays dumb, though he is much aware of the situation or- he acts as though he is the most intelligent and competent, though he is woefully ignorant. He is incessantly trying to rise above his station, he is a social chameleon, who tries to get those below him to think of him, but is sure to appease those in positions of power. Pulcinella's closing couplet translates to "I am Prince of everything, Lord of land and main.
Except for my public whose faithful servant I remain." However, because his world is that of a servant, he has no real investment in preserving the socio-political world of his master. He is always on the side of the winner, though he doesn't decide this until after they've won. No matter his initial intent, Pulcinella always manages to win. If something ends poorly, another thing is successful. If he is put out in a sense, he is rewarded in another; this accidental triumph is his normal. Another important characteristic of Pulcinella is. Consequences are of no mind to him, it is said that he is so wonderful to watch because he does what audience members would do were they not afraid of the consequences. Pulcinella is, the ultimate self-preservationist, looking out for himself in most every situation, yet he still manages to sort out the affairs of everyone around him. Antonio Fava, a world-renowned maskmaker and Maestro of Commedia dell'arte is fond of the character in both performance and study due to his influence and continuity throughout history.
Of him, Fava explained that "Pulcinella, a man without dignity, is indespensable to us all: without... none of his countless'bosses' could escape from the awkward tangle of troubles in which they find themselves. Pulcinella is everyone's saviour, saved by no one." This accidental helpfulness is key to his success. He goes out of his way to avoid responsibility, yet always ends up with more of it than he bargained for, his movements are broad and laborious, allowing him to aggressively emphasize his speech and exhausting him. He will get excited about something and move quickly and deliberately, leaving him with no choice but to halt the action and catch his breath, he is to be thought of as a rebellious delinquent in the body of an old man. Traditionally made of leather, Pulcinella's mask is either black or dark brown, to imply weathering from the sun, his nose is always the most prominent feature of the mask by far. It can be long and curved, hooking over the mouth, but either way, the nose is to resemble that of a bird's beak.
There is a wart somewhere on the mask on the forehead or nose. Furrowed eyebrows and deep wrinkles are important, though there is room for artistic interpretation there, he can have a protruding brow ridge, knitted brows, a furrowed brow, or raised eyebrows. No matter the implication behind them, it is important that they are wrinkled and prominent enough to match the exaggerated style of commedia dell'arte masks; the mask used to feature a bushy black mustache or beard, but this was abandoned through the 17th century for the most part. Pulcinella is most portrayed in a baggy, white ensemble consisting of a long sleeved, loose-fitting blouse with buttons down the front, he paired this with wide-legged trousers, the whole outfit complemented by a belt of sorts that cinches below the belly. This gives him a place to hold props while emphasizing his pot belly. A hat is always worn, it can either be a skull cap, or hat with turn-up brims, a soft conical hat whose point lays down, or a rigid sugar-loaf hat.
The sugar loaf hat gained popularity in the late early 18th centuries. Either hat is white. There are two main props in Pulcinella's arsenal; the first is a cudgel, a short stick used as a weapon. He calls this his "staff of cred
Le Théâtre du Grand-Guignol – known as the Grand Guignol – was a theatre in the Pigalle neighborhood of Paris. From its opening in 1897 until its closing in 1962, it specialised in naturalistic horror shows, its name is used as a general term for graphic, amoral horror entertainment, a genre popular from Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, to today's splatter films. Le Théâtre du Grand-Guignol was founded in 1894 by Oscar Méténier, who planned it as a space for naturalist performance. With 293 seats, the venue was the smallest in Paris. A former chapel, the theatre's previous life was evident in the boxes – which looked like confessionals – and in the angels over the orchestra. Although the architecture created frustrating obstacles, the design, a predicament became beneficial to the marketing of the theatre; the opaque furniture and gothic structures placed sporadically on the walls of the building exude a feeling of eeriness from the moment of entrance. People came to this theatre for an experience, not only to see a show.
The audience at "Le Théâtre du Grand-Guignol" endured the terror of the shows because they wanted to be filled with strong “feelings” of something. Many attended the shows to get a feeling of arousal. Underneath the balcony were boxes that were available for theatre-goers to rent during performances because they would get so aroused by the action happening on stage, it has been said that audience members would get so boisterous in the boxes, that actors would sometimes break character and yell something such as “Keep it down in there!” Conversely, there were audience members who could not physically handle the brutality of the actions taking place on stage. The “special effects” would be too realistic and an audience member would faint or vomit during performances; the theatre owed its name to Guignol, a traditional Lyonnaise puppet character, joining political commentary with the style of Punch and Judy. The theatre's peak was between World War I and World War II, when it was frequented by royalty and celebrities in evening dress.
Oscar Méténier was the Grand Guignol's founder and original director. Under his direction, the theatre produced plays about a class of people who were not considered appropriate subjects in other venues: prostitutes, street urchins and others at the lower end of Paris's social echelon. Max Maurey served as director from 1898 to 1914. Maurey shifted the theatre's emphasis to the horror plays it would become famous for and judged the success of a performance by the number of patrons who passed out from shock. Maurey discovered André de Lorde, who would become the most important playwright for the theatre. De Lorde was the theatre's principal playwright from 1901 to 1926, he wrote at least 100 plays for the Grand Guignol and collaborated with experimental psychologist Alfred Binet to create plays about insanity, one of the theatre's favourite and recurring themes. Camille Choisy served as director from 1914 to 1930, he contributed his expertise in special effects and scenery to the theatre's distinctive style.
Paula Maxa was one of the Grand Guignol's best-known performers. From 1917 to the 1930s, she performed most as a victim and was known as "the most assassinated woman in the world." During her career at the Grand Guignol, Maxa's characters were murdered more than 10,000 times in at least 60 different ways and raped at least 3,000 times. Jack Jouvin served as director from 1930 to 1937, he shifted the theatre's subject matter, focusing performances not on gory horror but psychological drama. Under his leadership, the theatre's popularity waned and, after World War II, it was not well-attended. Charles Nonon was the theatre's last director. At the Grand Guignol, patrons would see five or six plays, all in a style that attempted to be brutally true to the theatre's naturalistic ideals; the plays were in a variety of styles, but the most popular and best known were the horror plays, featuring a distinctly bleak worldview as well as notably gory special effects in their notoriously bloody climaxes. The horrors depicted at Grand Guignol were not supernatural.
To heighten the effect, the horror plays were alternated with comedies. Le Laboratoire des Hallucinations, by André de Lorde: When a doctor finds his wife's lover in his operating room, he performs a graphic brain surgery, rendering the adulterer a hallucinating semi-zombie. Now insane, the lover/patient hammers a chisel into the doctor's brain. Un Crime dans une Maison de Fous, by André de Lorde: Two hags in an insane asylum use scissors to blind a pretty, young fellow inmate out of jealousy. L'Horrible Passion, by André de Lorde: A nanny strangles the children in her care. Le Baiser dans la Nuit, by Maurice Level: A young woman visits the man whose face she horribly disfigured with acid, where he obtains his revenge. Audiences waned in the years following World War II, the Grand Guignol closed its doors in 1962. Management attributed the closure in part to the fact that the theatre's faux horrors had been eclipsed by the actual events of the Holocaust two decades earlier. "We could never equal Buchenwald," said its final director, Charles Nonon.
"Before the war, everyone felt. Now we know that these things, worse, are possible in reality."The Grand Guignol building still exists. It is occupied by International Visual Theatre
Commedia dell'arte was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, popular in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. Commedia dell'arte is known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, commedia dell'arte all'improvviso. Commedia is a form of theatre characterized by masked "types" which began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of actresses and improvised performances based on sketches or scenarios. A commedia, such as The Tooth Puller, is both improvised. Characters' entrances and exits are scripted. A special characteristic of commedia dell'arte are the lazzi. A lazzo is a joke or "something foolish or witty" well known to the performers and to some extent a scripted routine. Another characteristic of commedia dell'arte is pantomime, used by the character Arlecchino; the characters of the commedia represent fixed social types and stock characters, such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. The characters are exaggerated "real characters", such as a know-it-all doctor called Il Dottore, a greedy old man called Pantalone, or a perfect relationship like the Innamorati.
Many troupes were formed to perform commedia dell'arte, including I Gelosi, Confidenti Troupe, Desioi Troupe, Fedeli Troupe. Commedia dell'arte was performed outside on platforms or in popular areas such as a piazza; the form of theatre originated in Italy, but travelled throughout Europe and to Moscow. The commedia genesis may be related to carnival in Venice, where by 1570 the author/actor Andrea Calmo had created the character Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio Pantalone. In the Flaminio Scala scenario for example, Il Magnifico persists and is interchangeable with Pantalone, into the seventeenth century. While Calmo's characters were not masked, it is uncertain at what point the characters donned the mask. However, the connection to carnival would suggest that masking was a convention of carnival and was applied at some point; the tradition in Northern Italy is centered in Mantua and Venice, where the major companies came under the aegis of the various dukes. Concomitantly, a Neapolitan tradition emerged in the south and featured the prominent stage figure Pulcinella.
Pulcinella has been long associated with Naples, derived into various types elsewhere—the most famous as the puppet character Punch in England. Although commedia dell'arte flourished in Italy during the Mannerist period, there has been a long-standing tradition of trying to establish historical antecedents in antiquity. While it is possible to detect formal similarities between the commedia dell'arte and earlier theatrical traditions, there is no way to establish certainty of origin; some date the origins to the period of the Empire. The Atellan Farces of the Roman Empire featured crude "types" wearing masks with grossly exaggerated features and an improvised plot; some historians argue that Atellan stock characters, Maccus+Buccus, Manducus, are the primitive versions of the Commedia characters Pantalone, il Capitano. More recent accounts establish links to the medieval jongleurs, prototypes from medieval moralities, such as Hellequin; the first recorded commedia dell'arte performances came from Rome as early as 1551.
Commedia dell'arte was performed outdoors in temporary venues by professional actors who were costumed and masked, as opposed to commedia erudita, which were written comedies, presented indoors by untrained and unmasked actors. This view may be somewhat romanticized since records describe the Gelosi performing Tasso's Aminta, for example, much was done at court rather than in the street. By the mid-16th century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, by 1568 the Gelosi became a distinct company. In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adopted as their impress the two-faced Roman god Janus. Janus symbolized both the comings and goings of this traveling troupe, the dual nature of the actor who impersonates the "other." The Gelosi performed in Northern Italy and France where they received protection and patronage from the King of France. Despite fluctuations the Gelosi maintained stability for performances with the "usual ten": "two vecchi, four innamorati, two zanni, a captain and a servetta".
It should be noted that commedia performed inside in court theatres or halls, as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence. Flaminio Scala, a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy; these scenari are structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zanni, vecchi and inamorati, etc. In commedia dell'arte, female roles were played by women, documented as early as the 1560s. In the 1570s, English theatre critics denigrated the troupes with their female actors. By the end of the 1570s, Italian prelates attempted to ban female performers. T
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "armed people". In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces responsible for internal security in parts of the territory with additional duties as a military police for the armed forces; this concept was introduced to several other Western European countries during the Napoleonic conquests. In the mid twentieth century, a number of former French mandates or colonial possessions such as Lebanon and the Republic of the Congo adopted a gendarmerie after independence; the growth and expansion of gendarmerie units worldwide has been linked to an increasing reluctance by some governments to use military units entrusted with external defense for combating internal threats. A somewhat related phenomenon has been the formation of paramilitary units which fall under the authority of civilian police agencies.
Since these are not military forces, they are not considered gendarmerie. Some of the more prominent modern gendarmerie organizations include the French National Gendarmerie, Spanish Civil Guard, Italian Carabinieri, Portuguese National Republican Guard and the Turkish Gendarmerie; the word gendarme comes from the Old French gens d'armes. During the Late Medieval to the Early Modern period, the term referred to a armoured cavalryman of noble birth serving in the French army; the word gained policing connotations only after the French Revolution when the Maréchaussée of the Ancien Régime was renamed the Gendarmerie. The spelling in English was gendarmery, but now the French spelling gendarmerie is more common; the Oxford English Dictionary uses gendarmery as the principal spelling. These forces are titled "gendarmerie", but gendarmeries may bear other titles, for instance the Carabinieri in Italy, the Guarda Nacional Republicana in Portugal, the Guardia Civil in Spain, the Royal Marechaussee in the Netherlands or Internal Troops/National Guard in Ukraine and Russia.
As a result of their duties within the civilian population, gendarmeries are sometimes described as "paramilitary" rather than "military" forces although this description corresponds to their official status and capabilities. Gendarmes are rarely deployed in military situations, except in humanitarian deployments abroad. A gendarmerie may come under the authority of a ministry of defence, a ministry of the interior, or both at once. There is some coordination between a ministry of defence and a ministry of the interior over the use of gendarmes. A few forces which are no longer considered military retain the title "gendarmerie" for reasons of tradition. For instance, the French language title of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is Gendarmerie royale du Canada because this force traditionally had some military-style functions and has retained its status as a regiment of dragoons; the Argentine Gendarmerie is a military force in terms of training and public perception, was involved in combat in the Falklands War, however it is classified as a "security force" not an "armed force", to exercise jurisdiction over the civilian population under Argentine law.
Since different countries may make different use of institutional terms such as "gendarmerie", there are cases in which the term may become confusing. For instance, in the French-speaking Cantons of Switzerland the "gendarmeries" are the uniformed civil police. In Chile, the word "gendarmerie" refers for historic reasons to the prison service, while the actual gendarmerie force is called the "carabineros". In some cases, a police service's military links are ambiguous and it can be unclear whether a force should be defined as a gendarmerie; some historical military units, such as South-West Africa's Koevoet, were only defined as police for political reasons. Services such as the Italian Guardia di Finanza would be defined as gendarmeries since the service is of an ambiguous military status and does not have general policing duties amongst the civilian population. In Russia, the modern National Guard are military units with quasi-police duties but different bodies within the Tsarist Special Corps of Gendarmes performed a variety of functions as an armed rural constabulary, urban riot control units, frontier guards, intelligence agents and political police.
Prior to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, British rule was based on the Royal Irish Constabulary—a drilled and armed force located in rural "barracks", a gendarmerie in all but in name. In 2014 the Mexican Federal Police, a armed force which has many attributes of a gendarmerie, created a new seventh branch of service called the National Gendarmerie Division; the new force would number 5,000 personnel and was created with the assistance of the French gendarmerie. In comparison to civilian police forces, gendarmeries may provide a more disciplined force whose military capabilities make them more capable of dealing with armed groups and wit
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly