Maize, known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP.
Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation.
At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decoration
The Tischofer Cave is a cave in the Kaisertal valley in the Kaisergebirge mountains in Austria. It was important locally as a place and weapons cache for local rebels during the Napoleonic Wars. The roughly 40 m long cave, which is about 8.5 m high at the entrance, was used during the Stone Age by bears and other predators as shelter and that makes the Tischofer Cave the oldest proven site of human occupation in Tyrol. Discoveries of human skeletons and tools indicate that the cave acted as a copper smithy, the Tischofer Cave may be reached on foot via the Kaiser Path in the Kaisertal valley, a pathway secured with cable railings. It is recorded in the Tyrolean Cave Register as number 1312/001, article from Hofmann, Wege im Inntal with comprehensive description Die Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal bei Kufstein at www. tirol-infos. at. Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal at www. kaisergebirge-online. de
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Science, widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the worlds top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve an audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a field, Science. According to the Journal Citation Reports, Sciences 2015 impact factor was 34.661, although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world, competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 7% of articles submitted are accepted for publication, Science is based in Washington, D. C. United States, with an office in Cambridge, England.
Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, however, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500. In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, after Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. After Cattells death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShanes leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly, physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date.
During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published, biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position, biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008, geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1,2016
Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. There is a difference between domestic and wild populations. The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. Among birds, the domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey, guineafowl. Birds are kept as cagebirds, from songbirds to parrots. The longest established invertebrate domesticates are the bee and the silkworm. Terrestrial snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, the domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, and the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops, Domestication means belonging to the house.
Animals domesticated for home companionship are usually called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are called livestock or farm animals and this definition recognizes both the biological and the cultural components of the domestication process and the impacts on both humans and the domesticated animals and plants. All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in who was considered as the partner in the relationship. This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship in both partners gain benefits. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants, Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The domestication of animals is the relationship between animals with the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors, there is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations.
Domestication should not be confused with taming, the beginnings of animal domestication involved a protracted coevolutionary process with multiple stages along different pathways. The dog was the first domesticant, and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. Humans did not intend to domesticate animals from, or at least they did not envision a domesticated animal resulting from, in both of these cases, humans became entangled with these species as the relationship between them, and the human role in their survival and reproduction, intensified. Although the directed pathway proceeded from capture to taming, the two pathways are not as goal-oriented and archaeological records suggest that they take place over much longer time frames
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Cucurbita pepo is a cultivated plant of the genus Cucurbita. It yields varieties of squash and pumpkin, but the most widespread varieties belong to Cucurbita pepo subsp. It has been domesticated in the New World for thousands of years, some authors maintain that C. pepo is derived from C. texana, while others suggest that C. texana is merely feral C. pepo. They have a variety of uses, especially as a food source. C. pepo seems more closely related to C. fraterna, though disagreements exist about the nature of that connection. The morphological differences within the species C. pepo are so vast, its various subspecies and these vast differences are rooted in its widespread geographic distribution. C. pepo is one of the oldest, if not the oldest domesticated species, the oldest known locations are in southern Mexico in Oaxaca 8, 000-10,000 years ago and Ocampo, Mexico about 7,000 years ago. Its ancient territory extended north into Texas and up the Greater Mississippi River Valley into Illinois and east to Florida and it is known to have appeared in Missouri at least 4,000 years ago.
Some varieties grow in regions and some in moist regions. Debates about the origin of C. pepo have been going on since at least 1857, two opposing theories are given about its origin, 1) C. pepo is a direct descendant of C. texana and 2) C. texana is feral C. pepo. C. pepo may have appeared in the Old World prior to moving from Mexico into South America and it is found from sea level to slightly above 2,000 m. Leaves have three to five lobes and are 20–35 cm wide, all the subspecies and cultivars are conspecific and interfertile. They are associated with C. fraterna or a still unknown ancestral specimen in southern Mexico, wild C. pepo is still found in the same areas as C. fraterna in Mexico. C. pepo has more similarities to C. fraterna than it does to C. texana, all studied C. fraterna alleles are found in C. pepo. Consequently, C. fraterna is the nearest relative of C. pepo, C. pepo is most likely an early domesticated form of C. fraterna. It crosses well with both C. pepo and C. texana, unlike most wild Cucurbita species, some fruit specimens of C. fraterna have been found that were not bitter.
Its usual habitat is dry scrub areas. C. pepo could be a compilospecies of C. fraterna and C. texana, C. fraterna is genetically closer to the first group and C. texana is genetically closer to the second group
Three Sisters (agriculture)
The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups in North America, winter squash and climbing beans. The Iroquois, among others, used these Three Sisters as trade goods, in a technique known as companion planting the three crops are planted close together. Flat-topped mounds of soil are built for each cluster of crops, each mound is about 30 cm high and 50 cm wide, and several maize seeds are planted close together in the center of each mound. In parts of the Atlantic Northeast, rotten fish or eels are buried in the mound with the maize seeds, when the maize is 15 cm tall and squash are planted around the maize, alternating between the two kinds of seeds. The process to develop this agricultural knowledge took place over 5, squash was domesticated first, with maize second and beans being domesticated. Squash was first domesticated 8, 000–10,000 years ago, the three crops benefit from each other. The maize provides a structure for the beans to climb, eliminating the need for poles, the beans provide the nitrogen to the soil that the other plants use, and the squash spreads along the ground, blocking the sunlight, helping prevent the establishment of weeds.
The squash leaves act as a mulch, creating a microclimate to retain moisture in the soil. Corn and squash contain complex carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and all eight essential amino acids, Native Americans throughout North America are known for growing variations of Three Sisters gardens. The milpas of Mesoamerica are farms or gardens that employ companion planting on a larger scale, the Ancestral Puebloans are known for adopting this garden design in a drier environment. The Tewa and other peoples of the Southwestern United States often included a fourth Sister, Rocky Mountain bee plant, the Three Sisters planting method is featured on the reverse of the 2009 US Sacagawea dollar. Companion Planting-Three Sisters, Old Farmers Almanac Virtual Museum of Canada, The St. Lawrence Iroquoians — virtual exhibit that includes information on Iroquoian agriculture and the Three Sisters
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
In botany, a peduncle is a stem supporting an inflorescence, or after fecundation, an infructescence. The peduncle is a stem, usually green, though some peduncles are more or less florally colored or neutral in color, having no particular pigmentation. In some species, peduncles are leafless, though others bear leaves, or even cataphylls, at nodes. The peduncle may be ramified, in case the ramifications are called pedicels. When an unbranched peduncle has no obvious nodes, rises directly from a bulb or stem, the acorns of the pedunculate oak are borne on a long peduncle, hence the name of the tree
Stratigraphy is a key concept to modern archaeological theory and practice. Modern excavation techniques are based on stratigraphic principles, the concept derives from the geological use of the idea that sedimentation takes place according to uniform principles. It is the role to attempt to discover what contexts exist. Archaeological stratification or sequence is the superimposition of single units of stratigraphy. Contexts are single events or actions that leave discrete, detectable traces in the sequence or stratigraphy. They can be deposits, structures, or zero thickness surfaciques, cuts represent actions that remove other solid contexts such as fills and walls. An example would be a cut through earlier deposits. Stratigraphic relationships are the relationships created between contexts in time, representing the order they were created. One example would be a ditch and the back-fill of said ditch, the temporal relationship of the fill context to the ditch cut context is such that the fill occurred in the sequence, you have to dig a ditch before you can back-fill it.
It is more useful to think of higher as it relates to the position in a Harris matrix. The principle of original horizontality states that any archaeological layer deposited in a form will tend towards a horizontal deposition. Strata which are found with tilted surfaces were so originally deposited, the principle of lateral continuity states that any archaeological deposit, as originally laid down, will be bounded by the edge of the basin of deposition, or will thin down to a feather edge. Understanding a site in modern archaeology is a process of grouping single contexts together in larger groups by virtue of their relationships. The terminology of these larger clusters varies depending on the practitioner, but the interface, sub-group. An example of a sub-group could be the three contexts that make up a burial, the cut, the body, and the back-filled earth on top of the body. Sub-groups can be clustered together with other sub-groups by virtue of their relationship to form groups. A sub-group burial could cluster with other sub-group burials to form a cemetery, archaeologists investigating a site may wish to date the activity rather than artifacts on site by dating the individual contexts which represents events.
For example, the date of formation of a context which is sealed between two datable layers will fall between the dates of the two layers sealing it