U.S. Route 30
U. S. Route 30 is an east–west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country, it is the third longest U. S. route, after U. S. Route 20 and U. S. Route 6; the western end of the highway is at Oregon. Despite long stretches of parallel and concurrent Interstate Highways, it has not been decommissioned unlike other long haul routes such as U. S. Route 66. Much of the historic Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, became part of US 30; the west end of US 30 is at an intersection with U. S. Route 101 at the south end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge in downtown Astoria, Oregon 5 miles from the Pacific Ocean, it heads east to Portland, where it uses a short section of freeway built for the canceled Interstate 505. From there it heads around the north side of downtown on Interstate 405 and Interstate 5 to reach Interstate 84. Most of the rest of the route is concurrent with I-84, with only about 70 miles, under 1/5 of its remaining length, off the freeway on old alignments.
Upon entering Idaho, US 30 runs along its old surface route through Fruitland and New Plymouth before joining I-84. It leaves at Bliss and soon crosses the Snake River, running south of it through Twin Falls and Burley before crossing it again and rejoining I-84. At the split with Interstate 86, US 30 continues east with I-86 to its end at Pocatello. US 30 cuts southeast through downtown Pocatello to Interstate 15. There it exits and heads east and southeast, not parallel to an Interstate for the first time since Portland, into Wyoming; the Thousand Springs Scenic Byway is a picturesque section of old US 30 in southern Idaho between the towns of Bliss and Buhl, dipping down into the Hagerman Valley and a canyon of the Snake River. The byway takes its name from the numerous streams and rivulets springing forth out of the east wall of that canyon, many of them plainly visible from the road, with the panoramic river in the foreground; these springs are outlets from the Snake River Aquifer, which flows through thousands of square miles of porous volcanic rock and is one of the largest groundwater systems in the world.
The aquifer is believed In Wyoming, US 30 heads southeast through Kemmerer to Granger, where it joins Interstate 80 across southern Wyoming. It is here that it joins the historic Lincoln Highway; as in the previous two states, US 30 remains with the Interstate for most of its path, only leaving for the old route in the following places: 97 miles from Walcott to Laramie 12 miles through Cheyenne 2 miles through Pine Bluffs to the Nebraska state line Unlike the three states to the west, Nebraska keeps US 30 separate from its parallel Interstates. From the state line to Grand Island, US 30 parallels I-80. East of Grand Island, US 30 diverges from I-80 and runs northeast towards Columbus on a highway parallel to the Platte River. At Columbus, it turns east towards Schuyler and Fremont and crosses the Missouri River into Iowa east of Blair. US 30 crosses Iowa from west to east 20 miles north of Interstate 80. Between Missouri Valley and Denison, the highway runs in a southwest-to-northeast direction.
Several freeway bypasses have been built around the major cities on US 30 - Ames, Tama, Cedar Rapids and DeWitt. It crosses the Mississippi River into Illinois on the Gateway Bridge at Clinton. U. S. Route 30S and U. S. Route 30A are two previous alternate alignments of U. S. Route 30 in Iowa, they followed the original alignment of US 30 in Iowa. They both began in Nebraska, entered Iowa in Council Bluffs, extended north to Missouri Valley via Crescent to meet the current highway. US 30 heads east in Illinois to Rock Falls, where it begins to parallel Interstate 88. At Aurora it turns southeast to Joliet, where it is a major thoroughfare in the city of Joliet, back east through New Lenox, Mokena, Olympia Fields, Chicago Heights, Ford Heights, Lynwood to the Indiana state line, bypassing Chicago to the south; the original 1926 routing of US 30 ran directly through downtown Chicago, however. US 30 in Indiana is a major rural divided highway, it is not a freeway except at Fort Wayne, where it runs around the north side on Interstate 69 and Interstate 469.
Between I-65 and I-69, there are over 40 traffic signals on this divided highway, hindering smooth traffic flow. This is pronounced near Warsaw and Columbia City, where the speed limit is reduced and there are many driveways from businesses, as well as traffic signals that are too near each other and poorly timed, causing frequent bottlenecks. Warsaw's Mayor, Joe Thallemer, has caused most of the bottleneck by continuing to allow new signal lights to pop up on US 30 during his tenure in office. Many of the other signals are concentrated between Hobart and Valparaiso, the two cities being about 20 miles apart, it is, however, a four lane divided road through its entirety within Indiana avoiding small towns. Speed limits range, but are 60 miles per hour. US 30 heads east across northern Ohio via Canton. After several upgrades, it is now a four-lane divided highway from the Indiana state line to Canton with controlled-access freeway sections between Van Wert and Delphos and Canton, Ohio. At Upper Sandusky, the highway runs concurrent with US 23.
After Canton, the road continues on to East Liverpool as two-lane highway (until, near the unincorporated
Hamiltonban Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania
Hamiltonban Township is a township in Adams County, United States. The population was 2,372 at the 2010 census; the township is named after Hamiltonsbawn in Northern Ireland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 39.3 square miles, of which 39.2 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.29%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,216 people, 827 households, 621 families residing in the township; the population density was 56.6 people per square mile. There were 898 housing units at an average density of 22.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 96.98% White, 0.23% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.31% of the population. There were 827 households, out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.4% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were non-families.
19.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.97. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.6% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 101.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $42,235, the median income for a family was $48,750. Males had a median income of $32,250 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,344. About 4.0% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Residents of Hamiltonban Township may attend the local, public schools operated by Fairfield Area School District which provides full day kindergarten through 12th grade.
In 2013, the Fairfield Area School District's enrollment had declined to just 1,117 students in kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2013, the Pittsburgh Business Times ranked Fairfield Area School District 303rd out of 498 public schools for academic achievement of its pupils. In 2012, Fairfield Area School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress though the Fairfield Area High School was in Warning AYP status, due to lagging student achievement in reading. Hamiltonban Township residents may choose between two local public charter schools: Vida Charter School and Gettysburg Montessori Charter School. In Pennsylvania, residents may attend public charter schools at no cost to the parents; the tuition is paid by their public school system. By Commonwealth law, if the public school district provides transportation for its own students the district must provide transportation to any school that lies within 10 miles of its borders, as well as, all schools within its borders. Vida Charter School is a public school located in the Eisenhower Center, 120 E. Broadway, Gettysburg.
Vida Charter school offers full day kindergarten through 6th grade. In 2013, Vida Charter School achieved a score 81.1 of out of 100 for student achievement. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools, achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. In 2012, Vida Charter School achieved Adequate yearly Progress. Children residing in Hamiltonban Township may attend Gettysburg Montessori Charter School, which offers full day Kindergarten through 6th grade; this public charter school operates at Gettysburg. The Gettysburg Montessori Charter School achieved AYP in both 2011 and 2012. In 2013, Gettysburg Montessori Charter School achieved a score of 64 out of 100; the score reflects on grade level: reading, science and mathematics achievement. Hamiltonban Township residents may apply to attend any of the Commonwealth's 14 public cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the parents; the resident’s public school district is required to pay the charter school and cyber charter school tuition for residents who attend these public schools.
Hamiltonban Township residents may seek admission for their school aged child to any other public school district. When accepted for admission, the student's parents are responsible for paying an annual tuition fee set by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. In 2012, the tuition fees for Fairfield Area School District were: Elementary School - $9,208.47, High School - $9,232.05. High School aged students living in Hamiltonban Township can attend the taxpayer funded Adams County Tech Prep for training in the building trades, the culinary arts, Diesel Mechanics, allied health including Emergency Medical Technician certification and other areas; the school is located on the Gettysburg Area High School campus at 1130 Old Harrisburg Road. Adams County Tech Prep is funded by a consortium of the school districts, which includes: Gettysburg Area School District, Littlestown Area School District, Fairfield Area School District, Conewago Valley School District and Bermudian Springs School District.
Lincoln Intermediate Unit #12 provides a wide variety of services to children living in its region which includes Hamiltonban Township. Early screening, special educations services and hearing therapy and many other services like driver education are available. Services for children during the preschool years are provided without cost to their families when the child is determined to meet eligibility requirements. Libraries Community mem
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Antietam Creek is a 41.7-mile-long tributary of the Potomac River located in south central Pennsylvania and western Maryland in the United States, a region known as the Hagerstown Valley. The creek became famous as a focal point of the Battle of Antietam during the American Civil War; the creek is formed in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, at the confluence of the West and East Branches of Antietam Creek, about 2.3 miles south of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. Welty's Mill Bridge crosses the East Branch of Little Antietam at Washington Township in Franklin County, Pennsylvania; the stream runs for about 0.5 miles upon its entering Washington County, Maryland. The course proceeds southward in a meandering pattern, the creek empties into the Potomac south of Sharpsburg about 50 miles upstream of Washington; the watershed area includes parts of Franklin County and Washington County. Major tributaries in Pennsylvania include Red Run and Falls Creek. Major tributaries in Maryland include Little Antietam Creek, Beaver Creek, Marsh Run.
Communities in the watershed include Waynesboro in Pennsylvania. The term "Antietam" is thought to be a derivative of an Algonquian phrase meaning "swift-flowing stream"; the creek is noted for numerous well-preserved stone arch bridges dating to the 19th century that still traverse the creek, the most famous of, the 125-foot-long Burnside's Bridge in the Antietam National Battlefield. The creek was a major topographic feature during the Battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg, fought on September 17, 1862, near the creek's mouth. Burnside's Bridge became a major focus of combat as Union forces under General Ambrose Burnside tried to capture the bridge from Confederate forces guarding the crossing from a high bluff overlooking the creek; the day of the battle is known as "the day Antietam Creek ran red" due to the blood of thousands of Union casualties mixing with the creek waters. Both sides lost about a fourth of their number but, despite General McClellan's refusal to press on his attacks, it served as a tactical Union victory, as Lee was forced to withdraw from Maryland.
Most of the watershed area is rural in nature, but the area surrounding Hagerstown is threatened by urban sprawl. The area is heavily cultivated, waste runoff from farms is a growing water quality concern; the Maryland Department of the Environment has identified farm runoff as the largest source of sediment in Antietam Creek and its tributaries. The second largest source is urban runoff. MDE recommends that farmers implement best management practices on their lands to control runoff, such as installing riparian buffers. List of Maryland rivers List of Pennsylvania rivers Baynes, T. S. ed. "Antietam", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 127 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Antietam", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, Cambridge University Press, p. 124 Antietam Creek Watershed Alliance Antietam Watershed Association Battle of Antietam
Bridge between Guilford and Hamilton Townships
Bridge between Guilford and Hamilton Townships is a historic multi-span stone arch bridge located at Guilford Township and Hamilton Township in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. It is a 100-foot-long, bridge with two spans each measuring 36-foot-long, it was constructed before 1860. It crosses Conococheague Creek, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982
Gass House known as Gass Family Home, Farm House at Franklin Farms, Union Plantation, is a historic home located at Guilford Township in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. The house was built about 1760, is a 2 1/2-story, five bay, fieldstone dwelling, it has two bay by two bay limestone extension on the north side. It is an example of Scotch-Irish farmhouse architecture. William Gass, a fuller who had immigrated from Ireland, built the house about 1760 and left it to his brother Benjamin. Benjamin's son, Patrick Gass was born in the house. Patrick became a soldier and a carpenter and was an important member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Patrick was in line to inherit the house, but it is unclear whether he lived in it as the owner. In 1808 the house was sold to the county for use as an almshouse, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for