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Guillaume Amontons was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist. He was one of the pioneers in studying the problem of friction, the resistance to motion where bodies are in contact. Guillaume was born in France, his father was a lawyer from Normandy. While still young, Guillaume lost his hearing, which may have motivated him to focus on science, he never attended a university, but was able to study mathematics, the physical sciences, celestial mechanics. He spent time studying the skills of drawing and architecture, he died in France. He was supported in his research career by the government, was employed in various public works projects. Among his contributions to scientific instrumentation were improvements to the barometer and thermometer for use of these instruments at sea, he demonstrated an optical telegraph and proposed the use of his clepsydra for keeping time on a ship at sea. Amontons investigated the relationship between pressure and temperature in gases though he lacked accurate and precise thermometers.

Though his results were at best semi-quantitative, he established that the pressure of a gas increases by one-third between the temperatures of cold and the boiling point of water. This was a substantial step towards the subsequent gas laws and, in particular, Gay-Lussac's law, his work led him to speculate that a sufficient reduction in temperature would lead to the disappearance of pressure. Though he came close to finding absolute zero - the theoretical temperature by which the volume of air in his air-thermometer will by reduced to nothing, the discovery would not be complete until at least a century later. Guillaume Amontons is the inventor of the hot air engine. In 1699 he built his first engine, more than a century earlier than the well-known Stirling engine; this engine, named by Amontons a "fire mill" followed a new thermodynamic cycle, which became known as the Stirling cycle. The fire mill is a wheel; the calculated power of Amontons' fire mill was 39 HP, equal to the power of the most powerful hot air engines of the 19th century.

The main difference between Amontons' engine and the hot air engines of the 19th century was the nature of the piston and the use of rotational motion instead of alternating motion. In 1699, Amontons published his rediscovery of the laws of friction first put forward by Leonardo da Vinci. Though they were received with some scepticism, the laws were verified by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in 1781. Amontons' laws of friction: The force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load; the force of friction is independent of the apparent area of contact. Kinetic friction is independent of the sliding velocity; the laws are shown by the classic example of a brick resting on an inclined plane, where it is in equilibrium and thus motionless. The force of gravity is opposed by static friction and as the angle of tilt of the plane is increased, the brick will start to move downwards as gravity overcomes the frictional resistance. Member, Académie des Sciences The crater Amontons on the Moon is named after him.

Newton's laws of motion Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Isaac Asimov, Doubleday & Co. Inc. 1972, ISBN 0-385-17771-2. Cardwell, D. S. L.. From Watt to Clausius: The Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age. Heinemann. ISBN 0-435-54150-1. Pp18-19 The Galileo Project entry on which this biography is based

The Ward's Crossing Bridge is a historic bridge in rural eastern Yell County, Arkansas. The bridge carries County Road 8 across the Fourche La Fave River, south of Plainview, it is a single-span camelback through truss, whose main span measures 160 feet, with a total structure length, including approaches of 240 feet. The bridge is mounted on concrete piers, has a wooden deck carrying a single lane of traffic; the bridge was built in 1905 by the Converse Bridge Company. It is the only camelback truss bridge in the county, one of only three known in the state; the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. National Register of Historic Places listings in Yell County, Arkansas List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas

James Campbell Reddie was a 19th-century collector and author of pornography, writing as "James Campbell", worked for the publisher William Dugdale. According to Henry Spencer Ashbee, Reddie was self-taught and viewed his works from a philosophical point of view; the information in this section is gleaned from original birth and death records and last wills and testaments James Campbell Reddie was born on 26 November 1807 in Glasgow, the third of eight children born to James Reddie Sr. and Charlotte Marion Campbell. James, Sr. was the son of John Reddie, a merchant in Dysart, Fife and May Burd. John and May married on 26 October 1766, in Scotland. James Sr. became the Principal town clerk and assessor to the magistrates of Glasgow 1804, after entering the Faculty of Advocates in 1797. He married Charlotte Campbell on 12 August 1805, in Glasgow. Charlotte was the daughter of Marion Muirhead. James and Marion married on 30 August 1763, in Scotland, it appears James Reddie Sr. and his son were estranged from the time James Jr. was a young adult until the death of his father in 1852.

James Sr. left the bulk of his estate to his daughter, who took care of her father during the last years of his life. However, he did leave his son "the splendid Works of Voltaire in 72 volumes"; the following is an excerpt from James Sr.'s will in regards to his son: My second son James after his Professional Education Apprentice fee he received but little from me. Several of my plans for promoting and extending his business failed and as requested I had to give him a large Cash Credit with the Royal Bank - But being Cautioner for him to the Royal Bank to the extent of Two thousand Pounds and Interest. I have since he left us in the summer of 1845 had to pay to that bank for him in interim payments Four hundred pounds and upward of Two hundred and fifty pounds so as to reduce the Balance due to One Thousand six hundred Pounds for which I have assigned in security and payment of One thousand six hundred Pounds my life Policy with the Provident Office London worth at my death upwards of One thousand six hundred and forty Pounds - James therefore if alive has nothing to receive at my death.

Reddie was known by his full legal name in Edinburgh, where he worked as a Writer to the Signet, beginning his apprenticeship under David Cleghorn on 10 December 1829. He continued in this profession until he relocated to England in 1849, where he took the name James Campbell, dropping his father's surname in favour of his mother's; the first appearance of a "James Campbell" in England was in the 1851 English census, in which he was recorded as living at 32 White Hart Street in Westminster, employed as a compositor. In the 1861 census he was a lodger at 24 Manor-terrace in Newington, employed as a writer and translator. In 1871 he was living with the Adamo Pedroletti family, at 44 Brecknock Road in Islington, London and was at 26 Brecknock Crescent in 1875. Reddie is best known as an translator of erotica. Many of the original texts and translations of erotic literature published by William Lazenby and William Dugdale were the work of "James Campbell". One of the earliest publications featuring the work of "Campbell" was Dugdale's risqué newspaper The Exquisite.

Published from 1842 to 1844, The Exquisite contained "... a great number of tales from the French, with a few from the Italian, translated for the most part, if not by James Campbell..."According to Henry Spencer Ashbee, Reddie was a serious, exacting collector and bibliographer of erotica. When he acquired a new book he would collate it, investigate every available authority on it, compare the book page by page and word by word with any other issue of the same work. If he was unable to acquire a scarce book, he made copies by hand, he never refused to lend a book from his vast collection though the borrower would forget to return it. Reddie was always liberal with his knowledge of erotica, imparting information gave him great satisfaction, he spared neither time and labor in his research. Reddie never married or had any known children; the November 1880 edition of the pornographic periodical The Pearl, published by William Lazenby, featured an item written by Reddie's landlord, Adamo Pedroletti, which stated "Mr. Reddie used to call me Petro...

I was continually afraid he would bring himself or both of us into serious trouble... Mr. Reddie couldn't bear for a woman to touch him". Pedroletti detailed their mutual seduction of a fifteen-year-old boy, Pedroletti's of the boy's mother. In 2007 the bibliographical website Scissors & Paste Bibliographies published what are alleged to be hitherto unknown letters from Reddie to Henry Spencer Ashbee. One of the letters claims that Pedroletti attempted to blackmail Reddie over his relationship with the boy. A further letter states, with reference to Reddie's homosexuality: "As you know, Ashbee, I've never shielded my own preferences from my most intimate friends". In April 1877, Reddie decided to return to Scotland due to ill-health. On 25 July 1877, shortly before his departure, he sold his collection of erotica to Ashbee for £300, he gave Ashbee his three volume manuscript Bibliographical Notes on Books, an invaluable resource for Ashbee in preparing the second and third volumes of his Bibliography of Prohibited Books.

On 4 July 1878, in Crieff, Scotland, James Campbell Reddie died from a "general

Manoela Latini Gavassi Francisco, better known as Manu Gavassi, is a Brazilian singer, actress, writer and screenwriter. Born and raised in São Paulo, she is the daughter of broadcaster and presenter Zé Luiz and psychologist and artist Daniela Gavassi and sister of fashion student Catarina Gavassi. At age 12, she learned from her father how to play the guitar by writing her first song at age 13. At 19, she left her parents' house to live alone in an apartment and took interpretation courses in the state capital, she began her career in 2009 through Capricho magazine, participating in Galera Capricho, modeling in fashion editorials and being part of behavioral articles for the magazine. Karol Pinheiro, one of Capricho's reporters at the time, found out that Manu was singing and requested the singer's video for him on the magazine's website. With a repercussion of the video, Manu went on to cover songs by singers Justin Bieber and Taylor Swift and publicized his past songs through his own YouTube channel.

Until her father, broadcaster Zé Luiz, sent some videos of her singing her copyright songs to producer Rick Bonadio, who found the material interesting and invited the singer to be part of her record label Midas Music and record her first studio album. Manu began work on his self-titled album, recorded in just two months and released on August 31, 2010, his first single "Garoto Errado" was released a week before the album's release. The singer's first show took place on September 18th through the event NoCapricho 2010. In February 2011, released as single "Planos Impossíveis". In 2011, his song "Garoto Errado" was on the soundtrack of the soap opera Rebelde on Record; the singles "Garoto Errado" e. In November was released the last single from their album, "Odeio"; the music video was released through the painting Garagem do Faustão, shown on the program Domingão do Faustão. In the same month made her debut as an actress, making a cameo in the series Julie e os Fantasmas as Debora. In February 2012, Gavassi released the single Você Já Deveria Saber.

In June, she recorded the songs "O Céu Eu Vou Tocar" and "Ao Ar Livre", for the soundtrack of the movie Brave, as a lull for the adventures of brave princess Marilda. In September, "Conto de Fadas", was released, the first single from their second album; the song was among the top ten on iTunes. In April 2013 released the second single, "Clichê Adolescente", track that gives the name of the album, in November the third and last, "Segredo", with the participation of former boyfriend Chay Suede; the album was released on November 29th and featured a mini documentary published through its Youtube channel. In January 2014, she was invited by the Mexican singer Dulce María to do a duet in Portuguese of the song "Antes Que Ver El Sol", the song being released in August. In February, made her debut in the soap opera in the soap opera Em Familia playing the singer Paulinha. In December, she played villain Vicki in the Twenty-second season of Malhação. Manu was only going to make a part in the plot, but due to the repercussion and success of her character, at the request of the fans, she returned and remained until the end of the teen series.

In December, he released his new single, "Esse Amor Tão Errado", which featured a music video recorded in Los Angeles and was featured in the Young Afternoon compilation. From on, in 2015, the Midas Music label started dancing and recorded recording music for the first concert titled Vício. In November, "Camiseta" was released, the first single from the EP. Vício it was released on December 11th with five unreleased tracks. All EP production was signed by bassist Dudinha Lima; the second single "Direção" was released in February 2016 and the music video of the song was attended by actor Rafael Vitti, with whom Gavassi starred hot scenes. On March 6th he started the Vício Tour in São Paulo. In May the single was released "Vício"; the song's music video was released in two parts, fans had to donate a specific amount of blood for it to be released. With the Fundação Pró-Sangue, as a partnership, the Play For Life campaign aimed to encourage donation to the singer's fans. In October was released "Sozinha", the last single from the EP.

In November 2016, she began filming her first movie Socorro, Virei Uma Garota playing the protagonist Melina. The feature is scheduled to premiere in August 2019. In December 2016, she signed to Universal Music, continuing the recordings of her third studio album. On April 7, 2017, he released his third studio album titled Manu; that same day, the flagship of their new album was released. Manu Tour started in Campinas. In July she made a cameo appearance on the series Planeta B, shown at Multishow, playing serial killer Josephine. In August, "Muito Muito" was released, the second single from the album, with the direction and script of the music video taken by the singer. In November, he publishes his debut book, Olá Caderno!, through the publisher Rocco. In February 2018, directed the clip of the song "Clareiamô" duo Anavitória. In March, he released the single "Me Beija", with a music video full of references to the 2000s. In June, released as a single in partnership with Portuguese singer Agir, a new version of the song "Ninguém Vai Saber", a song that in its solo version is present in the album Manu.

Being invited by the singer for a performance of the song at Rock in Rio Lisboa. In 2018, she starred in the Z4 series playing the choreographer Pâmela Toledo. In December, the EP Cute but Psycho was released with three unreleased tracks. Having as a way of dissemination, a story told by analogical photographs, posted with subtitles on th

Khabarovsk Airlines, stylised KhabAvia, is a Russian state-owned airline with bases at Khabarovsk and Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Established in 2004, the airline operates nine Antonov and Let aircraft as of December 2016, its flight schedule, accessed in December 2016, states that Khabarovsk Airlines flies to ten destinations. Khabarovsk Airlines was founded by the Khabarovsk Krai government in 2004 as a regional state unitary enterprise, it received its air operator's certificate on 19 April 2004. The airline is headquartered at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Airport in Russia. Khabarovsk Airlines' flight schedule, accessed in December 2016, lists the following destinations, all of which are located in the Russian krai of Khabarovsk: As of December 2016, Khabarovsk Airlines operates the following aircraft: On 21 July 2010, Flight 9236, an Antonov An-12BK operating a cargo flight from Keperveyem to Komsomolsk-on-Amur, was taking off when its nose gear failed; the aircraft skid off the runway damaging the landing gear and the underside of the fuselage.

All eight occupants of the aircraft survived. On 15 November 2017, Flight 463, operated by Let L-410UVP-E20 RA-67047, crashed on approach to Nelkan Airport, killing six of the seven people on board; the aircraft was operating a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Airport. Media related to Khabarovsk Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website

The 2004 House elections in Missouri occurred on November 2, 2004 to elect the members of the State of Missouri's delegation to the United States House of Representatives. Missouri had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census; these elections were held concurrently with the United States presidential election of 2004, United States Senate elections of 2004, the United States House elections in other states, various state and local elections. The most notable race of the 2004 cycle in Missouri was the contest for the Third District seat held by outgoing Representative and former House Democratic floor leader Dick Gephardt. United States House of Representatives elections, 2004