French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century Guillaume Tirel, a court chef known as "Taillevent", wrote Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of medieval France. During that time, French cuisine was influenced by Italian cuisine. In the 17th century, chefs François Pierre La Varenne and Marie-Antoine Carême spearheaded movements that shifted French cooking away from its foreign influences and developed France's own indigenous style. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, they play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations and appellation d'origine contrôlée laws. French cuisine was made important in the 20th century by Auguste Escoffier to become the modern haute cuisine. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has had great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France.
Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country. Knowledge of French cooking has contributed to Western cuisines, its criteria are used in Western cookery school boards and culinary education. In November 2010, French gastronomy was added by the UNESCO to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". In French medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy. Multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was eaten by hand, meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers; the sauces were seasoned and thick, flavored mustards were used. Pies were a common banquet item, with the crust serving as a container, rather than as food itself, it was not until the end of the Late Middle Ages that the shortcrust pie was developed. Meals ended with an issue de table, which changed into the modern dessert, consisted of dragées, aged cheese and spiced wine, such as hypocras.
The ingredients of the time varied according to the seasons and the church calendar, many items were preserved with salt, spices and other preservatives. Late spring and autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse. Livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter. Beef was salted, while pork was salted and smoked. Bacon and sausages dried. Cucumbers were brined as well. Fruits and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. Whale and porpoise were considered fish, so during Lent, the salted meats of these sea mammals were eaten. Artificial freshwater ponds held carp, tench, bream and other fish. Poultry was kept with pigeon and squab being reserved for the elite. Game was prized, but rare, included venison, wild boar, hare and birds. Kitchen gardens provided herbs, including some, such as tansy, rue and hyssop, which are used today. Spices were treasured and expensive at that time – they included pepper, cloves and mace; some spices used but no longer today in French cuisine are cubebs, long pepper, grains of paradise, galengale.
Sweet-sour flavors were added to dishes with vinegars and verjus combined with sugar or honey. A common form of food preparation was to finely cook and strain mixtures into fine pastes and mushes, something believed to be beneficial to make use of nutrients. Visual display was prized. Brilliant colors were obtained by the addition of, for example, juices from spinach and the green part of leeks. Yellow came from saffron or egg yolk, while red came from sunflower, purple came from Crozophora tinctoria or Heliotropium europaeum. Gold and silver leaf were brushed with egg whites. Elaborate and showy dishes were the result, such as tourte parmerienne, a pastry dish made to look like a castle with chicken-drumstick turrets coated with gold leaf. One of the grandest showpieces of the time was roast swan or peacock sewn back into its skin with feathers intact, the feet and beak being gilded. Since both birds are stringy, taste unpleasant, the skin and feathers could be kept and filled with the cooked and seasoned flesh of tastier birds, like goose or chicken.
The most well known French chef of the Middle Ages was Guillaume Tirel known as Taillevent. Taillevent worked in numerous royal kitchens during the 14th century, his first position was as a kitchen boy in 1326. He was chef to Philip VI the Dauphin, son of John II; the Dauphin became King Charles V of France with Taillevent as his chief cook. His career spanned sixty-six years, upon his death he was buried in grand style between his two wives, his tombstone represents him in armor, holding a shield with marmites, on it. Paris was the central hub of culture and economic activity, as such, the most skilled culinary craftsmen were to be found there. Markets in Paris such as Les Halles, la Mégisserie, those found along Rue Mouffetard, similar smaller versions in other cities were important to the distribution of food; those that gave French produce its characteristic identity were regulated by the guild system, which
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war, it was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, the development of strong national identities in both countries. Tensions between the crowns of France and England can be traced back to the origins of the English royal family itself, French in origin. For this reason, English monarchs had held not only the English Crown, but titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals to the kings of France; the status of the English King's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages.
French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing the French royal domain. In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. In 1328, Charles IV of France died without brothers, his closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was sister of the deceased King. Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Furthermore, political sentiment favoured a Frenchman for the crown rather than a foreign prince; the throne passed instead to Philip, Count of Valois, a patrilineal cousin of Charles IV, who would become Philip VI of France, the first king of the House of Valois. The English had not expected their claim to meet with success, did not press the matter when it was denied.
However, disagreements between Philip and Edward induced the former to confiscate the latter's lands in France, in turn prompted Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Agincourt—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, convinced the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy prevented the English kings from completing the conquest of France. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay and Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent. Historians divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, the Lancastrian War. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed by the parties to advance their agendas.
Historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history. The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops, aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratisation of the manpower and weapons of armies. Although a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism; the wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, artillery became important. The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire, thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically. In England, political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture.
The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, as well as the general shock at losing a war in which investment had been so great, became factors leading to the Wars of the Roses. The root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe; the outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England about Gascony and Scotland. The dynastic question, which arose due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext; the question of female succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, his posthumous son John I lived only a few days. Furthermore, the paternity of his daughter was in question, as her mother, Margaret of Burgundy, had been exposed as an adulterer in the Tour de Nesle affair. Philip, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, positioned himself to take the crown, advancing the stance that women should be ineligible to succeed to the French throne.
Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V. By the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, whi
Baron Jérome-Frédéric Pichon was a 19th-century French bibliographer and bibliophile. He was one of the most important French art collectors of his time. Jérôme Pichon was the second son of Alexandrine Émilie Brongniart, whose father was the architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, of Baron Louis-André Pichon. After a brief stay at the École de Saint-Cyr, he studied law and was appointed an auditor at the Conseil d’État before withdrawing from public life in 1846, he was Consul General to Smyrna. He began his collection of old books in 1831 and soon became indebted to booksellers for 6,000 francs, a sum that his father reimbursed without difficulty: the young man's love of books had turned into a devouring passion, to remain with him, he collected numerous antique objects of various natures, including a rare collection of horse bits from Galiot de Genouillac, the king's great equerry, donated by his daughter to his successor in 1546 Claude Goufffier, lord of Oiron and artefacts belonging to him.
For more than 50 years, Pichon acquired one of the rarest books and manuscripts of his time, soon becoming president of the Société des bibliophiles français in 1844, a society which he arbitrated efficiently, composing a number of bibliographic records intended for reissues, catalogues or publications and to the Bulletin des Bibliophiles. He used to reside 17 quai d'Anjou in the former hôtel de Charles Gruÿn des Bordes, better known as Hôtel de Lauzun which he restored from collector's period items; the SBF had its headquarters there. He maintained a long correspondence with Paul Lacroix. Among other things, he is responsible for the publication of the Ménagier de Paris in 1846. Married to Rosalie Clarmont, daughter of banker Jean-Charles Clarmont and Rosalie Favrin, he was the father of Étienne Pichon, sub-prefect of Vervins and who died in 1876, his rich library was the subject of two public auctions, one during his lifetime on 19 April 1869, the other after his death in 1897. 1844: La vénerie 1846: Le ménagier de Paris: Traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393.
1880: Vie de Charles-Henry, comte d'Hoym: ambassadeur de Saxe-Pologne en France et celebre amateur de, Livres 1694 à 1736. On Gallica 1892: Le viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent on Gallica 1895: Documents pour servir à l'histoire des libraires de Paris, 1486-1600 on Archive.org 1896: Georges Vicaire, Notice suivie de la bibliographie de ses travaux, Librairie Téchener 1897: Paul Chevallier, Collections de feu M. le baron Jérome Pichon: catalogue des objets antiques, du Moyen Âge, de la renaissance, etc. dont la vente aura lieu a Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 24 avril - 1er mai, 1897 Le baron Jérôme Pichon on sorbonne.fr
Pont-Audemer is a commune in the Eure department in the Normandie region in northern France. On 1 January 2018, the former commune of Saint-Germain-Village was merged into Pont-Audemer; the commune is situated on the river Risle, 13 km upstream from its outflow into the Seine. It lies on the border between the regions Lieuvin; the commune was spared substantial damage to its historic buildings during the Battle of Normandy. Nowadays the half-timbered buildings and the canals running between them are a tourist attraction; the church of Saint-Ouen is noted for its Renaissance stained glass. Laetitia Casta, was born there in 1978. Hervé Morin, current French Minister of Defence was born there in 1961. Alexis Vastine, was born there in 1986. Pont-Audemer has a railway station, Gare de Pont-Audemer, but passenger services were ceased in 1969; the station is served by TER Haute-Normandie buses. PontAuRail, a heritage railway association, ran two Diesel multiple units from Pont-Audemer to Honfleur between 1995 and 2006.
Until 1926, Pont-Audemer was a sub-prefecture of the Eure department. The city is evoked in a poem of Paul Verlaine called "The Apollo of Pont-Audemer." The area is included in Ted Fahrenwald's book "Bailout Over Normandy: A Flyboy's Adventures" as the site where he met Riri, his sweetheart. Pont-Audemer is twinned with: Ringwood in England Veghel in the Netherlands Communes of the Eure department
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC