Djibouti–United States relations
Djibouti – United States relations are bilateral relations between Djibouti and the United States. In April 1977, the United States established a consulate general in Djibouti and, upon independence in June 1977, raised the status of its mission to an embassy; the first U. S. ambassador to the Republic of Djibouti arrived in October 1980. Over the past decade, the United States has been a principal provider of humanitarian assistance for famine relief and has sponsored health care, good governance and security assistance programs. Djibouti has allowed the U. S. military, as well as other nations' militaries, access to its airport facilities. The Djiboutian Government has been supportive of U. S. and Western interests during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91 and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In 2002, Djibouti agreed to host a U. S. military presence at Camp Lemonnier, a former French Foreign Legion base outside the capital that now houses four thousand personnel. U. S. service members provide humanitarian support and development as well as security and counterterrorism assistance to people and governments of the Horn of Africa and Yemen.
As a victim of past international terrorist attacks, President Guelleh continues to take a proactive position against terrorism. "The fact that we welcome the U. S. forces in our country show our support for international peace and for peace in our region as well," Said Guelleh. "We do that all for peace in the world and for peace in Africa." In 2014, the U. S. reached a long term agreement with the government of Djibouti to continue utilizing Camp Lemonnier. The U. S. military uses airstrips in more remote parts of the country for drone operations. Outside of the base agreement, President Barack Obama pledged to increase financial aid to Djibouti, including helping to expand skills training and foreign aid. Principal U. S. officials include: Ambassador – Larry André Jr. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Djibouti History of Djibouti - U. S. relations Embassy of U. S. A. - Djibouti This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm
Algeria–United States relations
Algeria – United States relations are the international relations between the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the United States of America. In July 2001, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika became the first Algerian President to visit the White House since 1985; this visit, followed by a second meeting in November 2001, President Bouteflika's participation at the June 2004 G8 Sea Island Summit, is indicative of the growing relationship between the United States and Algeria. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, contacts in key areas of mutual concern, including law enforcement and counter-terrorism cooperation, have intensified. Algeria publicly condemned the terrorist attacks on the United States and has been supportive of the international war against terrorism; the United States and Algeria consult on key international and regional issues. The pace and scope of senior-level visits has accelerated. Algeria and the United States have a long history of positive ties.
The oldest permanent settlement established by Europeans in the United States, was named after an Algerian historical figure: Saint Augustine. Santa Monica was named after the mother of Saint Augustine; the city Elkader in Iowa, named after him is the only town in the United States named after an Arab. European maritime powers paid the tribute demanded by the rulers of the privateering states of North Africa to prevent attacks on their shipping by corsairs. No longer covered by British tribute payments after the American Revolution, United States merchant ships were seized and sailors enslaved in the years that followed independence. In 1794 the United States Congress appropriated funds for the construction of warships to counter the privateering threat in the Mediterranean. Despite the naval preparations, the United States concluded a treaty with the dey of Algiers in 1797, guaranteeing payment of tribute amounting to US$10 million over a twelve-year period in return for a promise that Algerian corsairs would not molest United States shipping.
Payments in ransom and tribute to the privateering states amounted to 20 percent of United States government annual revenues in 1800. On September 5, 1795, when the two countries signed the Treaty of Amity and Peace, a few years after the official recognition of the independence of the young American Republic by the State of Algeria, Algeria was among the first countries that recognized the independence of the United States; the Napoleonic wars of the early 19th century diverted the attention of the maritime powers from suppressing what they derogatorily called piracy. But when peace was restored to Europe in 1815, Algiers found itself at war with Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark and Naples. In March of that year, in what became the Second Barbary War, the United States Congress authorized naval action against the Barbary States, the Turkish Muslim states Algiers and Tripoli. Commodore Stephen Decatur was dispatched with a squadron of ten warships to ensure the safety of United States shipping in the Mediterranean and to force an end to the payment of tribute.
After capturing several corsairs and their crews, Decatur sailed into the harbor of Algiers, threatened the city with his guns, concluded a favorable treaty in which the dey agreed to discontinue demands for tribute, pay reparations for damage to United States property, release United States prisoners without ransom, prohibit further interference with United States trade by Algerian corsairs. No sooner had Decatur set off for Tunis to enforce a similar agreement than the dey repudiated the treaty; the next year, an Anglo-Dutch fleet, commanded by British admiral Viscount Exmouth, delivered a nine-hour bombardment of Algiers. The attack immobilized many of the dey's corsairs and obtained from him a second treaty that reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Decatur. In addition, the dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians. In 1860 in Damascus, the Algerian resistance leader El Emir Abdelkader saved from pogroms the lives of ten thousand Christians including the staff of the American consulate.
President Lincoln honored El Emir Abdelkader as a great humanitarian for this achievement. The Eisenhower administration gave military equipment to France during the Algeria War of Independence. However, France did not trust U. S. intentions in the Maghreb area since the U. S. had friendly relations with Morocco and Tunisia after the two countries had won their independence. The United States tried to balance the situation with Algeria without alienating France; the FLN tried to appeal to America to support its independence. Algeria and the United States have a complicated relationship that has improved politically and economically; when John F. Kennedy was still a senator, he spoke in support of Algerian independence to The New York Times on July 2, 1957. During his presidency, Kennedy congratulated Algeria after it had won its independence from the French in 1962. Prime Minister Ben Bella visited President Kennedy on October 15, 1962, one day before the Cuban Missile Crisis started. However, Algeria cut off diplomacy in 1967 because of the Arab-Israeli War, since it supported the Arab countries while the United States was on the Israeli side.
President Nixon was able to reestablish relations and President Boumédiène visited the United States on April 11, 1974. During the Iranian hostage crisis, Algeria mediated negotiation between the United States and Iran; the Algiers Declarations was signed on January 19, 1981. Iran released 52 American hostages on January 20, 1981. After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Algeria was one of the first countries to offer its support to the US and continued to play a key role in the struggle again
Chad–United States relations
Chad–United States relations are the international relations between Chad and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 81% of Chadians approve of U. S. leadership, with 18% disapproving and 1% uncertain, the fourth-highest rating for any surveyed country in Africa. The American embassy in N'Djamena, established at Chadian independence in 1960, was closed from the onset of the heavy fighting in the city in 1980 until the withdrawal of the Libyan forces at the end of 1981, it was reopened in January 1982. The U. S. Agency for International Development and the U. S. Information Service offices resumed activities in Chad in September 1983 Chad and the United States established diplomatic relations on August 11th, 1960. United States interest in Chad increased during the 1980s, as United States opposition to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi intensified and Chadian instability threatened to contribute to regional destabilization. During the 1960s and 1970s, the United States and Chad had maintained low-level economic ties, including investment guarantees and project aid, such as Peace Corps involvement.
Drought in the early 1970s brought United States food and agriculture aid to remote areas, including grain supplies, animal health services, technical assistance. Other economic agreements included road building in the Lake Chad area and rural community development. Although the United States considered Chad part of France's sphere of influence, it provided a low level of military assistance until 1977. President Félix Malloum's 1978 request for increased military aid to fight the FROLINAT insurgency coincided with a marked increase in Soviet activity in Africa in Ethiopia, increased Soviet arms shipments to Libya. United States relations with African states were redefined in accordance with the new strategic value assigned to African allies, United States foreign policy shifted accordingly. Thus, in the 1980s United States interest and involvement in Chad increased. For a time in the early 1980s, the United States commitment to military support for Habré was more enthusiastic than that of France, which hoped to preserve its relationship with Libya.
Although military and financial aid to Habré increased, by 1988 United States advisers had begun to stress the need to reconcile warring factions and pacify rebel groups within Chad. United States support to Chad included several economic and military aid agreements, including training programs to improve the effectiveness of Habré's administration and to bolster public confidence in the government and intelligence-sharing to assist in countering Libyan forces in 1987; the United States enjoys cordial relations with the government of Idriss Déby. Chad has proved a valuable partner in the global war on terror, in providing shelter to 200,000 refugees of Sudan's Darfur crisis along its eastern border. Before permanently closing its Chad mission in 1995 because of declining funds and security concerns, USAID's development program in Chad concentrated on the agricultural and infrastructure sectors, it included projects in road repair and maintenance and child health, famine early warning systems, agricultural marketing.
A number of American voluntary agencies continue to operate in Chad. Peace Corps has traditionally had a large presence in Chad, with volunteers arriving during the postwar period in September 1987 withdrawing in 1998. Peace Corps operations resumed with a group of 20 new volunteers; the second class of 17 volunteers arrived in September 2004. Both groups focused on teaching English; the Peace Corps presence in Chad is inactive. In April 2007, Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte visited Chad in light of the War in Darfur. Chad is a participant in the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative and cooperates with the United States military in fighting al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb insurgents. On September 24, 2017, US President Donald Trump announced a travel ban that restricted the travel of the citizens of Chad to the United States, citing the risk of terrorism. Regional experts including J. Peter Pham of the Atlantic Council, Monde Muyangwa of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and John Campbell of the Council on Foreign Relations expressed concern that Chad could reduce its defense and counter-terrorism cooperation with the United States in response.
On April 10, 2018, the US Government issued a proclamation lifting the travel restrictions on Chad. The American International School of N'Djamena is in the Chadian capital. List of ambassadors of Chad to the United States List of ambassadors of the United States to Chad Foreign relations of Chad Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Chad - U. S. relations This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/
Libya–United States relations
Libya–United States relations are today cordial and cooperative, with strong security cooperation only after the 2012 attack on the US liaison office or mission in Benghazi. Furthermore, a Gallup poll conducted in March and April 2012 found that Libyans had "among the highest approval" of US leadership in the entire Middle East and North Africa region. However, for decades prior to the 2011 Libyan Civil War, the countries were not on good terms and engaged each other in several military skirmishes; the Libyan government of Muammar Gaddafi funded terror operations against the United States, most notably the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing, to which the United States retaliated by bombing Libya, the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. When the Libyan civil war broke out in 2011, the United States took part in a military intervention in the conflict, aiding anti-Gaddafi rebels with air strikes against the Libyan Army. With the success of the revolution and the overthrow of Gaddafi, US President Barack Obama said that the United States was "committed to the Libyan people" and promised partnership in the development of a new Libyan state.
According to a 2012 poll conducted by Gallup, 54% of Libyans approve of U. S. leadership, compared to only 22% and 19% respective approval for China and Russia's, 75% of Libyans say they approved of NATO's military intervention in the civil war. The U. S. began bombing Libya again on August 1, 2016 with permission from the GNA, as part of the military intervention against ISIL. Following Italy's colonial occupation of Libya and the German occupation during World War II the U. S. leased the strategically important Wheelus Air Base from the Kingdom of Libya. The United States supported the UN resolution providing for Libyan independence in 1951 and accordingly raised the status of its office at Tripoli from a consulate general to a legation. Libya opened a legation in Washington, D. C. in 1954. Both countries subsequently raised their missions to embassy level. Oil was discovered in Libya in 1959, what had been one of the world's poorest countries became comparatively wealthy; the United States continued a warm relationship with Libya and pursued policies centered on interests in operations at Wheelus Air Base and the considerable U.
S. oil interests. During the early 1960s, many children of U. S. oil personnel sent to develop the oil field installations and pipelines were allowed to attend the high school facility at Wheelus riding buses from residential areas in or near Tripoli. Classes had to pause while large aircraft were taking off; the strategic value of Wheelus as a bomber base declined with the development of nuclear missiles and Wheelus served as a tactical fighter training facility in the 1960s. In September 1969 King Idris I was overthrown by a group of military officers centered around Muammar Gaddafi. Before the revolution, the U. S. and Libya had reached agreement on U. S. withdrawal from Wheelus. After Muammar Gaddafi's 1969 coup, U. S.-Libyan relations became strained when Gaddafi removed the American oil companies by nationalizing the oil industry. In 1972, the United States recalled its ambassador. Export controls on military and civil aircraft were imposed during the 1970s, U. S. embassy staff members were withdrawn from Tripoli after a mob attacked and set fire to the embassy in December 1979.
The U. S. Government designated Libya a "state sponsor of terrorism" on December 29, 1979. Throughout the 1970s Gaddafi was a vocal supporter of the Palestinians and anti-Israeli Arab governments and he supported the Arab states during the Yom Kippur War and the Arab Oil Embargo. On August 19, 1981, the Gulf of Sidra incident occurred. Two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 jets fired on U. S. aircraft participating in a routine naval exercise over international waters of the Mediterranean claimed by Libya. The U. S. planes returned shot down the attacking Libyan aircraft. In December 1981, the State Department invalidated U. S. passports for travel to Libya and, for purposes of safety, advised all U. S. citizens in Libya to leave. In March 1982, the U. S. Government prohibited imports of Libyan crude oil into the United States and expanded the controls on U. S.-origin goods intended for export to Libya. Licenses were required except food and medicine. In March 1984, U. S. export controls were expanded to prohibit future exports to the Ras Lanuf petrochemical complex.
In April 1985, all Export-Import Bank financing was prohibited. United States adopted additional economic sanctions against Libya in January 1986, including a total ban on direct import and export trade, commercial contracts, travel-related activities. In addition, Libyan Government assets in the United States were frozen; when Libyan complicity was reported in the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing, which killed two American servicemen, the United States responded by launching an aerial bombing attack against targets near Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986. At least 15 people died in the U. S. air strikes on Libya – including leader Colonel Gaddafi's adopted 15-month-old daughter – and more than 100 were injured. Subsequently, the United States maintained its trade and travel embargoes and brought diplomatic and economic pressure to bear against Libya; this pressure helped to bring about the Lockerbie settlement and Libya's renunciation of WMD and MTCR-class missiles. In 1991, two Libyan intelligence agents were indicted by federal prosecutors in the U.
S. and Scotland for their involvement in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 near Lockerbie, Scotland. In January 1992, the UN Security Council approved Resolution 731 demanding that Libya surrender the suspects
Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves; these representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes; the uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.
Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. Todd Landman draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights"; the term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy, meaning "rule of an elite".
While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy; these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.
No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, the freedom of its eligible citizens is secured by legitimised rights and liberties which are protected by a constitution. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: upward control, political equality, social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality; the term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism.
Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally "fair," i.e. just and equitable
A military dictatorship is a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority. A military dictatorship is different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles such as "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee". Military leaders rule as a junta, selecting one of themselves as a head. Military dictatorship is called khakistocracy; the term is a portmanteau word combining kakistocracy with khaki, the tan-green camouflage colour used in most modern army uniforms. Most military dictatorships are formed. Military dictatorships may restore significant components of civilian government while the senior military commander still maintains executive political power.
In Pakistan, ruling Generals Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and Pervez Musharraf have held referendums to elect themselves President of Pakistan for additional terms forbidden by the constitution. In the past, military juntas have justified their rule as a way of bringing political stability for the nation or rescuing it from the threat of "dangerous ideologies". For example the threat of communism and Islamism was used. Military regimes tend to portray themselves as non-partisan, as a "neutral" party that can provide interim leadership in times of turmoil, tend to portray civilian politicians as corrupt and ineffective. One of the universal characteristics of a military government is the institution of martial law or a permanent state of emergency. Algeria Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Ciskei Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Togo Transkei Uganda Venda Zimbabwe Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Afghanistan Bangladesh Brunei Burma Khmer Republic Indonesia Iran Iraq Empire of Japan South Korea Kingdom of Laos Maldives Pakistan Philippines Syria Republic of China /Republic of China Thailand South Vietnam North Yemen Kingdom of Bulgaria Cyprus Kingdom of England France German Empire Greece Poland Portugal Kingdom of Romania Russian Empire San Marino Spain Turkey Ukraine Fiji Military rule St