Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
Marmite is a British food spread produced by Unilever. Marmite is made from a by-product of beer brewing. Other similar products include the Australian Vegemite, the Swiss Cenovis, the German Vitam-R. Marmite is a sticky, dark brown food paste with a distinctive, powerful flavour, salty; this distinctive taste is represented in the marketing slogan: "Love it or hate it." Such is its prominence in British popular culture that the product's name is used as a metaphor for something, an acquired taste or tends to polarise opinions. The image on the front of the jar shows a "marmite", a French term for a large, covered earthenware or metal cooking pot. Marmite was supplied in earthenware pots, but since the 1920s has been sold in glass jars. A similar spread named Marmite has been manufactured in New Zealand since 1919; this is the only product sold as Marmite in Australasia and the Pacific, whereas elsewhere in the world the British version predominates. The product, to become Marmite was invented during the late 19th century when German scientist Justus von Liebig discovered that brewer's yeast could be concentrated and eaten.
During 1902, the Marmite Food Extract Company was formed in Burton upon Trent, England with Marmite as its main product and Burton as the site of the first factory. The by-product yeast needed for the paste was supplied by Bass Brewery. By 1907, the product had become successful enough to warrant construction of a second factory at Camberwell Green in London. By 1912, the discovery of vitamins was a boost for Marmite, as the spread is a rich source of the vitamin B complex. British troops during World War I were issued Marmite as part of their rations. During the 1930s, Marmite was used by the English scientist Lucy Wills to treat a form of anaemia in mill workers in Bombay, she identified folic acid as the active ingredient. Marmite was used to treat malnutrition in Suriya-Mal workers during the 1934–5 malaria epidemic in Sri Lanka. Housewives were encouraged to spread Marmite thinly and to "use it sparingly just now" because of limited rations of the product. During 1990, Marmite Limited, which had become a subsidiary of Bovril Limited, was bought by CPC International Inc, which changed its name to Best Foods Inc during 1998.
Best Foods Inc subsequently merged with Unilever during 2000, Marmite is now a trademark owned by Unilever.. There are a number of similar yeast products available in other countries; the Australian product Vegemite is distributed in many countries, AussieMite is sold in Australia. Other products include OzeMite, made by Dick Smith Foods. Marmite is traditionally eaten as a savoury spread on bread, savoury biscuits or crackers, other similar baked products. Owing to its concentrated taste it is spread thinly with butter or margarine. Marmite can be made into a savoury hot drink by adding one teaspoon to a mug of hot water much like Oxo and Bovril. Marmite is paired with cheese, such as in a cheese sandwich, has been used as an additional flavouring in Mini Cheddars, a cheese-flavoured biscuit snack, it is one of Walkers Crisps flavours. Starbucks in the UK has a Marmite panini on its menu. Marmite has been used as an ingredient in cocktails, including the Marmite Cocktail and the Marmite Gold Rush.
While the process is secret, the general method for making yeast extract on a commercial scale is to add salt to a suspension of yeast, making the solution hypertonic, which results in the cells shrivelling. The dying yeast cells are heated to complete their breakdown, since yeast cells have thick cell walls which would detract from the smoothness of the end product, the husks are sieved out; as with other yeast extracts, Marmite contains free glutamic acids, which are analogous to monosodium glutamate. Presently, the main ingredients of Marmite are glutamic acid-rich yeast extract, with lesser quantities of sodium chloride, vegetable extract, spice extracts and celery extracts, although the precise composition is a trade secret. Vitamin B12 is not found in yeast extract, but is added to Marmite during manufacture. Marmite is rich in B vitamins including thiamin, niacin, folic acid and vitamin B12; the sodium content of the spread is high and has caused concern, although it is the amount per serving rather than the percentage in bulk Marmite, relevant.
The main ingredient of Marmite is yeast extract, which contains a high concentration of glutamic acid. Marmite is gluten free. However, Unilever will not confirm that it contains less than 20 parts per million of gluten, the current European standard and the proposed US FDA standard for gluten-free labelling. Marmite should be avoided if a person takes a MAOI antidepressant, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine, as yeast extracts interact adversely with these types of medications due to their tyramine content. Marmite is presently fortified with added vitamins, resulting in it being banned temporarily in Denmark, which disallows foodstuffs that have been fortified until they have been tested; the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration stated during 2015 that Marmite had not been banned in the country, but that fortified foods need to be tested fo
Guinness is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Ireland, in 1759, it is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in 50 countries, available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres, it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland. Where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes €2 billion worth annually. Guinness' flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs; the draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with carbon dioxide. The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932.
In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based out of London. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778; the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export. "Stout" referred to a beer's strength, but shifted meaning toward body and colour. Porter was referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.
In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either offer its beer at a discount. Though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were twenty times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading; the breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, one-fifth of the total wages bill; the improvements were supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2,652,000 barrels of beer a year, more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.
In the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world. Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested. According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973. In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable"; the gravity was subsequently reduced, the brand was relaunched in 1981. Pale malt was used for the first time, isomerized hop extract began to be used. In 2014, two new porters were introduced: Dublin Porter. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; this led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders. A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.
In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the harp as its logo. The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo. Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. Guinness has been referred to as "that black stuff". Guinness had a fleet of ships and yachts; the Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city. This news caused some controversy; the following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page spread complete with images and a history of the plant since 1759.
Diageo said that talk of a move was pure speculation but in the face of mounting speculation in the wake of the Sunday Independent article, the company confirmed that it is undertaking a "significant review of its operations"
Tea has long been used as an umbrella term for several different meals. Isabella Beeton, whose books on home economics were read in the 19th century, describes afternoon teas of various kinds, provides menus for the old-fashioned tea, the at-home tea, the family tea, the high tea. Teatime is the time at which the tea meal is eaten, late afternoon to early evening, being the equivalent of merienda. Tea as a meal is associated with Great Britain and some Commonwealth countries. Afternoon tea is a light meal eaten between 3.30 pm and 5 pm. Observance of the custom originated amongst the wealthy social classes in England in the 1840s, her Grace Anna Maria, Duchess of Bedford, is credited as transforming afternoon tea in England into a late-afternoon meal whilst visiting Belvoir Castle in Leicestershire. By the end of the nineteenth century, afternoon tea developed to its current form and was observed by both the upper and middle classes, it had become ubiquitous in the isolated village in the fictionalised memoir Lark Rise to Candleford, where a cottager lays out what she calls a "visitor's tea" for their landlady: "the table was laid… there were the best tea things with a fat pink rose on the side of each cup.
For the more privileged, afternoon tea was accompanied by thinly-sliced bread and butter, delicate sandwiches and cakes and pastries. Scones may be served; the sandwiches are crustless, cut into small segments, either as triangles or fingers, pressed thin. This style of elegant and dainty tea sandwich may be made with egg salad, tuna salad or peanut butter and jelly. Biscuits are not served. Nowadays, a formal afternoon tea is more of a special occasion, taken as a treat in a hotel; the food is served on a tiered stand. Afternoon tea as a treat may be supplemented with a glass of a similar alcoholic drink; this is a more recent innovation. A less formal establishment is known as a tearoom, similar to a coffeehouse; these used to be common in the UK, but these establishments have declined in popularity since the Second World War. A. B. C. Tea shops and Lyons Corner Houses were successful chains of such establishments, played a role in opening up possibilities for Victorian women. A list of significant tea houses in Britain gives more examples.
The custom of taking afternoon tea with bread or pastry was common in some continental European areas long before the emergence of the practice in England, though such customs are not known in English-speaking countries. For example, Alexandre-Balthazar-Laurent Grimod de La Reynière wrote in 1804 of afternoon tea in Switzerland. A tea party is a social gathering around this meal – not to be confused with the Boston Tea Party, a mid-December 1773 incident at the beginning of the American Revolution, or the 21st century political movement named after it; this snack is associated with the West Country, i.e. Cornwall, Devon and Somerset, it consists of scones, clotted cream, strawberry jam, plus, of course, tea to drink. Some venues will provide butter instead of clotted cream. In Australia, this is referred to as Devonshire Tea. High Tea is a name for the evening meal associated with the working class and is eaten between 5 pm and 7 pm. In most of the United Kingdom people in these areas traditionally call their midday meal dinner and their evening meal tea, whereas the upper social classes would call the midday meal lunch or luncheon and the evening meal dinner or supper.
This differentiation in usage is one of the classic social markers of English. However, in most of the south of England, the midday meal is universally called "lunch", with "dinner" being the evening meal, regardless of social class. High tea consists of a hot dish, followed by cakes and bread and jam. There will be cold cuts of meat, such as ham salad; the term was first used around 1825, "high" tea is taken on a high table. A stereotypical expression "You'll have had your tea" is used to parody people from Edinburgh as being rather shortcoming with hospitality. A BBC Radio 4 comedy series of this name was made by Barry Cryer. Not a a chance to "down tools" and relax from work for 10 -- 15 minutes; this may occur mid-afternoon. It may involve coffee, inevitably, biscuits. Once upon a time, the drinks were served by the workplace's tea lady, a position, now defunct; the British and Irish habit of dunking biscuits in tea has been exported around the globe. In Australia and New Zealand, any short break for tea in the afternoon is referred to as "afternoon tea".
As a result, the term "high tea" is used to describe the more formal affair that the English would call "afternoon tea". In Australia, the evening meal is still called tea whereas the midday meal is now called lunch
Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents. They are used to create savory flavors and umami taste sensations, can be found in a large variety of packaged food, including frozen meals, snack foods, gravy and more. Yeast extracts in liquid form can be dried to a dry powder. Yeast extract consists of concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts’ endogenous digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. Yeast extracts and fermented foods contain glutamic acid, an amino acid found in meat, cheese and vegetables, including mushrooms and tomatoes which adds an umami flavor. Skincare companies like Orved, Kiehl’s, REN, SkinCeuticals use yeast extract in their products. Yeast autolysates are used in AussieMite, Vegemite, New Zealand Marmite, Cenovis, Vitam-R, Maggi sauce. Bovril switched from beef extract to yeast extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but switched back; the general method for making yeast extract for food products such as Vegemite and Marmite on a commercial scale is to add heat to a suspension of yeast.
Yeast extract results from natural breakdown of yeast cells. The natural enzymes found in the yeast cell disintegrates the cell wall so the extract dissolves out. Removing the cell walls concentrates the flavors and changes the texture. Yeast extract is used as a flavoring in foods, it is a common ingredient in American barbecue-flavored potato chips such as Lay's. Vitam-R is a savory yeast extract spread made in Hameln, Germany by the company Vitam Hefe-Produkt GmbH, it was first developed by Rückforth AG in Stettin in 1925 following the discovery by Justus von Liebig that yeast could be concentrated. It is sometimes described as having a smoother flavor than similar products such as Marmite, Vegemite or Cenovis. Unlike those brands, Vitam-R is not an iconic part of its home country's cuisine, but it is described as having a love-it-or-hate-it flavor, it is both vegan and vegetarian and is sold in Reformhaus health-food stores. Herbst, Sharon. Food Lover's Companion. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. yeastextract.info: Homepage of Eurasyp http://savorytastealliance.com: Savory Taste Alliance