The lordship of Albret, situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal families of France in the Middle Ages. Its members distinguished themselves in the local wars of that epoch. Arnaud Amanieu, lord of Albret, helped to take Guienne from the English, his son Charles became constable of France, was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415. Alain the Great, lord of Albret, wished to marry Anne of Brittany, to that end fought against Charles VIII. At that time the house of Albret had attained considerable territorial importance, due in great part to the liberal grants which it had obtained from successive kings of France. John of Albret, son of Alain, became king of Navarre by his marriage with Catherine of Foix, their son Henry II, king of Navarre, was created duke of Albret and peer of France in 1550. By his wife Marguerite d'Angoulême, sister of Francis I, Henry II had a daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, who married Anthony de Bourbon, duke of Vendôme, became the mother of Henry IV, king of France.
The dukedom of Albret, united to the crown of France by the accession of this prince, was granted to the family of La Tour d'Auvergne in 1651, in exchange for Sedan and Raucourt. To a younger branch of this house belonged Jean d'Albret, seigneur of Orval, count of Dreux and of Rethel, governor of Champagne, employed by Francis I in many diplomatic negotiations, more in his intrigues to get himself elected emperor in 1519. Amanieu I 1050–1060 Amanieu II born 1060 Bernard Ezi I?–? Amanieu III 1100–1130 Bernard Ezi II born 1130 Amanieu IV died 1174 Amanieu V 1174–1209 Amanieu VI 1209–1255 Amanieu VII 1255–1270 Bernard Ezi III 1270–1281 Mathe of Albret, princess 1281–1295 Isabella of Albret, princess 1295–1298 Amanieu VIII 1298–1324 Bernard Ezi IV 1324–1358 Arnaud Amanieu I 1358–1401 Charles I of Albret 1401–1415 Charles II of Albret 1415–1471 Jean I of Albret known as Jean I, viscount of Tartas Alain I of Albret le Grand, 1471–1522 Jean II of Albret Henry I of Albret 1522–1555 King of Navarre as Henry II Jeanne d'Albret 1555–1572 Queen of Navarre as Jeanne III of Navarre.
Henry IV of France 1572–1610 List of Navarrese monarchs from the House of Albret Navarre monarchs family tree Guiraude de Dax Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Prinet, Léon Jacques Maxime. "Albret". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Gascony is an area of southwest France, part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear. Most definitions put Gascony south of Bordeaux, it is divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and the region of Occitanie. Gascony was inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque; the name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basque. From medieval times until today, the Gascon language has been spoken, although it is classified as a regional variant of the Occitan language. Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand, it is home to Henry III of Navarre, who became king of France as Henry IV. In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians, who spoke a non-Indo-European language related to modern Basque.
The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua, in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe, in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. In 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gauls that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, Aquitania was split into three provinces.
The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulania, while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulania corresponded quite well to; the Aquitania Novempopulana or Novempopulania suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407–409. In 416–418, Novempopulania was delivered to the Visigoths as their federate settlement lands and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, while other than the region of the Garonne river their actual grip on the area may have been rather loose; the Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, fled into Spain and Septimania. Novempopulania became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulania was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, was only loosely controlled by the Franks.
During all the troubled and obscure period, starting from early 5th-century accounts, the bagaudae are cited, social uprisings against tax exaction and feudalization associated to Vasconic unrest. Old historical literature sometimes claims the Basques took control of the whole of Novempopulania in the Early Middle Ages, founding its claims on the testimony of Gregory of Tours, on the etymological link between the words "Basque" and "Gascon" – both derived from "Vascones" or "Wasconia", the latter being used to name the whole of Novempopulania. Modern historians reject this hypothesis, sustained by no archeological evidence. For Juan José Larrea, Pierre Bonnassie, "a Vascon expansionism in Aquitany is not proved and is not necessary to understand the historical evolution of this region"; this Basque-related culture and race is, whatever the origin, attested in Medieval documents, while their exact boundaries remain unclear. The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, into Gasconia; the gradual abandonment of the Basque-related Aquitanian language in favor of a local Vulgar Latin was not reversed.
The replacing local Vulgar Latin evolved into Gascon. It was influenced by the original Aquitanian language. Interestingly, the Basques from the French side of the Basque Country traditionally call anyone who does not speak Basque a "Gascon". Meanwhile, Viking raiders conquered several Gascon towns, among them Bayonne in 842–844, their attacks in Gascony may have helped the political disintegration of the Duchy until their defeat against William II Sánchez of Gascony in 982. In turn, the weakened ethnic polity known as Duchy of Wasconia/Wascones, unable to get round the general spread of feudalization, gave way to a myriad of counties founded by Gascon lords, his 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain cont