Archaic period (North America)
The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts and shellfish. As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming and this classification system was first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in the widely accepted 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. In the organization of the system, the Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and is superseded by the Formative stage, the Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stage Numerous local variations have been identified within the cultural rankings. The period has been subdivided by region and time, for instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara and Chihuahua cultures. Such early mound sites as Frenchmans Bend and Hedgepeth were of time period. Watson Brake is now considered the oldest mound complex in the Americas, more than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, and it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast.
Across what is now the Southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BCE, people exploited wetland resources, middens developed along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along coastlines prior to 3000 BCE. Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels, starting around 3000 BCE evidence of large-scale exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE shell rings, large shell middens more or less surrounding open centers, developed along the coast of the Southeastern United States. These shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida Peninsula. In some places, such as Horrs Island in Southwest Florida, four shell or sand mounds on Horrs Island have been dated to between 4,870 and 4,270 Before Present. The site which is considered to be one of the most significant centres of habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada, is located on the north side Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario.
It became part of a trading network because of its strategic location at the centre of major North American waterways. In Glyn Edmund Daniel, Christopher Chippindale, feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley, Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals. Knoxville, U of Tennessee P. ISBN 1-5723-3733-8, Florida, The University Press of Florida
Capsicum chinense, commonly known as the bonnet pepper, is a species of chili pepper native to the Americas. C. chinense varieties are known for their exceptional heat. The hottest peppers in the world are members of this species, some taxonomists consider them to be part of the species C. annuum, and they are a member of the C. annuum complex. The two species can hybridize and generate inter-specific hybrids. Despite its name, C. chinense or Chinese capsicum is misleading, all Capsicum species originated in the New World. Within C. chinense, the appearance and characteristics of the plants can vary greatly, varieties such as the well-known Habanero grow to form small, compact perennial bushes about 0.5 metres in height. The flowers, as with most Capsicum species, are small, when it forms, the fruit varies greatly in color and shape, with red and yellow being the most common mature colors, but colors such as brown and purple are known. Another similarity with other species would be shallow roots, which are very common, C.
chinense is native to Central America, the Yucatan region, and the Caribbean islands. The term Habanero, meaning from Habana, comes from the fact that several peppers of this species were exported out from port in its native range. In warm climates such as these, it is a perennial and can last for several years and it will readily germinate from the previous years seed in the following growing season, however. Seeds of C. chinense have been found in cave dwellings in Central America that indicate the natives have been consuming peppers since 7000 BCE. In Eastern Mexico, dry fruits and seeds have been recovered from 9000 years old burials in Tamaulipas and Tehuacán. Domestication might have taken place 10,000 to 12,000 years ago in Central-East Mexico, selection in the new environments have led to the rise of new varieties that are bred and farmed in Asia and Africa. C. chinense are popular with many gardeners for their bright colors, C. chinense and its varieties have been used for millennia in Yucatan and Caribbean-style cooking to add a significant amount of heat to their traditional food.
They are mainly used in stews and sauces, as well as marinades for meats, Western food at times uses some of these chiles. For example, Habanero are commonly used in hot sauces and extra-spicy salsas, due to the popularity of Tex-Mex and Mexican cuisines in Western culture
The lúcuma is a subtropical fruit native to the Andean valleys and produced in Chile and Ecuador. Lúcuma has been found on ceramics at burial sites of the people of coastal Peru. The Moche people had a fascination with agriculture and often chose to represent fruits and vegetables, including lúcuma, in Peru, harvesting season is from October to March and in Chile from June to November. The fruit was first seen and reported by Europeans in Ecuador in 1531 and it is sometimes known as lucmo. In the Philippines, it is known as tiesa and may be called eggfruit in English, the name eggfruit refers to lúcumas dry flesh, which is similar in texture to a hard-boiled egg yolk with a unique flavor of maple and sweet potato. The round or ovoid fruits are green, with a yellow flesh that is often fibrous. It grows at elevations between 2700-3000 metres. Temperatures of its native range make the species technically subtropical. Attempts at growing lúcuma in Floridas climate typically fail, in addition to Peru, the fruit is grown to a limited extent in Bolivia and Costa Rica.
It grows well in most tropical regions, but is not widely favored, formerly known as Lucuma obovata, it is now considered a member of the genus Pouteria, and given the name Pouteria lucuma. It is not the species Pouteria obovata, when eaten raw, the fruit has a dry texture. In Peru it is commonly enjoyed as a flavor in juice, milk shakes. Its unique flavor in such preparations has been described variously as being similar to potato, maple syrup. A popular dessert called merengue con salsa de lúcuma is served in Chile, popular in Chile is manjar con lúcuma. Germplasm Resources Information Network, Pouteria lucuma Lúcuma at bioversityinternational. org
Phaseolus is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica. At least four of the species have been domesticated since pre-Columbian times for their beans, most prominent among these is the common bean, P. vulgaris, which today is cultivated worldwide in tropical and temperate climates. Previous classifications placed in this genus a number of other species that have now been removed to genus Vigna. For example, older literature refers to the bean as Phaseolus aureus. Similarly, the snail bean Vigna caracalla was discovered in 1753, the modern understanding of Phaseolus indicates a genus endemic to the New World alone. Phaseolus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including common swift, garden dart, ghost moth Hypercompe albicornis, H. icasia and the nutmeg
Asiru Phatjata is a hill in Peru, situated at a height of about 3,895 metres. It is located in the Puno Region, Yunguyo Province, Yunguyo District, Asiru Phatjata lies near Lake Titicaca at the road which connects Yunguyo and Puno, south of the village Asiru Phatjata and north of the mountain Qhapiya. On the hill there is an archaeological area and it was declared a National Cultural Heritage of Peru by the National Institute of Culture
Radio carbon dating has established it was built about 900-200BC and abandoned 1000–1470AD. Surrounding the hilltop fortress are lower-lying areas of occupation and extensive cemeteries, attention was called to the site early on by the German archaeologist Hans Horkheimer, who wrote about Acaray in 1962 in the Peruvian magazine, published in Lima. Horkheimer noted the abundance of rolled river cobbles on the surface of the site, during the 1970s interest in Acaray increased, and the first work by archaeologists was initiated at the fortress. She led a team that surveyed the Huaura Valley and excavated at several sites and she estimated that it was built about 900-200BC and abandoned 1000–1470AD. According to Brown Vega, Acaray early megalithic wall constructions may be similar to those of Chankillo from the same period and social life in prehispanic Perú, ritual and communities at the Fortress of Acaray, Huaura Valley. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, conﬂict in the early horizon and late intermediate period, new dates from the fortress of Acaray, Huaura valley, Perú.
30, 38B Ruiz Estrada, Torero, M. Domingo, huacho, Perú, Comite de Educacion de la Cooperative de Ahorro y Credito San Bartolome
See Calabasas for the city in California Calabaza is a large winter squash that resembles a pumpkin and is typically grown in the West Indies and tropical America. The term is used loosely for a variety of gourds from Africa, the Americas. The word calabaza is derived from the Persian term for melon, the French term calabasse, and hence the English calabash, is based on the older Spanish. In common use, calabash refers to a native to the African continent. In North America, the word refers to any of several species of tropical gourds of the genus Cucurbita. Two common species, the first one native to the Caribbean, are C. moschata, the widespread species C. foetidissima specifically identifies calabaza as one of its common names. The Spanish calabacera frasco refers specifically to C. foetidissima, local names for large green or yellow gourds include auyama, ayote, abóbora, and zapallo in much of South America. First cultivated for food in Mesoamerica, it is one of the three sisters of squash and climbing beans, from Mesoamerica, it is believed to have spread to other regions by Spanish colonial influence. C. maxima and C.
moschata, in particular, are known in the Philippines under the name kalabasa. Cultivated species produce gourds in a variety of shapes, all are creeping, annual tropical vines with large-lobed leaves and branching tendrils. The skin color reflects hybrids, varying from green to light yellow. The flesh can vary in color, but most common is bright orange or yellow. Varieties differ somewhat in taste and texture, but are slightly sweet with a firm. Farmers markets in South America offer varieties of calabaza in a similar to the variety of apples that might be present in a North American market. It is eaten many different ways, such as in stews, some recipes that call for pumpkin allow calabaza to be used in its place. The taste is smooth and somewhat sweet, Calabaza is a good source of beta-carotene, some of which can be converted into vitamin A. The flower, is used as an ingredient in quesadillas and other dishes in Mexican cuisine and New Mexican cuisine, the seeds and seasoned, known as pepitas, are a common snack
Phaseolus coccineus, known as runner bean, scarlet runner bean, or multiflora bean, is a plant in the legume or Fabaceae family. It is grown both as a plant and an ornamental plant. This species originated from the mountains of Central America, most varieties have red flowers and multicolored seeds, and they are often grown as ornamental plants. The vine can grow to 3 m or more in length and it differs from the common bean in several respects, the cotyledons stay in the ground during germination, and the plant is a perennial vine with tuberous roots. The knife-shaped pods are green, there are very rare varieties bred by amateurs that have very unusual purple pods. An example of such a purple-podded runner bean is Aeron Purple Star, Runner beans have been called Oregon lima bean, and in Nahuatl ayocotl or in Spanish ayocote. Runner beans, like all beans contain the toxic protein phytohaemagglutinin, in the US, in 1978, the scarlet runner was widely grown for its attractive flowers primarily as an ornamental.
Since that time, many US gardeners have adopted the bean as a member of the vegetable garden. The flower is known as a favourite of hummingbirds, in the UK - where the vegetable is a popular choice for kitchen gardens and allotments - the flowers are often ignored, or treated as an attractive bonus to cultivating the plant for the beans. The seeds of the plant can be used fresh or as dried beans, the pods are edible whole while they are young and not yet fibrous. The starchy roots are eaten by Central American Indians. The beans are used in many cuisines and it is a popular side vegetable in British cuisine. A variety named Judión de la Granja producing large, edible beans is cultivated in San Ildefonso, Spain. It is the basis of a Segovian regional dish named Judiones de la Granja, in which the beans are mixed with pigs ears, pigs trotters, in Greece, cultivars of the runner bean with white blossom and white beans are known as fasolia gigantes. They are grown under protective law in the north of Greece within the regions of Kato Nevrokopi, the beans have an important role in Greek cuisine, appearing in many dishes.
In English, they are colloquially referred to as elephant beans. In Austria the coloured versions are cultivated and served as Käferbohnen and it is considered a typical dish of regional Austrian cuisine, but dried runner beans are consumed to a small extent in Germany. Greece and northern Africa are the sources of pods of the runner beans sold as green beans in European markets during the cold period, the pods can be identified by their big size and the rougher surface
A cist is a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead. Examples can be found across Europe and in the Middle East, a cist may have been associated with other monuments, perhaps under a cairn or long barrow. Several cists are sometimes found close together within the cairn or barrow. Often ornaments have been found within an excavated cist, indicating the wealth or prominence of the interred individual
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities, such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the worlds second-highest after the Tibetan plateau and these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate, the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes are the worlds highest mountain range outside of Asia, the highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from the Earths center than any other location on the Earths surface, the worlds highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m.
The etymology of the word Andes has been debated, the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means east as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning rope, the Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate. In the south, the Andes share a boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, from a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography.
The Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines, the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile, the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau, the specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the Arica Elbow