Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Syed Muhammad bin Yousuf Al Hussaini known as Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gaisu Daraz, was a famous Sufi saint from India of the Chishti Order, who advocated understanding and harmony among various religious groups. Gaisu Daraz was a murid of the noted Sufi saint of Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi. After the death of Chiragh Dehlavi, Gaisu Daraz took on the mantle of the successor; when he moved to Daulatabad around 1400, owing to the attack of Timur on Delhi, he took the Chishti Order to South India. He settled down in Gulbarga, at the invitation of Bahamani Sultan, Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah. Banda Nawaz was born to Syed walShareef Muhammad bin Yousuf AlHussaini in Delhi in 1321. At the age of four, his family shifted to Daulatabad in Deccan. In 1397, he went to Deccan at the invitation of Sultan Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah. At the age of fifteen, he returned to Delhi for his education and training by Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi, he was a enthusiastic student of Kethli, Tajuddin Bahadur and Qazi Abdul Muqtadir.
After teaching at various places such as Delhi, Gwalior, Aircha, Chanderi, Baroda and Gulbarga in 1397 and died in Gulbarga in the year November 1422. His name as well as patronymic was Abul-Fatah and Gaisu Daraz was his title. Among the scholars and theologians he was Sheikh Abul-Fatah Sadr Uddin Muhammad Dehlavi but people called him Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gaisu Daraaz, he was the descendant of Ali. His forefathers resided in Hirat. One of them settled down here, his father Syed walShareef Muhammad bin Yousuf was born here on Rajab, 721 Hijri. His father Syed walShareef Yousuf bin Muhammad AlHussaini was a holy figure and devoted to Nizam Uddin Aulia. Sultan Muhammad-bin Tughlaq once transferred his capital to Daulatabad and along with him went many scholars and mystics, his parents migrated to the place. He was four years at the time Malik-ul-Umar Syed Ibrahim Mustafa AlHashmi, his maternal uncle, was the governor of Daulatabad, his father always stressed the importance of education. From his childhood he was spent time in meditation and prayer.
His father died when he was ten and his maternal grandfather assumed responsibility for his education and training and taught him initial books but he took lessons on Misbah and Qadoori from another teacher. On the death of his father, he was fifteen at the time. He had heard a lot about Nizam Uddin Auliya and Nasir Uddin Roshan Chiragh Dehlavi from his father and maternal grand father and grew devoted to them. One day he went to say his prayer in the Jama-Majid of Sultan Qutub Uddin, there he saw Sheikh Nasir Uddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi and pledged obedience to him on 16, Rajab. Under the guidance of Nasir Uddin Chiragh Dehlavi he engaged himself in prayers and meditation and so much enjoyed them that he forbade studies and requested his teacher to allow him to do so. Nasir Uddin denied him permission and instructed him to study with attention Usool-e-Bizoori, Risals Shamsia, Misbah so he restarted the studies under the guidance of renowned teachers. AlHussaini left Delhi on December 17, 1398, because the city was under siege by Timur and its fall was imminent.
One day he with other disciples lifted the palanquin bearing Nasir Uddin. His long hair stuck into the foot of the palki and pained him but he did not disentangle them for love and respect to the teacher; when Nasir Uddin learned of the episode, he was overjoyed and recited the Persian couplet: "Har ki murid Syed gesu daraaz shud Vallah khilaf-e-nest ki Uoo ishq baaz shud." He thus gained the title "Gesu Daraaz". Having lived for over forty years in Delhi, he moved to Gulbarga at the age of around 76. Firoz Shah Bahmani ruled over the Deccan during this period, he gave him much respect. For a long time he was engaged in religious discourses and spiritual training of the people. Bande Nawaz attained an age of 101 years, died on 16 Ziqa'ad 825 Hijri in Gulbarga and was buried there, his tomb is a place of Ziyaarat, If a Salik prays or meditates for fame, he is an atheist. If one prays or meditates out of fear, he is a hypocrite. So long as a man disengages himself from all the worldly things, he would not step into the road of misconduct.
Divide the night into three periods: in the first period say Darud and recitation. The Salik should be careful in food; the Salik should abstain from the company of the worldly people. Bande Nawaz Dargha is famous in entire south India Bande Nawaz authored about 195 books in Arabic and Urdu, his magnum opus, Tafseer Multaqat, was compiled into one book recently. He composed a book on the Prophet of Islam titled Miraj-al Ashiqin for the instruction of the masses in Dakhni, a South Indian branch of the Urdu language, he was the first Sufi to use this vernacular, elaborated upon by many other Sufi saints of South India in centuries. He wrote many treatises on the works on Ibn Arabi and Suhrawardi, which made the works of these scholars accessible to Indian scholars and played a major role in influencing mystical thought. Other books authored are Qaseeda Adaab-al-Mureedein. Tafseer-e-Qu'Orane-e-Majeed Multaqit Havashi Kashaf Sharah-e-Mashareq Sharah Fiqah-e-Akbar Sharah Adab-Ul-Murideen Sharah Ta-arruf Risala Sirat-Ul-Nabi Tarjuma Mashareq Ma-Arif Tarjuma Awarif Sharah Fasoosul Hikam Tarjuma Risala Qasherya Hawa Asahi Quwwat-Ul-Qalb People from various walks of life, irrespective of
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Buddha Vihar, Gulbarga
Buddha Vihara is a Buddhist temple and spiritual center in Gulbarga, India. Buddha Vihara is place for Buddhists. Situated in Gulbarga, a city in the Indian state of Karnataka, it started in 7 January 2007. The Buddha Vihar complex blends architectural features of eminent Buddhist centers of Sanchi, Sarnath and Nagpur and has been constructed conforming to traditional Buddhist architecture
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Warangal is a city in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the district headquarters of Warangal Urban District. Warangal is the second largest and Metropolitan City in Telangana after Hyderabad, spreading across 471 km2 with a population of 819,406. Warangal City Development Plan is proposed to cover an area of 1805 sq.km with population of about 819,406 Along with 11 other cities in the country known for having a rich cultural heritage, it has been chosen for the HRIDAY – Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme by the Government of India. It was selected as a smart city in the "fast-track competition", which makes it eligible for additional investment to improve urban infrastructure and industrial opportunities under the Smart Cities Mission. Kakatiya Urban Development Authority was constituted by the local government for the planning and management of the Kakatiya Urban Development Area under the aegis of the Urban Areas Act of 1975 vide G. O. Ms. No. 1177 M. A. dated 6-11-1981.
KUDA is in the process of preparation of a Master Plan for the horizon year 2041. The region is spread over three districts – Warangal Rural, Warangal Urban and Jangaon in Telangana covering 19 Mandals and 181 Villages with a combined area of 1,805 square kilometres. Total population as per 2011 census is 819,406, with around 62% of the population living in urban areas; the Master Plan is being prepared in accordance with the provisions of Telangana Urban Areas Act, 1975. The KUDA/ Government of Telangana has appointed LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd. India, A LEA Group Company, for Preparation of Master Plan for the KUDA Area; the Plan is aimed to be prepared in 9 months duration starting from July 2017. Warangal served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, established in 1163; the monuments left by the Kakatiyas include fortresses, lakes and stone gateways which, in the present, helped the city to become a popular tourist attraction. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam was included in the emblem of Telangana by the state government.
During the Kakatiya rule, Warangal was referred with various names like Orugallu, Ekasila Nagaram, or Omatikonda all these means a'single stone' referring to a huge granite boulder present in the Warangal fort. When the kakatiyan dynasty was defeated by Delhi Sultanate in 1323, ruler Juna khan conquered the city and renamed it as Sultanpur. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured warangal in 1336 A. D. and named it Orugallu again. Warangal was the ancient capital of kakatiya dynasty, it was ruled by many kings such as BetaRaja I, ProlaRaja I, BetaRaja II, ProlaRaja II, Mahadeva, Ganapathideva and Rani Rudrama Devi, the only woman to rule over Telugu region. Beta Raja I is the founder of Kakatiya Dynasty and ruled the kingdom for 30 years and was succeeded by his son Prola Raja I who shifted his capital to Hanamkonda. During the rule of Ganapathideva, the capital was shifted from Hanamkonda to Warangal. Kakatiya Period Inscriptions praised Warangal as best city within all of Telugu region up to shores of the Ocean.
The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by Marco Polo. After the defeat of Prataparudra II, the Musunuri Nayaks united 72 Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi Sultanate and ruled for fifty years. After the demise of the Nayaks, Warangal was part of the Bahmani Sultanate and the Sultanate of Golconda; the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724, which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, became an Indian state called as Hyderabad state. In 1956 Hyderabad state was partitioned as part of the States Reorganisation Act, Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state, which includes Warangal, became part of Andhra Pradesh.
After the Telangana movement, Telangana state was formed on 2 June 2014, warangal became part of Telangana State. Warangal is located at 18.0°N 79.58°E / 18.0. It has an average elevation of 302 metres, it is settled in the eastern part of Deccan Plateau made up of granite rocks and hill formations which left the region barren making the cultivation dependent on seasonal rainfall. There are no major rivers flowing near the city, making it reliant on the Kakatiya Canal which originates from Sriram Sagar Project to meet the city's water requirements. Located in the semi-arid region of Telangana, Warangal has a predominantly dry climate. Summer starts in March, peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C range; the monsoon lasts until September with about 550 mm of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in October and lasts until early February, when there is little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C range. Many hill rocks and lakes are located around warangal. Padmakshi hill, mettu gutta, hanumathgiri gutta, ursu gutta and Govinda Rajula Gutta are famous hills with temples.
Bhadrakali Lake, Dharmasagar lake and Waddepally Lake are the three famous lakes which adds scenic beauty and are the major sources of drinking water. Greater Warangal Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city, which oversees the civic needs. Established in 1899, it is one of the oldest urban local bodies in India; the GWMC covers an area of 406.87 square kilometres. City planning is governe
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C